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什么是认知失调?

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: A Crash Course

你很可能早就听过”认知失调”这个名词
Chances are good that you’ve heard ofsomething called”Cognitive Dissonance.”
这个术语现今
It’s a term that’s starting to get thrown
被广泛使用 但是
around a lot these days, but you
你也许不了解的是 它其实深深根植于古典社会心理学
might not know that it has a really deep root in classic social psychology.
在1957年 利昂·费斯汀格写了一本关于认知失调理论的著作
In 1957, Leon Festinger wrote a book on the theory of cognitive dissonance and
并给出了十分详尽的解释
outlined a really detailed understanding
告诉人们什么是认知失调以及如何应对认知失调
of what cognitive dissonance is and how people deal with it
让我们从什么是认知失调开始说起吧
it let’s start out by talking about what cognitive dissonance is
那如何定义认知失调呢?
How would we define it?
通常认知失调表现为敏感多变
At the very basics,cognitive dissonance is about inconsistency.
当我们心中有两个不一致的想法时
When we hold two thoughts that are inconsistent with one another,
这基本上就是失调了 让我们来看一个
basically that’s dissonance. So let’stake the example of someone who
某人吸烟的例子
smokes cigarettes.
这儿有个拥有两种不同想法的人
Here’s a person who might have two distinct thoughts,
其中一个想法是:“我经常吸烟”
one of which is: “I regularly smoke cigarettes.”
另一个则是”吸烟不健康”
The other of which is the knowledge that”smoking cigarettes is unhealthy.”
这是两个不同的想法
Here are two thoughts
但是一个人可以同时拥有
that a person can be having at the same time,
而且承认两个都是事实
acknowledging both of these things as fact,
可能这看起来前后矛盾
but they would seem inconsistent withone another.
但是如果你清楚知道吸烟不好
If you know that smoking is bad,
按道理 你可能就不会抽烟了
then logically, you probably wouldn’t be engaging in that activity yourself.
那么这就是一个失调的典例
And so this is a case
因为你自己的脑中有不一致的想法
of dissonance because there is inconsistency in your own thoughts.
那当人们认知失调时会有哪些处理方法呢
So what people do when they experiencecognitive dissonance? Well,
一般会有以下的举措
there are a few ways
费斯汀格说我们可以通过解决不一致
in which Festinger said that you could resolve
来解决失调 首先
the inconsistency as a way of resolvingthe dissonance. First,
你可以改变这些不一致想法中的一个
you can change one of those thoughts.
拿吸烟者来说
In the case of the smoker who
意识到吸烟有害
realizes that smoking is bad and also
但长年吸烟的人
that he is a regular smoker,
他也许会转变念头 觉得吸烟也不赖
he might change one of those beliefs andgo,”Smoking’s not that bad. It’s
吸烟对健康无害
actually not unhealthy to smoke.”
这将改变你的一种认知
Thatwill be changing one of your cognitions–
也就是你的一个想法 让两个想法重新变得一致
–one of your thoughts– as a way ofrestoring consistency.
你还可以
Another thing you could do is
改变自己的行为 来重新构建认知的一致性
change your behavior as a way to restore consistency. So,
在这种情况下 这个吸烟者也许会说
in this case, the smoker might say,
嗯 众所皆知 如果我认识到
” Well I, you know, if I acknowledge that
吸烟不好 我保持认知一致的做法就是戒烟 因此
smoking is bad, then the way I can be consistent is to stop smoking.” So,
改变其中某个跟不协调相关联的活动
changing one of the behaviors that’s related to the inconsistency.
人们还可以
Another thing people can do is to add
加入第三种想法 使失调合理化
new thoughts into the mix–thoughts thathelp rationalize the inconsistency. So,
也许有人会想 没错
someone might say, you know, “Yes,
吸烟的确不好 没错 我经常吸烟 但我其它的很多行为是健康的
smoking is bad. Yes, I smoke regularly.But also, I do a lot of other healthy behaviors.
我食用大量蔬菜水果
I eat a lot of fruits and vegetables,
也经常锻炼 所以
and I exercise a lot,” so I’m
增加新思路也可以减少失调的问题
adding new thoughts as a way to reduce the problem of inconsistency.
最后 人们就可以完全把失调变得简单
And finally, people can just trivialize theinconsistency completely.
他们会说 你知道为什么吗
They can just say,”You know what?” “Sure,
当然 吸烟不好 我吸烟 但我不在乎
smoking’s bad, and I smoke, but I justdon’t care.”
就是这样 这不像人们说的那么重要
“And that’s going to be it. That’s notreally as big of a deal as people say
这是另一种解决失调的方式
that it is.” That would be another way ofresolving dissonance. **”Man,
“这是烟草”
that’s tobacco.” **
但为什么人们觉得需要去解决每一件事?
But why do people feel like they need to resolve anything at all?
失调有什么大不了的?
What’s the big deal about dissonance? Well,
有人说失调会阻碍人们寻找真相
some people say that dissonance gets in the way of finding some sense of truth.
一般来说 如果我们想理解这个世界
In general, if we want to understand the world,
就是我们想要对这个世界有清晰一致的认识
then we want a clear, consistent picture of it.
任何让我们感觉
And whenanything that makes us feel
不一致的事情就是存在问题的
inconsistency is something that’s a problem,
我们就会积极的修复它的一致性 但是大多数关于失调的研究
and we are motivated to restore consistency again. But most of the research
着眼点都有些不同
in dissonance has looked at something a little bit different,
