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一些关于咖啡的事实以及煮咖啡的小技巧 – 译学馆
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一些关于咖啡的事实以及煮咖啡的小技巧

Coffee Facts and Life Hacks! - Mental Floss Scatterbrained

嗨 欢迎观看Mental Floss
Hi, welcome to Mental Floss video.
今天我们要谈论的是
Today we’re gonna talk about something
我小时憎恨 如今却喜爱的东西
I hated as a child, but love today.
啤酒 等下 显然不是啤酒
Beer, wait, no apparently not beer.
浪漫喜剧 不是 咖啡 对了咖啡
Romantic comedies, nope. Coffee, yes coffee.
事实列表:9个咖啡名称来源
FACT LIST: 9 COFFEE NAME ORIGINS
有很多咖啡饮料
There are so many coffee beverages,
你或许是在你爸爸点咖啡时知道的
which you probably know from all those times your dad ordered
一杯大杯 无奶泡 无奶油 满杯无糖 中度…
a grande, no foam, no whip, no room, unsweetened medium…
喘口气 爸爸 只是杯咖啡而已
Rest, Dad, that’s just a coffee.
但所有的咖啡都
But all those drinks which comprise the coffee panoply
有一些有趣的名字来源和意义
have some pretty interesting name origins and meanings.
“espresso(意式浓缩咖啡)”这个词已知的第一个英文用法出现于1945年
The first known English use of the word “espresso” was in 1945.
根据韦氏词典的说法 它的全称是“caffè espresso”
According to Merriam-Webster, it’s full name “caffè espresso”
字面意思就是在顾客的要求下当场制作咖啡
literally means coffee made on the spot at the customer’s request.
尽管其他来源会告诉你它的意思是“挤压出”
Though other sources will tell you that it means “pressed out”.
顺便提一下 官方发音是”expresso”
And by the way, the official pronunciation is “espresso”,
即便“expresso”很流行 音调很高
even though “expresso” is popular and high.
别让任何人指手划脚 好吗
Don’t let anyone boss you around about it, okay?
意大利语“macchiato(玛奇朵)”翻译为粘上污渍的
The Italian word “macchiato” translates to spotted,
所以你的玛奇朵咖啡里有少量牛奶
so your macchiato is coffee with a spot of milk.
“Latte(拿铁)”是意大利语的缩写形式
“Latte” is a shortened version of an Italian word
意思是咖啡和牛奶
that means coffee and milk.
在拉丁语中 “lac”意思是牛奶 所以意大利人衍生出了“latte(拿铁)”这个词
In Latin, “lac” means milk which was where the Italians got “latte”
说英语的则衍生出了“lactose(乳糖)”和“lactate(乳酸盐)”
and English speakers get “lactose” and “lactate”.
说到这个 牛奶的法语词是“lait”
Speaking of which, the french word for milk is “lait”,
所以“cafe au lait”意思就是加奶咖啡
so “cafe au lait” means coffee with milk.
这个名称是在18世纪左右开始出现的
The drink name came into existence around the 18th century.
“Mocha(摩卡)”是也门的一个咖啡出口港口城市
“Mocha” is a coffee exporting port city in Yemen.
成立于14世纪
It was founded in the 14th century.
到15世纪 咖啡主要出口
And by the 15th century, its chief export was
到欧洲和中东
coffee to Europe and the Middle East.
所以当时“摩卡咖啡”描述的是来自摩卡的咖啡
So back then, “mocha coffee” just described coffee from that town.
19世纪左右
Somewhere around the 19th century,
或许在美国 巧克力和咖啡饮料
the chocolate and coffee beverage got
被称为“摩卡”
the name “mocha”, possibly in America.
“Frappé(冰沙)”是个法语词
“Frappé” is French.
该词来源于法语词“frapper” 意思是碰撞
The name is derived from a French word meaning to hit, “frapper”.
但当法国人讨论的是饮料时
But when the French are talking about drinks,
“frappé”就是冰或冷的意思
“frappé” means either iced or cold.
