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Hi, welcome to Mental Floss video.
Today we’re gonna talk about something
I hated as a child, but love today.
啤酒 等下 显然不是啤酒
Beer, wait, no apparently not beer.
浪漫喜剧 不是 咖啡 对了咖啡
Romantic comedies, nope. Coffee, yes coffee.
FACT LIST: 9 COFFEE NAME ORIGINS
There are so many coffee beverages,
which you probably know from all those times your dad ordered
一杯大杯 无奶泡 无奶油 满杯无糖 中度…
a grande, no foam, no whip, no room, unsweetened medium…
喘口气 爸爸 只是杯咖啡而已
Rest, Dad, that’s just a coffee.
But all those drinks which comprise the coffee panoply
have some pretty interesting name origins and meanings.
The first known English use of the word “espresso” was in 1945.
根据韦氏词典的说法 它的全称是“caffè espresso”
According to Merriam-Webster, it’s full name “caffè espresso”
literally means coffee made on the spot at the customer’s request.
Though other sources will tell you that it means “pressed out”.
And by the way, the official pronunciation is “espresso”,
even though “expresso” is popular and high.
Don’t let anyone boss you around about it, okay?
The Italian word “macchiato” translates to spotted,
so your macchiato is coffee with a spot of milk.
“Latte” is a shortened version of an Italian word
that means coffee and milk.
在拉丁语中 “lac”意思是牛奶 所以意大利人衍生出了“latte(拿铁)”这个词
In Latin, “lac” means milk which was where the Italians got “latte”
and English speakers get “lactose” and “lactate”.
Speaking of which, the french word for milk is “lait”,
所以“cafe au lait”意思就是加奶咖啡
so “cafe au lait” means coffee with milk.
The drink name came into existence around the 18th century.
“Mocha” is a coffee exporting port city in Yemen.
It was founded in the 14th century.
And by the 15th century, its chief export was
coffee to Europe and the Middle East.
So back then, “mocha coffee” just described coffee from that town.
Somewhere around the 19th century,
the chocolate and coffee beverage got
the name “mocha”, possibly in America.
“Frappé” is French.
The name is derived from a French word meaning to hit, “frapper”.
But when the French are talking about drinks,
“frappé” means either iced or cold.
Ordering a “frappé” or “frappe” in different
parts of the world will have different results.
Maybe you’re familiar with the Starbucks Frappuccino.
It’s a recipe and a term that they got from
a Boston chain they acquired, The Coffee Connection.
Because of the location, the store may have been using
the New England definition of a “frappe”–a milkshake,
and probably the “ccino” from “cappuccino”.
I’m from Boston. I can confirm this is the case.
On that subject, “cappuccino” has interesting beginnings.
In 16th century, Italy, a new order of friars was founded.
Soon they became officially known as the Cappuccini.
They wear brown tunics with long hoods called cappuccio.
The brown color was much like the color of
capuchin monkeys and cappuccinos,
which is how both of those things got their names.
In Italian, “ristretto” means restricted.
That explains why the drink is a short shot of espresso.
“lungo”则相反 中杯浓缩咖啡 意味着长
A “lungo” is the opposite, a tall shot, it means long.
And let’s finish up with just “coffee”,
which has origins in the Dutch word “koffie”
that came from a Turkish term originating from an Arabic one.
The English word has been in use since the late 16th century.
LIFE HACKS: COFFEE LIFE HACKS
The Internet has many coffee life hacks to offer.
And I’d like to test a few,
because for one thing, I am very tired.
As the parent of young children, I am always very tired.
首先 显然 只用一个漏斗 一个咖啡过滤器
So first, apparently you can make an individual cup of coffee
using only a funnel, a coffee filter and grounds.
I mean to be fair, this is how drip coffee is made essentially.
But we’re gonna give it a try here.
Oh, you do need hot water,
and then you pour it through the funnel.
And you got to let it drip.
Let me give it a try.
不是很好 但你知道的 还是有用的
Not great, but you know, it’ll do the trick.
I’m gonna say a soft pass.
Meradith, I need to know more about where these grounds came from.
You mean like they’re part of the grocery Costco?
是的 没错 我想说它们真的很像…
Yeah, yeah, I mean they’re really like…
Is it like a single origin in Ethiopia?
Okay, Meradith has given me more information about the coffee in question.
