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查克·琼斯——艺术家的进化史 – 译学馆
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查克·琼斯——艺术家的进化史

Chuck Jones - The Evolution of an Artist

大家好!我是托尼这里是《一帧一画》
Hi my name is Tonyand this’s Every Frame a Painting.
如果你跟我出生在一个时期
If you grew up like I did
那你一定也看过一大堆兔八哥动画
you probably watched a lot of Looney Tunes.
如果你注意过摄制人员名单
And if you paid attention to the credits
你一定认得这名字
then you’d recognize this name.
“我的全名是查尔斯·马丁·琼斯
“My full name is Charles Martin Jones.”
其实我不应该出现在这
“This is not where I really belong.”
我属于幕后”
“I belong behind the camera.”
查克·琼斯是史上最优秀的视觉喜剧大师之一
Chuck Jones is one of the all-time masters of visual comedy.
从1938到1962年
Between 1938 and 1962
他为华纳兄弟执导了200多部动画
he directed more than two hundred cartoons for Warner Brothers.
一年10部电影 平均每6分钟一部
Ten films a year, six minutes per film.
令人赞叹的是 即便是在50多年后的今天
What’s astonishing is that they hold up
这些作品依旧精彩
more than fifty years later.
而这之中
And among them
有一些更是成了有史以来最棒的短篇电影
are some of the greatest short films ever made.
但这是个漫长的过程
But none of this happened over night.
并非一蹴而就
It was a long process.
今天 让我们看一看
So today, let’s take a look…
这位艺术家是如何从优秀走向伟大的
at how a good artist became a great one.
“好的 ”“开始我们的影片吧!”
“All right. Let’s get this picture started!”
剧终
“The End”
“不!不!”
“ No, No! ”
查克·琼斯动画中最著名
The most famous aspect of any Chuck Jones cartoon
也最令人难忘的部分就是那些笑点了
and the parts you probably rememberare the jokes…
由麦克·马泰斯和泰德·皮尔斯负责编写它们
written by Michael Maltese and Tedd Pierce
几乎每个“笑话”都遵循经典的两步构架
Nearly every gag herefollows a classic two-part structure.
第一步
The first part…
引导你做出一个假设
leads you to make an assumption.
第二步
The second part…
推翻你的假设
proves it wrong.
就这么简单
That’s it.
假设
Assumption.
现实
Reality.
早期动画中的笑话都非常精彩
And in the early cartoons, the jokes are fantastic
一个连着一个 不间断
And they happen one after the other.
然而事实是笑话仅仅是表层
But here’s the truth:the gags are only the surface level.
在角色塑造上花的心思
What really sets these films apart
才是使这些作品不落窠臼的关键
is the amount of work that was put into character.
这是一个漫长的过程
And that process took a long time.
“每个角色的塑造都是一个学习的过程
“All characters are a process of learning.”
观众只观看演员表演
“It’s hard for people to understand”
他们很难意识到
“who watch actors, to realize that…”
演员自身有能力 他们演过其他角色”
“actors come with an ability.They’ve played other parts.”
“你们好!”
“Hello!”
“当你拿到画
“When you bring in a drawing”
你就只有画
“all you have is a drawing.”
你必须往里填充内容”
“And you have to put in the character.”
以达菲鸭为例
Consider the case of Daffy Duck.
最开始的时候
When he first started out…
他看着有些精神错乱
Daffy was more or less insane.
“天啊!一只多么疯狂古怪的鸭子”
“Gosh what a crazy screwy duck.”
但在15年间
But over the course of fifteen years, he changed
他从那个自娱自乐的角色
from being the one who laughs
变成了笑话提供者
to being the butt of the joke.
达菲鸭没那么疯了
This Duffy is less crazy
但他的欲望更明显了
but it’s easier to understand what he wants.
他想要金钱
He wants money.
他想要成为明星
He wants to be a star.
总之 他想要荣耀
In short, he wants glory.
“这才是给”
“This looks like a job for…”
“面具复仇者的工作!”
“…The Masked Avenger! ”
事实上 查克的每个角色都有明确的欲望
In fact, all of Chuck Jones’ characters have really clearly defined wants.
这位想要一个家
This one wants a home.
这位想要做白日梦
This one wants to daydream.
