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马尔科姆·葛拉威尔谈意粉酱 – 译学馆
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马尔科姆·葛拉威尔谈意粉酱

Choice, happiness and spaghetti sauce | Malcolm Gladwell

我想我本该谈谈我的新书
I think I was supposedto talk about my new book,
书名叫做《倾覆》
which is called”Blink,”
讲的是瞬间决定和第一印象
and it’s about snap judgmentsand first impressions.
书在一月上市
And it comes out in January,
我希望你们每人都买个两三本
and I hope you all buy it in triplicate.
不过当我想到这里时
(Laughter)
我发现
But I was thinking about this,
我的新书虽然使我很开心
and I realized that although my new book makes me happy,
我觉得也使我妈妈很开心
and I think would make my mother happy,
但是书本身谈的并不是快乐
it’s not really about happiness.
因此我决定 我要谈一个人
So I decided instead,I would talk about someone
我认为在过去的二十年里 他为了让美国人快乐
who I think has done as muchto make Americans happy
付出了比任何人都多的努力
as perhaps anyone over the last 20 years,
他是我个人崇敬的一个伟大英雄
a man who is a greatpersonal hero of mine:
他的名字是霍华德·莫斯科维茨
someone by the name of Howard Moskowitz,
一个以重新发明了意粉酱而闻名的人
who is most famousfor reinventing spaghetti sauce.
霍华德大概有这么高
Howard’s about this high, and he’s round,
圆圆的他六十多岁 戴着大大的眼镜
and he’s in his 60s,and he has big huge glasses
头发稀疏灰白
and thinning gray hair,
不过他很有精神活力
and he has a kind of wonderful exuberance and vitality,
他养有一只鹦鹉
and he has a parrot,and he loves the opera,
他喜欢歌剧他还是一个中世纪历史的狂热爱好者
and he’s a great aficionadoof medieval history.
他的职业 是精神物理学家老实说
And by profession, he’s a psychophysicist. Now,
我根本不
I should tell you
知道精神物理学是干什么的
that I have no idea what psychophysics is,
虽然我早年曾与一个女孩
although at some point in my life,
交往过两年 她当时读的就是精神物理学博士
I dated a girl for two years who was getting her doctorate in psychophysics.
你也知道这段交往大概
Which should tell you somethingabout that relationship.
是怎么样的了
(Laughter)
据我所知 精神物理学讲的是测量事物
As far as I know, psychophysicsis about measuring things.
霍华德很热衷于测量事物
And Howard is very interestedin measuring things.
他还是哈佛博士毕业的
And he graduatedwith his doctorate from Harvard,
他在纽约州白原市设立了一个小顾问公司
and he set up a little consulting shop in White Plains, New York.
他的第一个客户是… 这是很多年前的事了
And one of his first clients was Pepsi.
在七十年代初 他最早的客户之一是百事公司
This is many years ago,back in the early 70s.
百事的人找到霍华德 说:
And Pepsi came to Howard and they said,
“你看有一样新东西叫做阿斯巴甜
“You know, there’s this newthing called aspartame,
我们想要用来生产百事轻怡
and we would like to make Diet Pepsi.
我们想要你找出在每一罐
We’d like you to figure out
百事轻怡里
how much aspartame we should put
放多少的阿斯巴甜
in each can of Diet Pepsi
才能做出一种完美的饮料 ”
in order to have the perfect drink.”
对吧? 这个问题听上去非常地容易回答
Now that sounds like an incrediblystraightforward question to answer,
霍华德也是这么想的 因为百事公司告诉他:
and that’s what Howard thought.
“你看
Because Pepsi told him,
我们测试的是从 8% 到 12% 之间的范围
“We’re working with a bandbetween eight and 12 percent.
8%以下的甜度不够甜
Anything below eight percentsweetness is not sweet enough;
12%以上的甜度太甜了
anything above 12 percentsweetness is too sweet.
我们想要知道
We want to know:
8% 到 12%
what’s the sweet spot between 8 and 12?” Now,
之间最完美的甜度是什么?” 如果我现在把这个问题交给你
if I gave you this problem to do,
你会说:这个还不简单?
you would all say, it’s very simple.
我们只要做出一系列
What we do is you make
不同甜度的百事8%
up a big experimental batch of Pepsi,
8.1% 8.2 % 8.3%
at every degree of sweetness –eight percent, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3,
一直到12%
all the way up to 12 —
为止然后我们让几千人来品尝
and we try this out with thousands of people,
将结果画成一个曲线图
and we plot the results on a curve,
最后取最多人喜欢的甜度
and we take the most popularconcentration, right?
