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全新收费模式让穷学生上得起大学

College is absurdly expensive. Can a radical new model change that? | Austen Allred | Big Think

I strongly disagree with the notion
我完全不同意
that everybody ought to attend college.
每个人都该上大学的观念
When I was going to high school,
在我读高中的时候
nobody said anything other than:
每个人都在说的一句话就是
“Go to the best college you can,
“尽自己所能考好的大学
pay whatever it costs,
不惜一切代价
study what you love.
学自己喜欢的专业
‘Cause as long as you graduate from college,
因为一旦从大学毕业
you will be set in the rest of your life.”
下半辈子就有着落了”
I think my generation was one of the first
我觉得我们这一代人
to realize that that’s fundamentally not true.
最先意识到这句话根本不对
Now, I think we’re getting to a point
现在的情况是
where people are a bit more wise in that,
人们变得更精明了
and they’re weighing the costs and the benefits,
他们会自己权衡付出和回报
and they’re making different decisions.
然后做出不同的决定
And in fact, I think the United States kind of misses that.
事实上我觉得美国人在这方面有点忽视
If I’m a student and I’m going to college,
比如我现在是打算上大学的学生
if it doesn’t work out, nobody bails me out.
如果大学不符我的预期 我就会陷入困境
How can we not only make it so that people can attend,
有没有这样的学校?人们不仅可以上学
but how can we make it so that if it doesn’t work out,
而且如果学校不合期望的话
they don’t pay anything?
就不用付一分钱
My name is Austen Allred,
我叫奥斯汀·奥尔雷德
the Co-Founder and CEO of Lambda School.
是拉姆达学院的合伙人和执行总裁
和奥斯汀一起重新思考大学教育
Growing up in small-town Utah,
我在犹他州的一个小镇长大
there wasn’t too terribly much going on,
没有什么很糟糕的经历
so I basically lived on the internet.
我基本上是在互联网里长大的
It was a really special time for the internet.
那段时间对于互联网来说很特殊
It was just coming of age
那时互联网刚兴起
and nobody really knew what to make of it yet.
没人知道可以用它来干嘛
There was eBay, and eBay was pretty early in how search worked.
那时有易趣网 它很早就实现了搜索功能
One of the things I got really good at
那时我很擅长做一件事
was finding things that were mispriced.
就是找到有价差的商品
So something that would be one price in one place
这些商品在一个地方是这个价格
and another price in another.
在另一个地方是另一种价格
And I could buy it in that first place
我可以从一个地方低价买入
and sell in the second place.
在另一个地方高价卖出
For me, being a kid, it was the first time
对年少的我来说 这是第一次
where I felt like I could be taken seriously.
让我感觉被人认真对待
I could be part of a community,
我能作为社区的一员
and instead of me feeling like being a kid
而不只是一个小孩
was the most important part of my personality.
这对于我来说非常有意义
It was more about my skillset and my abilities
主要是因为我的技术和能力
and the way I could communicate.
还有沟通的方式
I think teenagers are generally capable of much more
我觉得青少年有能力做更多事
than we allow them to do.
远超社会的期许
I’m excited for a world where teenagers can contribute in more meaningful ways
我为此感到激动 青少年能以多种方式贡献社会
instead of feeling like there’s only one path,
而不是只有一种选择
and that’s high school until you’re 18
那就是上学 直到18岁高中毕业
and then college until you’re 22.
然后22岁大学毕业
I strongly disagree with the notion
我完全不同意
that everybody ought to attend college.
每个人都要上大学的观念
I actually attended a couple of semesters of college,
其实我在大学读过几个学期
and I just felt like it was not a great learning environment,
但我感觉并没有很好的学习环境
and I wasn’t getting as much out of it as I wanted to.
我没有在那里学到很多想学的知识
I thought it was really expensive,
我觉得上大学很贵
even though, in retrospect,
虽然现在想想
I was going to one of the cheapest schools in the country.
我上的几乎是全国最便宜的大学了
I just felt like I wasn’t getting the value
我付出时间和金钱
out of my time and my money that I wanted,
却没有得到我想要的价值
and I could better serve myself doing it on my own.
我通过自学能学得更好
When I first dropped out,
刚辍学的时候
everybody thought that I was crazy
所有人都觉得我疯了
and everybody thought that I was destined for failure.
所有人都觉得我注定成为失败者
I wasn’t surrounded by other people who did the same thing.
周围没有人像我这样放弃上大学
And then, when I got to Silicon Valley
后来 当我到来硅谷
and I started spending time around other people
开始和许多辍学的人共事
who dropped out of high school,
有些从高中就辍学
by people who dropped out of college,
有些从大学辍学
traditional education just didn’t matter
传统教育没那么重要
nearly as much as what people learned on their own.
几乎和自学没什么差别
There are a number of schools
在很多学校
that if you just look at the outcomes of the students that attend
如果你对比一下学生毕业后的收入
relative to the debt that those students incur,
和他们为上学背负的贷款
most students would have been better off
会发现多数学生如果一开始选择不读这个学校
not attending that school in the first place.