在世界各地点“ frappé”或“frappe”
Ordering a “frappé” or “frappe” in different
端上来的饮品是不一样的
parts of the world will have different results.
也许你很了解星巴克的“Frappuccino(星冰乐)”
Maybe you’re familiar with the Starbucks Frappuccino.
这个配方和术语
It’s a recipe and a term that they got from
是从波士顿的咖啡连锁店获得的
a Boston chain they acquired, The Coffee Connection.
由于地理位置原因 店铺或许已经用
Because of the location, the store may have been using
新英文解释“frappe”了——一种奶昔
the New England definition of a “frappe”–a milkshake,
或许“ccino”这个词来自“cappuccino(卡布奇诺)”
and probably the “ccino” from “cappuccino”.
我来自波士顿 所以我可以证明这是真的
I’m from Boston. I can confirm this is the case.
关于这个话题 “cappuccino(卡布奇诺)”有个有趣的来源
On that subject, “cappuccino” has interesting beginnings.
16世纪 意大利成立了新的修士会
In 16th century, Italy, a new order of friars was founded.
不久后 他们正式成为“Cappuccini”
Soon they became officially known as the Cappuccini.
他们穿着带有长帽的棕色外套 被称为“cappuccio”
They wear brown tunics with long hoods called cappuccio.
棕色很像
The brown color was much like the color of
僧帽猴和卡布奇诺的颜色
capuchin monkeys and cappuccinos,
这两者合起来就是修士们的名称了
which is how both of those things got their names.
意大利语中“ristretto”意味着受到限制
In Italian, “ristretto” means restricted.
这也说明了为何该饮料是一小杯浓缩咖啡
That explains why the drink is a short shot of espresso.
“lungo”则相反 中杯浓缩咖啡 意味着长
A “lungo” is the opposite, a tall shot, it means long.
让我们以“coffee(咖啡)”这个词结束吧
And let’s finish up with just “coffee”,
这个词来源于荷兰语“koffie”
which has origins in the Dutch word “koffie”
这个荷兰语来源于取自阿拉伯语的土耳其语
that came from a Turkish term originating from an Arabic one.
咖啡这个英语词自16世纪后期就开始用了
The English word has been in use since the late 16th century.
生活技巧:做咖啡的生活技巧
LIFE HACKS: COFFEE LIFE HACKS
网上有很多做咖啡的技巧
The Internet has many coffee life hacks to offer.
我想要试着做一下
And I’d like to test a few,
一方面是因为我很累
because for one thing, I am very tired.
作为年幼的孩子们的父母 我总是很累
As the parent of young children, I am always very tired.
首先 显然 只用一个漏斗 一个咖啡过滤器
So first, apparently you can make an individual cup of coffee
以及咖啡粉你就可以做一人份的咖啡了
using only a funnel, a coffee filter and grounds.
说真的 滴漏咖啡本质上就是这么制成的
I mean to be fair, this is how drip coffee is made essentially.
我们将在这儿试着做一下
But we’re gonna give it a try here.
你确实需要热水
Oh, you do need hot water,
然后把它倒进漏斗
and then you pour it through the funnel.
你得让它滴水
And you got to let it drip.
我来尝一下
Let me give it a try.
不是很好 但你知道的 还是有用的
Not great, but you know, it’ll do the trick.
我给个勉强通过
I’m gonna say a soft pass.
Meredith 我要知道这些咖啡粉是从哪来的
Meradith, I need to know more about where these grounds came from.
你想说它们跟好市多超市里的很像?
You mean like they’re part of the grocery Costco?
是的 没错 我想说它们真的很像…
Yeah, yeah, I mean they’re really like…
它像是埃塞俄比亚咖啡的唯一来源
Is it like a single origin in Ethiopia?
好了 Meradith给我提供了更多有关咖啡的信息
Okay, Meradith has given me more information about the coffee in question.
我对咖啡有点挑剔了
Um… I’m a little bit of a coffee snob.