而这位只想要一个爱人
And this one just wants somebody to love.
“啊 我亲爱的
“Ah my little darling”
这是一见钟情 不是吗?”
“It is love at first sight. Is it not?”
注意到这些欲望都非常简单吗
Noticed that every desire here is very simple?
欲望越简单 人物越生动
And the simpler the desire,the more vivid the character.
了解角色的欲望后
Once you know what the character wants
便可以考虑下个问题了
you can figure out the next question:
这个角色会怎样行动呢?
How does this particular individual move?
“角色的每个行动都是由你想法指引
“Every action is dictatedby what’s going on inside of you. ”
你必须要代入角色去思考
“You have to be ableto think the way the character likes. ”
若角色的行为无法
“If you can’t tell what’s happening”
让人明白事情进展
“…by the way the character moves”
你就不算在制作动画”
“you’re not animating. ”
“我是一条蛇被你的万千风情所吸引 你说呢?”
“I’m a snake and you have charmed me, no?”
对话很有用
“It helps to have a dialogue.”
但“对话”不是影片成功的关键
“but the dialogue is not the thing that makes it work.”
故事应通过人物的行为展开和延伸
“The story should tell itself by the way it moves. ”
现在你知道了角色的欲望
So let’s say you know what the character wants
也知道他们会如何行动
And you know how they move to get it.
那笑话在哪?
What about the jokes?
如何处理假设
What happens to the assumption…
和现实?
and the reality?
现在这些假设中包括了角色的个性
Now the assumption includesthe personality of the character.
比如 我们知道达菲鸭总要干架
For instance, we know thatDaffy will always pick a fight.
因为他想被人崇拜赞颂
because it’s part of his desire for glory.
“归我管了”
“Take over. ”
同样 我们也知道歪心狼的陷阱肯定会失败
Likewise, we know that the Coyote’s device will fail.
所以琼斯可以在屏幕外表现这个笑话
So Jones can play this gag off-screen
而这样最终效果反而更搞笑
which ends up making it funnier.
但这个方法有风险
But there’s a danger to this approach.
如果只专注用个性鲜明的角色
If you just focus on great jokes
去创造笑话
with the same well defined characters
你很容易被套路困住
you can easily get trapped in a formula.
“有时我觉得歪心狼很可怜
“Sometimes I feel very sorry for the Coyote”
有时又希望哔哔鸟被歪心狼抓住”
“Sometimes I wish he’d catch him”
“如果他被抓 世界上就再也没有哔哔鸟了
“If he caught him there wouldn’t be any more Road Runner”
你不希望变成这样吧”
“You wouldn’t like that, would you?”
为了避免这种问题 琼斯采取了行动
So to avoid this problem, Jones did something
那是他的作品的鲜明特征之一
This’s one of the defining aspects of his work
那是一个词 他用了
It’s a word that he uses
别人也用来讨论他
and that other people use about him
这也突出代表了某种
It also stands outas an example of the kind of discipline
查克为自己设定的“规则”
… that Chuck Jones like to set for himself
“那是所有喜剧和戏剧最重要的元素”
This’s the vital factor of all comedies and all drama
“你的规则是什么?”
is ”what are your disciplines?”
规则:你自己设定的挑战和限制
Discipline: the challenge and restrictions you set for yourself
比如设计一个没有嘴巴
like designing a character with no mouth
或者没有脸的角色
or no face
或者不用对话 除了:
Or using no dialogues except for this:
“你好啊 我的宝贝你好啊 我的甜心”
“Hello my baby hello my honeyhello my ragtime gal”
动画给你无限的自由
Because animation let’s you do anything
你必须思考你不想做什么
you have to think about what you won’t do
琼斯设定了很多规则
In Jones’s case, there’re lots of rules
关于世界 角色和他们的行为
about the world, the charactersand the behavior
比如 兔八哥从不主动干架
For instance, Bugs Bunny never picked a fight
那就得有人挑衅
Somebody had to do this
“杀了那只兔子 杀了那只兔子”
“Kill the rabbit, kill the rabbitkill the rabbit”
这时他才会反击
“And only then would he fight back”
“杀了那只兔子?”
“Kill the rabbit?”
“兔八哥并不是一只疯兔
“Bugs Bunny is not just an insane rabbit”
