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气候101:臭氧层空洞

Climate 101: Ozone Depletion | National Geographic

15 to 35 kilometers above Earth’s surface
距地球表面约15至35公里处
a gas called ozone surrounds the planet.
一种叫做臭氧的气体环绕着地球
The ozone layer acts as a barrier
臭氧层充当着
between Earth and ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
地球与太阳紫外线辐射之间的屏障
However, pollution has caused the ozone layer to thin
然而 污染导致臭氧层变得稀薄
exposing life on Earth to dangerous radiation.
将地球上的生命暴露在危险的辐射下
气候101 臭氧层空洞
Earth’s atmosphere is made up of six layers.
地球的大气分为六层
The second layer, called the stratosphere,
第二层称为平流层
contains the ozone layer.
里面含有臭氧层
The ozone layer is made up of a highly reactive molecule called ozone
臭氧层由被称为臭氧的高活性分子构成
which contains three oxygen atoms.
它含有三个氧原子
Ozone is a trace gas in the atmosphere.
臭氧是大气中的一种微量气体
There are only about three molecules for every
每1000万个空气分子中
10 million molecules of air
大约只有3个臭氧分子
but it does a very important job.
但它起着非常重要的作用
The ozone layer acts as Earth’s sunscreen,
臭氧层是地球的“防晒霜”
absorbing about 98% of damaging ultraviolet or UV light.
它能吸收大约98%的破坏性紫外线
But the ozone layer has gotten thinner.
但是臭氧层已经开始变得稀薄
Chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs
称为氟氯化碳或氟氯烃的化学物质
are the primary culprits in ozone layer breakdown.
是破坏臭氧层的主要罪魁祸首
A CFC is a molecule that contains the elements carbon, chlorine and fluorine.
氟氯化碳是含有碳 氧和氟元素的分子
CFCs are mostly found in refrigerants,
氟氯烃主要存在于制冷剂
aerosols and plastic products.
气溶胶和塑料制品中
When CFCs are exposed to ultraviolet rays in the atmosphere,
氟氯烃暴露在大气中的紫外线下
they break down into substances that include chlorine.
就会分解成包括氯在内的一些物质
The chlorine reacts with the oxygen atoms
氯原子与臭氧中的氧原子反应
in ozone and rips apart the ozone molecule.
从而使臭氧分子分解
Areas of damage in the ozone layer are often called ozone holes
臭氧层中的破损区域通常被称为臭氧层空洞
but that name is misleading.
但这个名字有误导性
Ozone layer damage is more like a thin patch
臭氧层的破坏更像是一片变薄的区域
with the thinnest areas near the poles.
而最薄的区域在两极附近
The ozone layer above the Antarctic in particular
尤其是南极上空的臭氧层
has been impacted by pollution since the mid-1980s.
自20世纪80年代中期以来就一直受到污染的影响
There the region’s low temperatures speed up
那里的低温加快了
the conversion of CFCs to ozone-damaging chlorine.
氟氯烃向破坏臭氧的氯原子的转化
About 90% of CFCs currently in the atmosphere
目前大气中约有90%的氟氯烃
were emitted by industrialized countries in the northern hemisphere.
由北半球的工业化国家排放
In 1989 the Montreal Protocol banned the production
1989年 《蒙特利尔议定书》禁止了
of ozone-depleting substances.
臭氧层消耗物质的生产
Since then
从那以后
the amount of chlorine and other ozone-depleting elements
在大气中的氯和其他臭氧层消耗元素
in the atmosphere have been falling.
便持续减少
Scientists estimate that chlorine levels will return
科学家估计 氯的含量将在
to their natural state in about 50 years.
50年内恢复到自然状态
By then the Antarctic ozone hole will shrink
到那时 南极臭氧层空洞将缩小
to smaller than eight million square miles.
至8000万平方公里以下

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视频概述

你知道臭氧层空洞吗?它关系到生物圈的安危和人类的生存,本视频将为您介绍臭氧消耗等相关内容。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Judhen

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aU6pxSNDPhs

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