刚和Meredith交谈时才意识到这点
I just realized while talking to Meradith about this.
所以我要重新调整下我的期望了
So I’ve got to just readjust my expectations,
因为这咖啡是从好市多买的
because this coffee was purchased already ground from Costco.
所以即便给了通过
So even when there are passes,
它们尝起来也还是有点失败
they’re still kinda taste a little bit like fails.
好了 现在我们要使用咖啡机做
Okay, now we’re gonna use the coffee maker.
试下在煮咖啡的同时热牛奶
And we’re going to attempt to heat milk while brewing coffee.
我要在这个壶里倒些牛奶
So I’m gonna put some milk in this pot.
这应该足够了
That should be enough.
我不是个喜欢咖啡加奶的人
I’m not a big “milk in my coffee” guy,
尽管这咖啡可能需要加奶
although that might need milk in this coffee.
然后嗯…阿布拉卡达不拉阿拉卡赞
And then um… Abracadabra alakazam…
显然 你得按下开关
Apparently, you have to flip the switch.
许多咖啡渣掉到了咖啡里
Lot of grounds come into the coffee there.
出什么问题了?
What’s the problem?
哦 哦 过滤器出问题了
Oh, oh, the filter.
过滤器 哦不 哦不 过滤器 哦天
The filter, oh no. Oh no, the filter. Oh, God.
好吧 我们这有点小麻烦
All right, so we had a little bit of a mishap.
我真的不知道如何制作咖啡
I don’t really know how to make coffee,
呃……这是总结
um…is the summary of it.
不过呃…我们得到了些像咖啡一样的液体
But um… we’ve got some coffee like liquid.
我的意思是牛奶是温热的 所以 过
I mean the milk is warm. So, pass.
要是这对你来说不够好的话
But if that doesn’t sound good to you,
显然你也可以自己做奶精
apparently you can also make your own creamer
用牛奶和香草精做
with milk and vanilla extract.
我这儿没有任何精确的量器
Er, I didn’t get any exact measurements here,
但根据我的经验 香草精
but I know from experience that vanilla extract is something
是需要控制使用量的东西
that needs to be used in great moderations.
哦天 这太多了
Oh, god, that’s plenty.
这太多了 哦 灾难啊!
That’s gonna be plenty. Oh, disaster!
演播室将一直有股香草味了
The studio’s gonna smell like vanilla forever.
我们正式将精神筛查工作室
We’re officially renaming the Mental Floss Studio
更名为精神筛查香草味工作室
the Mental Floss Vanilla Flavored Studio.
搅拌混合一下然后倒进我的咖啡中
I’ll gonna mix this up and put it into my coffee.
相当不错 通过!
That’s pretty good, pass!
好了 这儿有个网上真的很流行的方法
Okay, here’s a really popular one on the internet.
如果你想喝冰镇咖啡又不想含水量那么多
If you like your coffee iced but not watery,
解决方法就是把咖啡冻成冰块
the solution is to freeze coffee into ice cubes,
然后放进咖啡
and then you can put these either in coffee
当然放牛奶中也行
or apparently also in milk.
我要先试试将它放入咖啡中的味道
I’m gonna try it with coffee first.
咖啡冰块浸入我的咖啡里了
There goes my coffee ice cube into my coffee.
我想或许要放入第二块冰块
I think it might need a second ice cube.
然后让它冷却一分钟
Then we’re gonna let that cool off for a minute,
同时准备好牛奶
while we prepare the milk one.
吧嗒嘣 吧嗒兵
Bada boom, bada bing.
好了 先试咖啡 一直如此的
All right, coffee first, always.
好喝 真的好喝
Well, that’s good, that’s really good.
冷的 但很有咖啡味
It’s cold, but it’s not watery.
另一杯很可能尝起来和牛奶的味道一样
This, on the other hand, is very likely going to taste like milk.
没错 我…我没尝到一点儿咖啡味
Yeah, I… I taste no coffee whatsoever.