对吧?
Really simple.
简单得很霍华德做了这个实验 他拿到数据 然后画成一个曲线图
Howard does the experiment,and he gets the data back,
然后他突然发现:
and he plots it on a curve,
这并不是一个漂亮的钟形曲线
and all of a sudden he realizes it’s not a nice bell curve.
事实上 这些数据根本毫无逻辑
In fact, the data doesn’t make any sense.
根本就是一团糟
It’s a mess. It’s all over the place. Now,
那个行业里的大多数人
most people in that business,
做食品测试之类的
in the world of testing food and such,
对于一团糟的数据并不会很在意
are not dismayedwhen the data comes back a mess.
他们想:
They think,” Well,
你看 弄明白人们对可乐的看法不是那么简单的你看
you know, figuring out what people think about cola’s not that easy.”
说不定我们中途犯了一个错误
“You know, maybe we made an errorsomewhere along the way.”
我们合理猜想一下就算了
“You know, let’s justmake an educated guess,”
于是他们就随便地选定
and they simply pointand they go for 10 percent,
10%
right in the middle.
正正中央 霍华德可不那么容易妥协
Howard is not so easily placated.
霍华德是一个有着相当程度学术标准的人
Howard is a man of a certain degreeof intellectual standards.
他对此并不满意
And this was not good enough for him,
于是这个问题困扰了他很多年
and this question bedeviled him for years.
他总会沉思良久 然后问:
And he would think it throughand say,”What was wrong?
哪出错了呢?为什么我们弄不明白百事轻怡的这个实验
Why could we not make sense of this experiment with Diet Pepsi?
呢?

有一天
And one day,
他坐在白原市的一家小餐馆里
he was sitting in a diner in White Plains,
正准备要帮雀巢公司做一些工作突然间
about to go trying to dream upsome work for Nescafé.
灵光一现 他找到了答案那就是:
And suddenly, like a bolt of lightning, the answer came to him.
他们在分析百事轻怡的数据时
And that is, that when they analyzedthe Diet Pepsi data,
问的是一个错误的问题
they were asking the wrong question.
他们想要寻找一种最完美的百事
They were looking for the perfect Pepsi,
但他们要找的应当是多种完美的百事
and they should have beenlooking for the perfect Pepsis.
相信我
Trust me.
这是一个巨大的启示
This was an enormous revelation.
这是食品科学中最了不起的突破之一
This was one of the most brilliant breakthroughs in all of food science.
于是霍华德马上踏上了旅程
Howard immediately went on the road,
他参加了全国各地的研讨会
and he would go to conferences around the country,
站出来说:
and he would stand up and say,
你们之前找的是一种最完美的百事
“ You had been looking for the perfect Pepsi.
你们错了
You’re wrong.
你们要找的应当是多种完美的百事
You should be lookingfor the perfect Pepsis.”
” 人们面无表情地看着他 然后说:
And people would look at himblankly and say,
“你在胡说什么啊?神经病 ”
“What are you talking about? Craziness.”
然后他们叫道:“让开!下一个!”
And they would say,”Move! Next!”
他四处找生意 没有人肯雇佣他… 不过他依旧痴迷
Tried to get business,nobody would hire him —
于他的想法
he was obsessed, though,
他不断地谈论谈论再谈论它
and he talked about it and talked about it.
霍华德很喜欢一句犹太谚语: “对于一条活在辣根菜里的虫子来说
Howard loves the Yiddish expression “ To a worm in horseradish,
世界就是辣根菜 ”
the world is horseradish.”
这就是他的辣根
This was his horseradish.

(Laughter)
他着迷了!
He was obsessed with it!
终于 他有了一个突破 Vlasic Pickles
And finally, he had a breakthrough.
公司的人找到他他们说:
Vlasic Pickles came to him,
“莫斯科维茨先生… 莫斯科维茨博士 我们想要研制一种完美的酱菜 ”
and they said,”Doctor Moskowitz,we want to make the perfect pickle.”
而他说: “世上没有一种最完美的酱菜
And he said, “ There is no perfect pickle;
只有许多种完美的酱菜”
there are only perfect pickles.”