其观点是经历认知失调会使身体不舒服
and that idea is that it’s physically uncomfortable to experience cognitivedissonance.
身体确实会存在一些负面压力
There’s actually some negative physical tension
当你意识到
that you feel any time you
自己存在两个不一致的想法
recognize two inconsistent thoughts orrealize that you’ve done something through
或者你的行为与自己真实的态度和信念相悖时
your behavior that contradicts your trueattitudes and beliefs.
而且很多的研究证实这确有其事
And so lots of studies have shown that this is the case
通过给人们连上不同的传感器 或诱使他们
by hooking up different sensors to people, or tricking them into
认为让他们感到不舒服的是药物 实际上
thinking that some pill makes them feel uncomfortable when in fact,
让他们不舒服的只是他们不一致的想法
just their inconsistent thoughts is what’s doing it.
你能在我的博客找到有关这个话题的更多信息
All of this research you can find more about in my blog post on this topic,
但这足够说明 大部分的情况下
but suffice it to say that for the most part,
当你感觉
when you feel
认知失调 你正实实在在地感受身体上的不舒服
cognitive dissonance, you’re feelingactual physical discomfort — you’re
你也正在感受内心的不舒服
feeling inner discomfort as well.
每当我们感到不舒服的时候 我们就想要让自己感觉更好
And anytime we feel bad, we want to feelbetter!
为了这种更好的感觉 我们只能
And to feel better, we just find a
再次让自己认知一致 这是认知失调的驱动力量
way to be consistent again. That’s thedriving force behind cognitive dissonance.
值得指出的是 在很多时候失调都
It’s worth pointing out that there are a couple times when dissonance is
很可能激励我们采取行动来解决不一致性
especially likely to motivate thisaction to resolve the inconsistency.
其中一种情况就是你意识到对于不一致你有很多选择 所以
One of them is the perception that you had some choice over the inconsistency. So,
有时在认知失调的研究中
sometimes in cognitive dissonance studies,
他们会让人们
what they’ll have people do is
写一些与其信念相反的文章 因此
agree to write some essay arguingagainst their own beliefs. So,
如果你不认为你的学校应该提高学费
if you don’t believe that your school should raise tuition,
如果你同意
if you agree to
去写一篇文章说你的学校应该增加学费
write an article saying that your school should increase tuition,
那么这就是一个不一致的例子 然而
then that would be a case of dissonance. However,
它将只会让你感觉不一致 并激励你
it would only make you feel that dissonance and that motivation to
解决这个不一致性
resolve inconsistency
如果对于是否写这篇论文
if you felt like you had a choice
你认为自己有选择
over whether or not you wrote that essay.
如果 你没有任何选择
If you didn’t have any choice…
比如某人直接说:“你必须写一篇论文
if someone literally says,” You have to write an
否则我们不会让你走
essay before we can let you leave,
这篇论文必须说‘学费增加是好的’”
and it has to say’tuition increase is good,'”
然后 你对此别无选择
well then, you didn’t have any choice over it,
它真的不是什么大问题
and it’s not really that big of a problem.
当你意识到
It’s when you realize
你可以选择做不做一件事 而你选择了去做这件事
that you did have a choice and you chose to do the thing
但这件事与你的意见相反
that contradicts your own opinions
你必须通过解决不一致
that you have to then find some comfort
来找到让你自己舒服的方法 在这种情况下
within yourself by resolving aninconsistency. In this case, convincing
说服你自己你真的喜欢增加学费
yourself that you actually do liketuition increase.
还有一件事需要指出
The other thing that has to be there,
这是根据大量研究得出的 即对“反感结果”的认知
according to a bunch of research, is theperception of”aversive consequences.”
换句话说
In other words,
你必须得考虑到自己的认知失调
you have to think that the inconsistency in your thoughts is
在将来会因为某些原因影响消弱
going to play out poorly for some reasonin the future. So,
我们说你真的写了这个文章 说学费涨的好
let’s say you did write that essay saying tuition increases good.
如果你相信
If you believe
学校的管理部门将会读到这些
that a school administration is going to read that
论文然后说 嗨 你知道吗
essay and then say,” Hey, you know,
学生们认为这是一件好事
students think this is a good thing to do!
这有一个负面的结果
there is a negative consequence.
你不一致的行为
There isa negative consequence of your
会带来负面的结果
inconsistent actions.
现在你更有动机
Now you’re even more motivated
去解决这个不一致性并找到
to resolve the inconsistency and figure out
一个方式去思考学费的增长是一件好事
a way to think that tuition increase actually is a good thing to do.
希望能够帮助你了解认知失调的含义
Hopefully this helps clarify whatcognitive dissonance is.
下次
Now the next time you’re
你到了一个聚会 听到别人抛出这个术语
at a party and someone throws around the term
失调(因为你去的是个有些疯狂的聚会)
“dissonance” (because you go to some prettycrazy parties),
你现在也许会点头赞同
you’ll now be able to nod your
而且清楚知道他们在说什么
head and actually know what they’re talking about.
我们下次见
See you next time!

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视频概述

认知失调介绍以及举例

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

热气腾腾的春天

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Y17YaZRRvY

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