我想如果我让它融化掉
I mean I suppose if I let them melt,
最终尝起来就会是咖啡味的牛奶了
it would eventually taste like coffee flavored milk.
尽管如此 冲我对
Nonetheless, based on how much I’m enjoying
咖啡味冰咖啡的喜爱
this coffee flavored iced coffee,
必须给通过
I’ve gotta say pass.
最后 如果你买了整袋咖啡豆
Okay, lastly, if you purchase whole beans like,
你知道的 一般人都会买
you know, a normal person,
然后网上说你可以
then the internet claims that you can grind them up
用研钵和杵将它们研磨碎
with a mortar and pestle.
我想说谁会买个研钵和杵 而不是咖啡研磨机啊
I mean who owns a mortar and pestle but not a coffee grinder.
好了 不管怎么都要试试这个 开始喽
Okay, we’re gonna try this anyway. Here we go.
哦 上苍啊
Oh, good lord.
我只是 相信我自己
I just… I believe in myself,
也相信这愚蠢的生活技巧
and I believed in this dumb life hack.
这也将是第一次
And also this would be the first time
所有的生活技巧都有用
that every life hack was a pass.
我只需要继续研磨
I just need to keep doing it.
好吧 它看起来不太像咖啡粉
Okay, it doesn’t look exactly like coffee grounds,
不过我觉得可以用它煮咖啡
but I think I can make coffee from this.
至少要试试
I’m going to try at least.
好了 我要放些咖啡粉到那里面
Okay, I’m just gonna kinda put some coffee grounds in there.
看着不像咖啡
That does not look like coffee.
但是……但是人要有梦想 我们开始吧
But… but a boy can dream. Here we go.
相当澄澈
That’s pretty clear.
澄澈得可怕
It’s awfully clear.
它看起来不像咖啡
It doesn’t look exactly like coffee,
但跟水比起来 更像咖啡
but it looks more like coffee than it looks like water.
闻着有点像咖啡 是有点儿
It smells kinda like coffee, kinda.
啊 令人失望
Uh, that’s disappointing.
不错 我的意思就是很不幸 这不是咖啡
Yeah, I mean that’s just not coffee unfortunately.
所以 我不得不宣布它失败了
So, I’m gonna have to say it’s a fail,
尽管刚刚说通过了
although with notes of pass.
短故事:伦敦清醒剂
SHORT STORY: THE SOBERING OF LONDON
当你想到咖啡时
When you think of coffee,
你想到的第一件事
one of the first things you think of is
可能是可以用研钵和研杵研磨咖啡豆
probably how you can grind up the beans
当然也会想到咖啡馆
with the mortar and pestle, of course, but also coffee shops.
事实证明 咖啡馆是伦敦历史上非常重要的地方
It turns out that they were very important places in London history.
那时 它们被称为咖啡屋
Back then, they were called coffeehouses.
一个名叫William Biddulph的人
So a man named William Biddulph
是已知的第一个记载咖啡的英国人
was one of the first known Englishmen to write about coffee.
那是1600年 当时咖啡是种土耳其饮料
This was in 1600, when it was a Turkish beverage.
10年后 一个名为George Sandys的人称之为
A decade later, a man named George Sandys called it
“黑如土 味如土”
“black as soote, and tasting not much unlike it”.
尽管如此 1652年 伦敦的第一家咖啡屋开业了
Despite that, in 1652, the first coffeehouse in London opened.
你可以去走访一下 该咖啡屋如今位于
You can visit the site where it was located today
康希尔 圣米迦勒巷
at St. Michael’s Alley, in Cornhill.
那里还有块用来辨认咖啡屋的牌匾
There’s even a plaque recognizing the coffeehouse.
一位名叫Pasqua Rosee的希腊人经营着这家咖啡屋
It was run by a Greek man named Pasqua Rosee,
他曾称咖啡为“一种神奇的治疗物
who once called coffee “a miracle cure for
可以治愈你所能想到的一切疾病”
pretty much any illness you could imagine”.
我赞同他的话
I agree.
随后咖啡屋兴起
A coffeehouse boom followed.