他做完研究之后对他们说:
And he came back to them and he said,
“你们不单要改进你们的普通口味酱菜
“You don’t just needto improve your regular;
你们还要推出柑皮口味”
you need to create zesty.”
柑皮口味酱菜就是
And that’s where we got zesty pickles.
这么来的 下一个闻名而来的客户 是金宝汤公司
Then the next person came to him:Campbell’s Soup.
这一次更了不起
And this was even more important.
事实上霍华德就是靠金宝汤而扬名的
In fact, Campbell’s Soupis where Howard made his reputation.
金宝汤生产
Campbell’s made Prego,
Prego牌意粉酱 在八十年代初期 Prego 和 Ragu 竞争得不相上下
and Prego, in the early 80s, was struggling next to Ragù,
Ragu 牌意粉酱在七八十年代占据了市场主导地位
which was the dominantspaghetti sauce of the 70s and 80s.
现在这行业里…
In the industry —
我不知道你是不是知道这个
I don’t know whether you care about this,
或者说我要多花些时间讲详细些 不过
or how much time I have to go into this.
技术上来说 顺带一提 Prego
But it was, technically speaking– this is an aside —
意粉酱比 Ragu 要好
Prego is a better tomato sauce than Ragù.
番茄酱质量更好
The quality of the tomato pasteis much better;
调味料也好多了
the spice mix is far superior;
拌意粉吃起来更可口
it adheres to the pasta in a much more pleasing way.
事实上 他们在七十年代用
In fact, they would dothe famous bowl test
Ragu和 Prego 做过著名的面盘试验
back in the 70s with Ragù and Prego.
你拿一盘意粉
You’d have a plate of spaghetti,
然后淋上意粉酱
and you would pour it on, right?
Ragu 会一直渗到盘底 而
And the Ragù would all go to the bottom,
Prego会留在上面
and the Prego would sit on top.
这叫做“粘稠”
That’s called”adherence.” And,
言归正传
anyway,
尽管他们的意粉酱更粘稠
despite the fact that they were far superior in adherence,
番茄酱的质量更好
and the quality of their tomato paste,
Prego却在挣扎求存
Prego was struggling.
于是他们找到霍华德 说:
So they came to Howard,and they said, fix us.
帮我们 霍华德看了他们的产品线 说:
And Howard lookedat their product line, and he said,
“你们这是个半死不活的番茄帝国
what you have is a dead tomato society.
” 于是他说:“我打算这么干 ”
So he said, this is what I want to do.
他和金宝汤公司一起
And he got togetherwith the Campbell’s soup kitchen,
做出了45种不同口味的意粉酱
and he made 45 varietiesof spaghetti sauce.
他用了 一切想象得出的变量区分
And he varied them accordingto every conceivable way
出这些口味
that you can vary tomato sauce: by sweetness,
甜度 大蒜多少 辣度
by level of garlic, by tomatoey-ness,
酸度 番茄多少
by tartness, by sourness,
还有可见固体——番茄酱行业中我最喜欢的
by visible solids — my favorite term in the spaghetti sauce business.
词汇
(Laughter)
一切你想象得出的区分意粉酱的方法
Every conceivable wayyou can vary spaghetti sauce,
他都用尽了
he varied spaghetti sauce.
然后他带上这一系列45种口味的意粉酱
And then he took this whole raftof 45 spaghetti sauces,
踏上了旅程
and he went on the road.
他去了纽约 他去了芝加哥 他去了杰克逊维尔
He went to New York, to Chicago,
他去了洛杉矶
he went to Jacksonville, to Los Angeles.
他将一车又一车的人带进大厅里
And he brought in peopleby the truckload into big halls.
让他们坐上两个小时
And he sat them down for two hours,
在这两个小时里 他给每人十个盘子
and over the course of that two hours, he gave them ten bowls.
十小盘意粉 每盘一种不同的意粉酱
Ten small bowls of pasta, with a different spaghetti sauce on each one.
他们每吃完一盘 就打分 0 到
And after they ate each bowl, they had to rate,
100
from 0 to 100,
评他们认为这意粉酱有多好最后
how good they thoughtthe spaghetti sauce was.
在经过成年累月
At the end of that process,
的工作之后
after doing it for months and months,
他有了堆积如山的数据
he had a mountain
关于美国人对意粉酱的看法
of data about how the American people feel about spaghetti sauce.
然后他分析这些数据
And then he analyzed the data.
他找的是一种最受欢迎的意粉酱口味吗?
Did he look for the most popularvariety of spaghetti sauce? No!