Um… I’m a little bit of a coffee snob.
I just realized while talking to Meradith about this.
So I’ve got to just readjust my expectations,
because this coffee was purchased already ground from Costco.
So even when there are passes,
they’re still kinda taste a little bit like fails.
Okay, now we’re gonna use the coffee maker.
And we’re going to attempt to heat milk while brewing coffee.
So I’m gonna put some milk in this pot.
That should be enough.
I’m not a big “milk in my coffee” guy,
although that might need milk in this coffee.
And then um… Abracadabra alakazam…
Apparently, you have to flip the switch.
Lot of grounds come into the coffee there.
What’s the problem?
哦 哦 过滤器出问题了
Oh, oh, the filter.
过滤器 哦不 哦不 过滤器 哦天
The filter, oh no. Oh no, the filter. Oh, God.
All right, so we had a little bit of a mishap.
I don’t really know how to make coffee,
um…is the summary of it.
But um… we’ve got some coffee like liquid.
我的意思是牛奶是温热的 所以 过
I mean the milk is warm. So, pass.
But if that doesn’t sound good to you,
apparently you can also make your own creamer
with milk and vanilla extract.
Er, I didn’t get any exact measurements here,
but I know from experience that vanilla extract is something
that needs to be used in great moderations.
Oh, god, that’s plenty.
这太多了 哦 灾难啊！
That’s gonna be plenty. Oh, disaster!
The studio’s gonna smell like vanilla forever.
We’re officially renaming the Mental Floss Studio
the Mental Floss Vanilla Flavored Studio.
I’ll gonna mix this up and put it into my coffee.
That’s pretty good, pass!
Okay, here’s a really popular one on the internet.
If you like your coffee iced but not watery,
the solution is to freeze coffee into ice cubes,
and then you can put these either in coffee
or apparently also in milk.
I’m gonna try it with coffee first.
There goes my coffee ice cube into my coffee.
I think it might need a second ice cube.
Then we’re gonna let that cool off for a minute,
while we prepare the milk one.
Bada boom, bada bing.
好了 先试咖啡 一直如此的
All right, coffee first, always.
Well, that’s good, that’s really good.
It’s cold, but it’s not watery.
This, on the other hand, is very likely going to taste like milk.
Yeah, I… I taste no coffee whatsoever.
I mean I suppose if I let them melt,
it would eventually taste like coffee flavored milk.
Nonetheless, based on how much I’m enjoying
this coffee flavored iced coffee,
I’ve gotta say pass.
Okay, lastly, if you purchase whole beans like,
you know, a normal person,
then the internet claims that you can grind them up
with a mortar and pestle.
I mean who owns a mortar and pestle but not a coffee grinder.
好了 不管怎么都要试试这个 开始喽
Okay, we’re gonna try this anyway. Here we go.
Oh, good lord.
I just… I believe in myself,
and I believed in this dumb life hack.
And also this would be the first time
that every life hack was a pass.
I just need to keep doing it.
Okay, it doesn’t look exactly like coffee grounds,
but I think I can make coffee from this.
I’m going to try at least.
Okay, I’m just gonna kinda put some coffee grounds in there.
That does not look like coffee.
But… but a boy can dream. Here we go.
That’s pretty clear.
It’s awfully clear.
It doesn’t look exactly like coffee,
but it looks more like coffee than it looks like water.
It smells kinda like coffee, kinda.
Uh, that’s disappointing.
不错 我的意思就是很不幸 这不是咖啡
Yeah, I mean that’s just not coffee unfortunately.
So, I’m gonna have to say it’s a fail,
although with notes of pass.
SHORT STORY: THE SOBERING OF LONDON
When you think of coffee,
one of the first things you think of is
probably how you can grind up the beans
with the mortar and pestle, of course, but also coffee shops.
It turns out that they were very important places in London history.
Back then, they were called coffeehouses.
So a man named William Biddulph
was one of the first known Englishmen to write about coffee.
This was in 1600, when it was a Turkish beverage.
10年后 一个名为George Sandys的人称之为
A decade later, a man named George Sandys called it
“black as soote, and tasting not much unlike it”.
尽管如此 1652年 伦敦的第一家咖啡屋开业了
Despite that, in 1652, the first coffeehouse in London opened.