成了非常受欢迎之地 只有男士出入
They were hugely popular spots for men only
他们在这辩论 聊天 谈论新闻
to debate, chat and talk about the news.
我是说那里的人们喜欢新闻 不管消息渠道如何
I mean people there loved the news, regardless of how it arrived.
正如专家Brian Cowan博士在他的《咖啡屋》一书中所列举的那样
As expert Dr. Brian Cowan listed in his book on coffeehouses,
“人们在有许可的和未许可的印刷品上获得了消息
“People got news in print, both licensed and unlicensed;
在未付印的稿件中得到了消息 然后当做绯闻 小道消息 大声地口口相传”
in manuscript; and aloud, as gossip, hearsay, and word of mouth”.
不幸的是 20世纪许多咖啡屋都无法成功经营下去
Unfortunately, not many coffeehouse buildings made it into the 20th century.
它们坚持不下
They weren’t built to last.
但是根据我们有的图片来看
But according to the images we have,
咖啡屋或许从上到下都是木质的
coffeehouses were probably wood from top to bottom.
刚开始建成时
When they were first invented,
那儿有长桌 可以让很多人坐
there were long tables for a large amount of people
和陌生人一起谈论当天新闻
to sit and engage with strangers about the news of the day.
但后来 小桌位出现了
But later on, smaller booths emerged.
业主和他们的家人们经常住在店内
The owner and their family often lived on site.
咖啡屋有时只是那栋住宅里的一间单间
Coffeehouses were sometimes just a single room within that residence.
不过这只是一般情况而言
That’s all generally speaking though.
它们的样子以及里面的人真的是因地而异啊
How they looked and who was inside them really varied from place to place.
艾萨克·牛顿爵士花时间在咖啡屋里辩论
Sir Isaac Newton spent time debating in coffeehouses.
伏尔泰曾经称之为“肮脏 陈腐 服务不好 光线不足之地”
Voltaire once called one “dirty, ill-furnished, ill-served, and ill-lighted”.
这是个不错的评论
And that’s a good review.
当然 以前的咖啡屋有前身
Now, of course coffeehouses weren’t without their predecessors.
像麦芽酒屋 小旅馆 小酒馆这样的地方
Places like ale houses, inns and taverns
在那时已非常受欢迎了 人们都去凑热闹
were already very popular spots for people to get rowdy.
以前的咖啡屋没有太大差别
And coffeehouses weren’t too different.
但在伦敦 它们的出现确实标志着一段清醒期
But their invention did kinda mark a period of sobriety in London.
在咖啡出现前 人们大多饮酒
Prior to coffee, people mostly drank alcohol,
因为这个城市的水源不是很安全
because the city’s water source wasn’t safe.
那时街上多是醉汉
People were drunk a lot more in the streets then.
历史学家马修·格连博士认为
Historian Dr. Matthew Green theorizes that:
“咖啡的到来触发了清醒的曙光
“The arrival of coffee, then, triggered a dawn of sobriety
这为人们几十年来第一次清晰地思考的
that laid the foundations for truly spectacular economic growth in the decades
经济增长奠定了基础
that followed as people thought clearly for the first time.
证券交易所、保险业和拍卖会:
The stock exchange, insurance industry, and auctioneering:
都在十七世纪的咖啡馆里爆发”
All burst into life in the 17th century coffeehouses.”
但是 即使咖啡馆的流行度上升
But even as the popularity of coffeehouses rose,
咖啡的外观和味道就像烟灰的名声仍然是真实的
the reputation of coffee looking and tasting like soot stayed true.
另有英国人将它和油以及泥巴做比较
Other Englishmen compared it to oil and mud.
一些咖啡屋确实提供茶 甚至巧克力和食物
Some coffee houses did serve tea or even chocolate and food
搭配烟尘咖啡
to go along with that soot coffee.