经济上本可以更宽裕
And there are far more of those schools than I think a lot of us would like to believe.
而且这样的学校 远比我们以为的多
Even if it’s the majority of students
就算大部分学生
who are better off for having attended college,
上了大学之后变得更富有
there are a lot of students
还是有很多学生
who really should be considering other paths if it’s right for them.
真的应该考虑一下其它适合他们的途径
I don’t think we talk about that enough in the United States,
我认为在美国对于这些现象讨论的还不够
and we are far from accepting that as reality,
我们远没有认清和接受这个现实
or encouraging it,
更别提鼓励了
which I think we should be doing.
但我觉得这正是我们应该做的
In software, there’s this terminology
软件行业有个术语
called “software as a service”.
叫“软件即服务”
So you can buy software off the shelf,
你可以从货架上买一个软件
which is a one-time purchase,
这是一次性的购买
or you can get a full experience in an enterprise product,
或者你可以买软件公司的全套服务
where somebody’s job is to do a thing for you using software.
他们帮你解决软件使用过程中的所有问题
I think of Lambda School as being that.
我觉得拉姆达学院是第二种
What we do is we provide the American dream to people,
我们所做的是帮人们实现美国梦
and the American dream being upward mobility, stable income,
让他们能提高社会地位 有稳定的收入
being able to provide for your family.
有能力供养家庭
And that’s what we try to do for all our students.
我们想帮助我们的学生实现这些
I normally describe Lambda School as a school
我常把拉达姆学院描述为
where you don’t pay until you’re hired.
一所没找到工作就不用付钱的学校
Lambda School is entirely online.
拉达姆学院完全是网络授课
We train people to be software engineers and data scientists
我们培训学生成为软件工程师和数据专家
for no upfront tuition,
不用先付学费
in exchange for a piece of what you’ll make later.
工作之后从工资里抽取一部分当学费
Generally speaking, the school is 6 to 12 months.
学生一般要学习半年到一年
It was a fantasy in the beginning,
开始时这些只是幻想
and in the early days, we just charged everybody upfront,
早期我们也是先收学费
and we would train them to code,
然后教学生编程
and that was pretty much it.
就只是这样而已
And then, we had people all the time
后来经常有贫困的学生
that wished they would be able to participate,
我们希望他们能参加培训
but they couldn’t pay us.
但他们没钱付学费
So we started trying to lower the barriers to entry
于是我们想到用工资分享的方式
with the idea of an income share agreement.
来降低入学门槛
Originally, I found a study by Milton Friedman from sometime in the 70’s
一开始 我看了米尔顿·佛利民70年代的一个研究
when he’d been talking about this idea.
他在那时谈论过这个想法
And then, I found a small community of people
然后我发现有一小群人
who had actually been thinking about
真的在考虑
experimenting with the idea of an income share agreement.
尝试这个工资分享的想法
Then, I paid a lawyer who used to work at the CFPB
于是我找了个在金融保护局工作过的律师
to write literally just a document, kind of a contract,
写了一个文件 类似一份合同
and we started enrolling students.
然后我们开始招生
We know that when a student enrolls in Lambda School,
我们明白每招一个学生到拉姆达学院
we’re going to lose money unless they get hired.
我们就要亏一点钱直到他们找到工作
That is very different than the traditional education system,
这和传统教育行业完全不同
where no matter who’s writing the check,
传统教育行业不在乎付钱的是谁
whether it’s a lender or the government or the student,
放贷机构也好 政府也好 学生自己也好
I’m already paid, and what happens after that,
只要收到学费 之后不管发生什么
I don’t have to worry about.
都不用太担心
Our incentives are entirely aligned with the incentives of the student.
而我们的动力和学生的动力挂钩
And if they’re not successful,
如果学生失败了
we lose out just as much as they do.
我们损失的和他们一样多
So that changes everything that we do about the school,
所以这完全改变了我们的做法
from what we teach, to who we enroll, to how we teach,
从教学内容到招生要求和教学方法
to how we work with employers after graduation.
还有毕业后如何与雇佣单位沟通
It’s just a completely different incentive structure
这是个完全不同的激励模式
which forces you to be a completely different school.
因此我们的学校也必须完全与众不同
We’re moving from a world where you go to school
过去我们是根据学校的营销宣传
based on the marketing or the rankings,
和排名情况来选择学校的
and you’re moving to a world where you’re looking at what the offering is.
而现在你更需要关心 上这个学校能给你什么回报
Really, we’re entering an environment where
是的 未来的情况会变成
what will determine which schools people attend
人们以“结果”为导向
in the future is the outcomes.
决定去上什么学校
And I think that is far far healthier
相比于根据广告宣传选择学校
than seeing who can do the best job of advertising.
我觉得这种方式好太多了

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视频概述

找不到工作不用交学费?还有这样的学校?没听说过吧,赶紧来看一看吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTvQKkcCPNM

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