不是! 霍华德不相信这东西的存在
Howard doesn’t believethat there is such a thing. Instead,
相反 他看着这些数据 说:
he lookedat the data, and he said,
“看看我们能不能将这些不同的数据点归类到不同的群集里
let’s see if we can group all these different data points into clusters.
看看这些群集能不能给我们一些启发
Let’s see if they congregatearound certain ideas.
当然
And sure enough, if you sit down,
如果你坐下仔细分析这些意粉酱的数据
and you analyze all this dataon spaghetti sauce,
你就会发现全美国人可分为三组
you realize that all Americansfall into one of three groups.
其中有喜欢一般意粉酱的人
There are peoplewho like their spaghetti sauce plain;
有喜欢辣味意粉酱的人
there are peoplewho like their spaghetti sauce spicy;
还有喜欢带有额外颗粒的意粉酱的人
and there are peoplewho like it extra chunky.
在这三者中
And of those three facts,
第三个发现最有价值
the third one was the most significant,
因为当时 在八十年代早期
because at the time, in the early 1980s,
如果你走进一家超市 你找不到带有额外颗粒的意粉酱
if you went to a supermarket, you would not find extra-chunky spaghetti sauce.
于是 Prego 公司问霍华德:
And Prego turned to Howard, and they said,
“你是说三分之一的美国人
“You’re telling methat one third of Americans
渴望吃上带有额外颗粒的意粉酱
crave extra-chunky spaghetti sauce
但没有人满足他们的需要?”
and yet no one is servicing their needs?”
他说是!
And he said”Yes!”
于是
(Laughter)
Prego的人回到公司 全面重新调配了他们的意粉酱
And Prego then went back, and completely reformulatedtheir spaghetti sauce,
推出了一系列带有
and came out with a line
额外颗粒的意粉酱
of extra chunky that immediately and completely
迅速地全面占领了这个国家的意粉酱市场
took over the spaghetti saucebusiness in this country.
在接下来的十年中 他们的额外颗粒系列意粉酱
And over the next 10 years,they made 600 million dollars
带来了六亿美元的生意
off their line of extra-chunky sauces.
这行业里其他所有人看到霍华德的成就
Everyone else in the industry looked at what Howard had done,
都说:
and they said,
“天哪!我们一直都想错了!”
“Oh my god! We’ve beenthinking all wrong!”
从那时起
And that’s when you started
我们就有了7种不同的醋
to get seven different kinds of vinegar,
14种不同的芥末酱 和71种不同的橄榄油 ─
and 14 different kinds of mustard, and 71 different kinds of olive oil.
最后连Ragu 也雇佣了霍华德
And then eventuallyeven Ragù hired Howard,
然后霍华德帮 Ragu 做了他帮 Prego 做的一样的工作
and Howard did the exact same thing for Ragù that he did for Prego.
今天如果你走进超市 一家特别好的 你会看到
And today, if you goto a really good supermarket,
Ragu有多少种意粉酱…
do you know how many Ragùs there are?
你知道有多少种吗?
36!
36! 六大不同的风味:奶酪 轻怡 留香
In six varieties: Cheese, Light, Robusto, Rich & Hearty,
浓郁传统
Old World Traditional — Extra-Chunky Garden.
额外颗粒
(Laughter)
那就是霍华德的成就
That’s Howard’s doing.
那就是霍华德给全美国人民的礼物
That is Howard’s giftto the American people.
为什么说这
Now why is that important?
很重要呢?
(Laughter)
这的确至关重要
It is, in fact, enormously important.
我会告诉你原因
I’ll explain to you why.
霍华德所做的事从根本上
What Howard did is he fundamentally
改变了食品行业里
changed the way the food industry thinks
关于如何取悦你的思维方式
about making you happy.
食品行业曾遵循的头号信条就是:
Assumption number onein the food industry used to be
找出人们想要吃什么的方法
that the way to find outwhat people want to eat,
找出什么能取悦人们的方法
what will make people happy,is to ask them.
就是问他们 年复一年 年复一年地 Ragu 和
And for years and years and years,
Prego组织小组座谈会 他们邀请人们参加
Ragù and Prego would have focus groups,
然后问:
and they would sit you down,and they would say,
“你想要什么样的意粉酱?
“What do you want in a spaghetti sauce?
告诉我们你想要什么样的意粉酱 ”
Tell us what you wantin a spaghetti sauce.”