科学研究:咖啡因与记忆
SCIENTIFIC STUDY: CAFFEINE AND MEMORY
让我们以一项科学研究作为结尾
Let’s finish up with a scientific study
该研究2014年发表在《自然神经科学》杂志上
published in 2014 in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
约翰·霍普金斯大学的研究人员想了解
Researchers from John Hopkins University wanted to learn about
咖啡因是如何影响人的记忆的
how caffeine affected human memory.
但与许多其他的研究者不同的是
But unlike the authors of many other studies,
在学习了一些知识之后
they wanted to learn how caffeine might enhance memory
他们想了解咖啡因是如何增强记忆力的
after some knowledge was already learned.
那么他们是怎么做的呢?
So how did they do that?
他们做了一项双盲研究
Well, they did a double-blind study.
也就是说 参与者和研究者都不知道
That’s when neither the participants nor the researchers know
谁是实验组 谁是对照组
who’s in the experimental group and who’s in the control group.
共有160名参与者观看了各种各样的图片
There were 160 participants who looked at pictures of all sorts of objects
比如萨克斯 三叶草和海马的图片
like saxophones, clovers and seahorses.
在研究这些图片5分钟后
Five minutes after studying these photos,
参与者要么吃了一颗咖啡因片要么吃了安慰剂
participants got either a caffeine pill or a placebo.
咖啡因含量比
The caffeine dose was a little lower than
你在星巴克喝的中杯咖啡低一点
what you’d find in a tall Starbucks coffee.
重要的是 要注意 这些人不是咖啡因频繁摄入者
It’s important to note that these people were not regular caffeine consumers.
在服药前 研究人员先提取了唾液样本
Before the pills, the researchers took salivary samples,
在1小时后 3小时后及第二天都提取了唾液样本
they also took samples one hour later, three hours later and the next day.
第二天
Speaking the next day, that’s when
当参与者们回来测试记忆时
the participants came back to have their memories tested.
他们看了更多的照片
They were shown more pictures,
有些和前一天的一模一样 有些完全是新照片
some were the same as the day before, some were totally new
有些和前几天的照片相似 但不相同
and some were similar to the previous days, but not quite the same.
每幅照片他们都会被问到是新的 相似的还是老的照片
And they were asked whether each picture was new, similar or old.
结果是咖啡因确实有提高记忆的功效
It turned out that caffeine did have memory enhancing effects.
有趣的是 那些在学习后服用咖啡因药丸的人
Interestingly, those who took the caffeine pill after studying
更能意识到一张照片
were more likely to recognize that a picture was similar
与前一天的照片相似而不相同
rather than the same as the previous day’s.
这是项特殊技能
That’s a special kind of skill.
叫做样式分离
It’s called pattern separation.
根据研究员所说
And according to the researchers, that demonstrates
这表明记忆保持水平更高
an even deeper memory retention level.
至于为什么 据研究人员说
As for why, according to the researchers,
“咖啡因能帮助唤醒记忆
“Caffeine might help jog memories by
可能是通过影响大脑中某些化学信使水平
influencing the levels of certain chemical messengers in the brain
或海马区神经元行为来实现的
or the behavior of neurons in the hippocampus,
海马区是记忆的重要区域”
a brain region important for memory.”
所以 如果你需要学习海马图片
So if you ever need to study seahorse pictures,
你知道用什么来辅助学习
you know what to use as a study aid.
在大学时 我研究了
When I was in college, I studied the morphological differences
东西两处尼罗河非洲鳄鱼间的形态差异 但一无所获
between East and West Nile African crocodiles and I found none.
显然 我应该喝更多咖啡
And I apparently should have been drinking more coffee.
感谢观看精神筛查视频
Thanks for watching Mental Floss video,
该视频是在所有友好的小伙伴们的协助下完成的
which is made with the help of all of these nice people
如果你想看更多Scatterbrained视频
and please subscribe to our channel,
请订阅我们的频道 别忘了棒棒哒!
if you wanna see more Scatterbrained videos, DFTBA.

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译制信息
视频概述

一些关于咖啡的事实以及煮咖

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

Sharon

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SXyOkWpturM

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