总有人找他麻烦 他只是反击”
“Somebody’s always trying to get himAnd he’s retaliating”
“他得被激怒 我们发现
“He has to be provokedAnd we learned that”
他一定得被激怒
“It was very important that he’d be provoked”
因为不这样 他就会是个恶霸”
“Because otherwise, he would be a bully”
“这是你自找的”
“Of course you realize this means what”
角色的自我表达也有这样的限制
The similar restrictions happento how to characters express themselves
早期 他们的面部表情就像弹幕一样变化迅速而丰富
Early on, they tended to go througha quick barrage of facial expressions
但渐渐地 表情越来越少
But over time this grew less and less
“尤其是在后来的电影中
Particular in the later films
查克变得非常喜欢运用小的肢体动作尽可能的小
“Chuck became very fondof using the smallest possible gestures”
面部表情也变少了”
“Facial gestures to get less”
“查克的表情处理是影视界最好的
“Chuck’s facial expressionswere the best in the business”
因为他是个极简主义者”
“Because he was a minimalist”
“所有幽默都源于两样东西
“All humor grows in two things”
我相信所有幽默都来源于人类行为和逻辑
“All humor I believegrows from human behavior and logic”
不合逻辑 就不会有趣
It’s not logical, it’s not gonna be funny.
不模仿人类行为
“Because there’s no human behavior”
你又怎么知道它有趣呢”
“How the hell would you know it’s funny?”
这样想
Think of it this way
这是人类行为
This is human behavior
“哈!就是现在!”
“Ah ha! Now!”
那是 逻辑
That was logic
逻辑可以随时间增强
And logic is something you improved at over time
但人类行为可以吗?
But what about human behavior?
你能怎样增进对其理解?
How do you improve at understanding that?
事实是 方法只有一个
The truth is there’s only one way
而且不是看电影
And it’s not by watching films
“跟查克聊天时
“When you talk to Chuck”
他总会鼓励你去寻找源头
“he’s always encouraging to go to the source”
去研究现实生活
“to study real life”
去研究艺术
“To study art”
并应用到动画中
“And apply that to your animation”
而不仅仅是画出滑稽的脸”
“It’s not just drawing funny faces”
《卢浮宫 请回到我身边》(1962)
Louvre Come Back to Me! (1962)
琼斯相信只看电影是不够的
Jones believed it wasn’t enough to just watch movies
你必须有电影之外的兴趣
You have to have interests outside of film
你必须研究现实生活
You had to study real life
最重要的是 他鼓励这件事:
Most of all he encouraged this:
“阅读 广泛阅读
”Reading. Read every book
除非你知道要画什么
It doesn’t gonna do much good to draw
否则画画没什么用
unless you have something to draw
而绘画内容只有一个来源
“And the only place you can get anything to draw”
那就是大脑
“is from outside of that head”
而锻炼大脑的唯一方法
“And the only way you can exercise the mind”
就是注入新想法
“…is by bringing new ideas to it”
这样会产生惊喜”
“So it would be surprise”
“你会觉得好像有点儿感觉
“And say you kind of know that”
那是世界上最棒的事了
“That’s the greatest thing in the world”
就好像你本来还是 天哪 我不知道啊
“Geez I don’t know that”
然后你就懂了”
“And there you are, you know?”
对啊 不仅仅关乎“笑话”
There you areIt’s not just about gags
不仅仅关乎“角色”
Not just about characters
也不仅仅关乎“规则”
Not just about discipline
还有研究现实生活并学习新知识
It’s about studying the real world and learning something new
从而运用到作品中
and putting that back into the work
换句话说 就是“灵感”
In other words, inspiration
而灵感最美的就在于
And the great thing about this kind of inspiration
“它能在任何地方生根发芽”
“You can plant it any place”
“任何地方!”
“You can plant it any place”

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视频概述

著名动画艺术家查克·琼斯的制作理念

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

包子Carlos

审核员

C

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHpXle4NqWI

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