在那么多年里
And for all those years — 20, 30 years —
二三十年里所有那些小组座谈会里 从来没有人说过他们想要额外颗粒的意粉酱
through all those focus group sessions, no one ever said they wanted extra-chunky.
即使是他们中至少有三分之一
Even though at least a third of them,
在他们的内心深处
deep in their hearts, actually did.
确实想要额外颗粒
(Laughter)
人们不知道他们想要什么!
People don’t know what they want!
对吧? 如同霍华德常说的:
As Howard loves to say,
“脑袋不知道舌头想要的是什么 ”
“ The mind knows not what the tongue wants.”
这是一个迷!
It’s a mystery!

(Laughter)
明白我们自己的欲望
And a critically important step
和品味的关键一步
in understandingour own desires and tastes
是明白我们并不能总说出我们心底想要的
is to realize that we can not always explain what we want,
是什么
deep down.
比如说 如果我问你们在场的所有人
If I asked all of you, for example, in this room,
你们想要怎样的咖啡
what you want in a coffee,
你知道你们会怎么回答吗?
you know what you’d say?
你们所有人都会说:“我想要醇厚、浓郁的黑咖啡 ”
Every one of you would say,”I want a dark, rich, hearty roast.”
当你问人们他们想要怎样的咖啡时 他们总是会这么回答
It’s what people always saywhen you ask them.
你喜欢什么?醇厚、浓郁的黑咖啡!
“What do you like?””Dark, rich, hearty roast!”
你们中有多少人真的喜欢醇厚、浓郁的黑咖啡?
What percentage of you actuallylike a dark, rich, hearty roast?
按照霍华德的数据 只有 25% 到 27%
According to Howard, somewherebetween 25 and 27 percent of you.
的人
Most of you like milky, weak coffee.
你们中大多数人喜欢奶味的淡咖啡
(Laughter)
但是别人问
But you will never,
你喜欢什么时 你绝不会承认
ever say to someone who asks you what you want
“我想要奶味的淡咖啡 ”
that”I want a milky, weak coffee.”
这就是霍华德的第一个成就
So that’s number one thingthat Howard did.
霍华德的第二个成就 就是让我们认识到
Number two thing that Howard did is he made us realize —
这一点也非常重要
it’s another very critical point —
他让我们认识到他
he made us realize the importance
所谓的“横向分类”的重要
of what he likes to call”horizontal segmentation.”
这为什么重要?
Why is this critical?
因为 在霍华德之前 食品行业是这么想的: 他们在八十年代
Because this is the way the food industrythought before Howard.
早期热衷于什么?
What were they obsessed within the early 80s?
他们热衷于芥末酱
They were obsessed with mustard.
具体来说 他们热衷于 Grey Poupon 公司的故事
In particular, they were obsessedwith the story of Grey Poupon.
对吧?曾经 只有两种芥末酱 French’s 牌和 Gulden’s 牌
Used to be, there were two mustards:French’s and Gulden’s.
它们是怎样的?黄色芥末酱 黄色芥末酱里面有什么?
What were they? Yellow mustard.
黄芥末籽
What’s in it?
姜黄 和辣椒粉
Yellow mustard seeds,turmeric, and paprika.
这就是芥末酱
That was mustard.
Grey Poupon 来了 推出了狄戎芥末酱
Grey Poupon came along, with a Dijon.
对吧?
Right?
更浓郁的褐色芥末籽
Much more volatile brown mustard seed,
少许冲鼻的白葡萄酒
some white wine, a nose hit,
更精致的香料 然后他们怎么做?
much more delicate aromatics.
他们把
And what do they do?
它用一个小玻璃罐子装起来
They put it in a little tiny glass jar,
贴上一个精美的彩饰标签
with a wonderful enameled label on it,
弄得看上去很法式 尽管它是在加州的奥克斯纳德市生产的
made it look French, even though it’s madein Oxnard, California.
然后
(Laughter)
他们决定把八盎司装的卖到四美元一瓶
And instead of charging a dollar fiftyfor the eight-ounce bottle,
而不是像 French’s 和 Gulden’s
the way that French’s and Gulden’s did,
一样卖一美元五十分 他们打出广告
they decided to charge four dollars.
广告上的人坐在
And they had those ads.
劳斯莱斯里 他吃着 Grey Poupon 芥末酱 另外一辆劳斯莱斯
With the guy in the Rolls Royce,eating the Grey Poupon.