You can visit the site where it was located today
at St. Michael’s Alley, in Cornhill.
There’s even a plaque recognizing the coffeehouse.
It was run by a Greek man named Pasqua Rosee,
who once called coffee “a miracle cure for
pretty much any illness you could imagine”.
A coffeehouse boom followed.
They were hugely popular spots for men only
他们在这辩论 聊天 谈论新闻
to debate, chat and talk about the news.
I mean people there loved the news, regardless of how it arrived.
As expert Dr. Brian Cowan listed in his book on coffeehouses,
“People got news in print, both licensed and unlicensed;
在未付印的稿件中得到了消息 然后当做绯闻 小道消息 大声地口口相传”
in manuscript; and aloud, as gossip, hearsay, and word of mouth”.
Unfortunately, not many coffeehouse buildings made it into the 20th century.
They weren’t built to last.
But according to the images we have,
coffeehouses were probably wood from top to bottom.
When they were first invented,
there were long tables for a large amount of people
to sit and engage with strangers about the news of the day.
But later on, smaller booths emerged.
The owner and their family often lived on site.
Coffeehouses were sometimes just a single room within that residence.
That’s all generally speaking though.
How they looked and who was inside them really varied from place to place.
Sir Isaac Newton spent time debating in coffeehouses.
伏尔泰曾经称之为“肮脏 陈腐 服务不好 光线不足之地”
Voltaire once called one “dirty, ill-furnished, ill-served, and ill-lighted”.
And that’s a good review.
Now, of course coffeehouses weren’t without their predecessors.
像麦芽酒屋 小旅馆 小酒馆这样的地方
Places like ale houses, inns and taverns
were already very popular spots for people to get rowdy.
And coffeehouses weren’t too different.
But their invention did kinda mark a period of sobriety in London.
Prior to coffee, people mostly drank alcohol,
because the city’s water source wasn’t safe.
People were drunk a lot more in the streets then.
Historian Dr. Matthew Green theorizes that:
“The arrival of coffee, then, triggered a dawn of sobriety
that laid the foundations for truly spectacular economic growth in the decades
that followed as people thought clearly for the first time.
The stock exchange, insurance industry, and auctioneering:
All burst into life in the 17th century coffeehouses.”
But even as the popularity of coffeehouses rose,
the reputation of coffee looking and tasting like soot stayed true.
Other Englishmen compared it to oil and mud.
Some coffee houses did serve tea or even chocolate and food
to go along with that soot coffee.
SCIENTIFIC STUDY: CAFFEINE AND MEMORY
Let’s finish up with a scientific study
published in 2014 in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
Researchers from John Hopkins University wanted to learn about
how caffeine affected human memory.
But unlike the authors of many other studies,
they wanted to learn how caffeine might enhance memory
after some knowledge was already learned.
So how did they do that?
Well, they did a double-blind study.
That’s when neither the participants nor the researchers know
who’s in the experimental group and who’s in the control group.
There were 160 participants who looked at pictures of all sorts of objects
like saxophones, clovers and seahorses.
Five minutes after studying these photos,
participants got either a caffeine pill or a placebo.
The caffeine dose was a little lower than
what you’d find in a tall Starbucks coffee.
重要的是 要注意 这些人不是咖啡因频繁摄入者
It’s important to note that these people were not regular caffeine consumers.
Before the pills, the researchers took salivary samples,
they also took samples one hour later, three hours later and the next day.
Speaking the next day, that’s when
the participants came back to have their memories tested.
They were shown more pictures,
some were the same as the day before, some were totally new
and some were similar to the previous days, but not quite the same.
And they were asked whether each picture was new, similar or old.
It turned out that caffeine did have memory enhancing effects.
Interestingly, those who took the caffeine pill after studying
were more likely to recognize that a picture was similar
rather than the same as the previous day’s.
That’s a special kind of skill.
It’s called pattern separation.
And according to the researchers, that demonstrates
an even deeper memory retention level.
As for why, according to the researchers,
“Caffeine might help jog memories by
influencing the levels of certain chemical messengers in the brain
or the behavior of neurons in the hippocampus,
a brain region important for memory.”
So if you ever need to study seahorse pictures,
you know what to use as a study aid.
When I was in college, I studied the morphological differences
between East and West Nile African crocodiles and I found none.
And I apparently should have been drinking more coffee.
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