靠了上来 车主问:“你还有 Grey Poupon 吗?”
Another pulls up, and says,”Do you have any Grey Poupon?”
他们做了这一切之后 Grey Poupon 一跃而起!
And the whole thing, after they did that, Grey Poupon takes off!
占领了芥末酱市场!
Takes over the mustard business!
所有人从中学到的就是:
And everyone’s take-home lesson from that
取悦人们的方法
was that the way to make people happy
就是提供给他们更贵的
is to give them somethingthat is more expensive,
更令人向往的产品 对吧?
something to aspire to.
让他们抛弃他们现在认为
It’s to make them turn their back
自己喜欢的东西
on what they think they like now,
去追求更高级别的芥末酱
and reach out for somethinghigher up the mustard hierarchy.
更好
(Laughter)
的芥末酱!更贵的芥末酱!
A better mustard!A more expensive mustard!
更有深度 更有文化 更有内涵的芥末酱
A mustard of more sophisticationand culture and meaning.
霍华德看到这些 说:
And Howard looked to thatand said,”That’s wrong!”
“这不对!芥末酱没有高低之分芥末酱
Mustard does not exist on a hierarchy.
和意粉酱一样 是在同一个平面上的
Mustard exists, just like tomato sauce,on a horizontal plane.
不存在好的芥末酱 或者不好的芥末酱
There is no good mustard or bad mustard.
不存在完美的芥末酱 或者不完美的芥末酱
There is no perfect mustardor imperfect mustard.
只有不同种类 适合不同人群口味的芥末酱 ”
There are only different kinds of mustards that suit different kinds of people.
他从根本上将我们对品味的看法民主化了
He fundamentally democratizedthe way we think about taste.
因此 我们该对霍华德
And for that, as well,
·莫斯科维茨再一次表示深深的谢意
we owe Howard Moskowitz a huge vote of thanks.
霍华德的第三个成就 也许也是最重要的一个
Third thing that Howard did,and perhaps the most important,
就是他挑战了“理想菜肴”的概念
is Howard confronted the notionof the Platonic dish.
此话
(Laughter)
怎讲呢?
What do I mean by that?
很长一段时间里
(Laughter)
食品行业认为
For the longest time in the food industry,
每一道菜肴
there was a sense that there was one way,
都有一种完美的烹饪方法
a perfect way, to make a dish.
你去 Chez Panisse餐馆
You go to Chez Panisse,
他们给你红尾鱼刺身 配上一个有烤瓜子和其它一些
they give you the red-tail sashimi with roasted pumpkin seeds
什么东西的味碟
in a something something reduction.
他们不会让你从五种味碟中选一种
They don’t give you five optionson the reduction.
对吧?他们不会问:“您是想要有额外颗粒的味碟呢 还是想要…不会!
They don’t say,”Do you wantthe extra-chunky reduction, or…?”
你只能配一种味碟
No!
为什么呢?因为 Chez Panisse的大厨
You just get the reduction. Why?
有一套做红尾鱼刺身的完美方法
Because the chef at Chez Panisse has a Platonic notion about red-tail sashimi.
这道菜就该这么做
“This is the way it ought to be.”
她总是用同样的方法做这道菜
And she serves it that waytime and time again,
如果你和她争论 她会说:
and if you quarrel with her, she will say,
“你懂什么?你错了!
“You know what? You’re wrong!
我们餐馆的做法是这道菜的最好做法 ”
This is the best way it ought to be in this restaurant.
同样

的观念也曾影响了整个食品行业
Now that same idea fueledthe commercial food industry as well.
他们有一套做番茄酱的完美方法
They had a Platonic notionof what tomato sauce was.
从哪来的?从意大利来的
And where did that come from?It came from Italy.
意大利番茄酱是怎么样的?
Italian tomato sauce is what?
是混合的
It’s blended; it’s thin.
稀稠的番茄酱的传统是稀稠的
The culture of tomato sauce was thin.
我们在七十年代谈到正宗的番茄酱时
When we talked about”authentictomato sauce” in the 1970s,
我们谈的是意大利番茄酱 我们谈的是最早的 Ragu 番茄酱
we talked about Italian tomato sauce, we talked about the earliest Ragùs,
没有任何可见的固体成分
which had no visible solids, right?
对吧 酱是稀稠的 你只要在意粉上浇上一点
Which were thin, you just put a little bit
它就会渗到意粉底部
and it sunk down to the bottomof the pasta.
它曾经是这样的 那我们为什么执着于那样
That’s what it was.
的番茄酱呢? 因为我们认为
And why were we attached to that?
要让人们快乐
Because we thoughtthat what it took to make people happy
就要给他们最正宗的番茄酱
was to provide them with the most culturally authentic tomato sauce, A.
这是其一 其二
And B, we thought
我们认为只要我们给他们正宗的番茄酱
that if we gave them the culturally authentic tomato sauce,
人们就会高兴地接受它
then they would embrace it.
那就是取悦最大多数人的方法
And that’s what would pleasethe maximum number of people.
我们那么想的原因 也就是说
In other words,
烹饪界里人们追寻的是大众口味
people in the cooking worldwere looking for cooking universals.
他们寻找的是一种取悦我们所有人的方法
They were looking for one wayto treat all of us.
他们沉迷于共性是有原因的
And it’s good reason for themto be obsessed
因为所有科学领域 在整个19世纪
with the idea of universals, because all of science,
和20世纪的绝大部分里
through the 19th century and much of the 20th,
都沉迷于共性
was obsessed with universals. Psychologists,
心理学家、医学家、经济学家全都
medical scientists,economists
热衷于寻找
were all interestedin finding out the rules
支配我们行为的共通法则
that govern the way all of us behave.
但那已经变了
But that changed, right?
不是吗? 过去 10 15 年里科学界最大的革新是什么?
What is the great revolution in science of the last 10, 15 years?
是由寻找共性到了解多样性的
It is the movementfrom the search for universals
转变
to the understanding of variability.
现在在医学界里 我们不一定想知道
Now in medical science,we don’t want to know, necessarily,
癌症的原理
just how cancer works,
我们想要知道的是你们的癌症和我的癌症有何不同
we want to know how your cancer is different from my cancer.
我想是我的癌症是和你们的癌症不同
I guess my cancer differentfrom your cancer.
基因学打开了研究人类多样性的大门
Genetics has opened the doorto the study of human variability.
霍华德所做的
What Howard Moskowitzwas doing was saying,
是在呼吁番茄酱领域
“ This same revolution needs to happen in the world of tomato sauce.
也需要同样的革新

为此 我们要向他再一次
And for that, we owe hima great vote of thanks.
表示感谢 我给你们最后一个多样性的例子
I’ll give you one lastillustration of variability,
那就是… 哦
and that is — oh, I’m sorry.
不好意思霍华德并不只相信多样性
Howard not only believed that,
他还更进一步地
but he took it a second step,
指出当我们
which was to say
追寻食品的共通法则时
that when we pursue universal principles in food,
我们不光在犯一个错误
we aren’t just making an error;
我们还是在给自己帮倒忙
we are actually doing ourselves a massive disservice.
他举的例子是咖啡
And the example he used was coffee.
他曾为咖啡做了许多工作
And coffee is something he did a lot of work with, with Nescafé.
为雀巢咖啡 如果我让你们
If I were to ask all
试着弄出一个牌子的咖啡
of you to try and come up with a brand of coffee —
一种咖啡 一种让你们所有人
a type of coffee, a brew —
满意的配方
that made all of you happy,
然后我让你们给那种咖啡打分
and then I asked you to rate that coffee,
你们给的平均分
the average score in this room
以百分制算 会在 60
for coffee would be about 60 on a scale of 0 to 100. If,
分左右 不过如果 你们让我将你们分为不同的咖啡口味组
however, you allowed meto break you into coffee clusters,
也许分成三四组
maybe three or four coffee clusters,
然后我就能为你们每
and I could make coffee just
一组做出一种咖啡
for each of those individual clusters,
让你们的打分从 60 提高到 75 或
your scores would go from 60 to 75 or 78.
78 这 60 分的咖啡和 78 分的咖啡之间的差别
The difference between coffeeat 60 and coffee at 78
就是让你望而却步的咖啡
is a difference between coffeethat makes you wince,
和让你喜形于色的咖啡之间的差别
and coffee that makes youdeliriously happy.
这就是我认为霍华德·莫斯科维茨给我们的最后的
That is the final, and I thinkmost beautiful lesson,
也是最美的启示 那就是接受人类的多样性
of Howard Moskowitz: that in embracing the diversityof human beings,
我们就能找到一条确实通往真正快乐的途径
we will find a surer wayto true happiness.
谢谢
Thank you.
谢谢
(Applause)

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