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巧克力和中风风险

Chocolate and Stroke Risk

“Chocolate and Stroke Risk”
“巧克力与中风风险”
The problem with publishing research on chocolate is that the press jumps on it,
发表关于巧克力研究的问题在于
oversimplifying and sensationalizing the message.
媒体会对其过度简化 并且报道得耸人听闻
Then the money starts rolling in from candy companies, muddying the message,
然后糖果公司的钱开始滚滚而来 混淆了这些信息
but lost in all that is an important idea that the flavanol phytonutrients in cocoa
但被忽略的一个重要的观点是 可可中的黄烷醇植物营养素
do appear to be beneficial.
看似确实对身体有益
The sugar in chocolate isn’t good for us.
巧克力中的糖类对我们的身体没有益处
The fat and excess calories in chocolate aren’t good for us.
巧克力中的脂肪和过量卡路里对我们也不好
But natural cocoa powder can be considered a health food.
但天然的可可粉可以看作是健康食品
So adding cocoa to a smoothie or oatmeal or whatever would be health promoting.
因此在冰沙 燕麦或其他健康食品中添加可可能够促进健康
But ideally choose unprocessed, un-Dutched cocoa,
但理想的选择是未经加工的未碱化的可可
since the flavanols are what give cocoa its bitterness,
因为黄烷醇是可可苦味的来源
so they try to process cocoa with alkali to destroy them on purpose.
所以他们试图碱化可可来破坏黄烷醇
Thus when it comes to cocoa, bitter appears to be better.
因此 说到可可 越苦的似乎越好
In my video on chocolate and artery function
我在关于巧克力和动脉功能的视频中
I showed how dark chocolate could improve the function
运用了复杂的血管造影术
of coronary arteries in the heart within two hours of consumption,
展示了黑巧克力如何在食用后两小时内
using fancy angiography,
改善心脏冠状动脉的功能
but there are some blood vessels you can visualize with your eyes,
但是你也可以用肉眼看到一些血管
the blood vessels in your eyes.
即你眼睛里面的血管
Two hours after eating dark chocolate,
吃了黑巧克力两小时后
a significant improvement in the ability of the little veins in your eyes to dilate.
你眼睛里的小静脉扩张能力显著改善
What about the blood vessels in your legs?
那么你腿上的血管呢?
Peripheral artery disease,
外周动脉疾病是
atherosclerosis in the arteries feeding your limbs leading to claudication,
四肢供血动脉粥样硬化 从而导致跛行
a crampy pain in your calf muscles when you try to exercise due to impaired blood flow.
当尝试运动时 小腿肌肉因血流受损痉挛疼痛
So maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT)
因此 研究人员对20名外周动脉疾病患者
were studied in 20 peripheral artery disease patients
进行了最长步行距离和最长步行时间的研究
two hours after eating dark chocolate,
患者在食用含85%以上可可的黑巧克力
with a respectable 85+% cocoa, or after eating whimpy milk chocolate.
或牛奶巧克力的两小时后进行了测试
After the dark chocolate, they could walk about a dozen more yards
他们吃完黑巧克力之后
and about 17 more seconds than before the dark chocolate,
比吃之前可以多走约十几码和17秒钟
but after the milk chocolate they weren’t even able to walk as far as baseline
但吃完牛奶巧克力后 他们甚至走不到基准距离
and not a single second more.
也不能多走一秒
So there does seem to be something in cocoa that’s helping,
所以似乎可可里的一些成分确实有所帮助
but a few seconds here and there aren’t going to cut it.
但这几秒钟的作用是有限的
How about reversing the atherosclerosis,
那么逆转动脉粥样硬化呢?
which we didn’t even think possible until 1977.
直到1977年 我们才认为这是可能的
Wait, what happened in ’77?
等等 1977年发生什么了?
Dean Ornish didn’t start publishing on heart disease reversal until 1979.
迪安•奥尼什直到1979年才开始发表关于心脏病逆转的文章
Well, actually the first demonstration of atherosclerosis reversal
实际上 通过降胆固醇饮食和药物治疗
with a cholesterol-lowering diet and drugs
实现动脉粥样硬化逆转的首例
wasn’t on the coronary arteries going to the heart,
不是出现在通往心脏的冠状动脉上
but rather the femoral arteries going to the legs.
而是出现在通往腿部的股动脉上
What about the arteries going to the brain?
那通往大脑的动脉呢?
Well, there’s a noninvasive way to measure arterial function
有一种非侵入性的方法可以用
within the brain using transcranial ultrasound.
使用经颅超声来测量大脑中的动脉功能
If you ask someone to hold their breath, the brain says, uh-oh,
如果你让某人屏住呼吸 大脑会说 啊哦
and starts opening up the arteries to increase blood flow to compensate.
然后开始扩张动脉增加血流来弥补
But if the arteries in our brain are stiffened and crippled by atherosclerosis,
但如果我们大脑中的动脉因动脉粥样硬化而变得僵硬和瘫痪
they’re unable to open as much and as fast as they should,
它们就无法以应有的速度扩张
and so are said to have a smaller breath holding index,
据说这样的话 屏气指数会变小
which can be a risk factor for stroke.
这可能成为中风的风险因素之一
So researchers designed an experiment
所以研究人员设计了一个实验
in which they compared the results of a target food to something neutral like oatmeal.
对比目标食物和像燕麦片等中性食物的结果
So did they choose like a spoonful of cocoa powder or something?
所以他们选择了一勺可可粉之类的吗?
No. A randomized crossover trial of oatmeal versus a deep-fried Mars bar.
不 是燕麦片和油炸玛氏巧克力棒的随机交叉实验
Wait, why a deep-fried Mars bar?
等等 为什么是油炸巧克力棒?
Well, this was published in the Scottish Medical Journal,
这篇文章发表在《苏格兰医学杂志》上
and evidently deep-fried Mars bar’s a snack strongly associated with Scotland.
显然油炸巧克力棒是一种与苏格兰有很强联系的零食
Wait… Is this just an urban legend or something?
等等 这只是个都市传说吧?
No. 627 fish and chip shops in Scotland were called
不 研究人员联系了627家苏格兰炸鱼薯条店
to ascertain the delicacy’s availability.
来证实这种美食的供应
And more than 1 in 5 said, “Yeah,
超过五分之一说“是的
selling up to 200 a week.”
每周最多可以卖200份”
Just follow the signs.
只要看看招牌就知道了
Comes out a little something like this.
最后的成品大概长这样
Batter-dipped and deep-fried Snickers bars
蘸过面糊的油炸士力架
and pizza were evidently less popular.
而油炸披萨显然不太受欢迎
The researchers conclude that it’s not just an urban legend.
研究人员得出结论 它不仅仅是一个都市传说
Encouragingly, they did find some evidence of the penetrance of the Mediterranean diet,
鼓舞人心的是 他们确实发现了一些地中海饮食的足迹
albeit in the form of deep-fried pizza.
尽管是以油炸披萨的形式出现
Could this be contributing to Scotland
这可能是
having among the highest stroke rate in Europe?
导致苏格兰在欧洲中风发病率居首位的原因吗?
Well, they put it to the test, and interestingly,
他们对此进行了测试 而有趣的是
there was a significant drop in men compared to women.
与女性相比 男性的发病率明显下降
Maybe men are from Mars, women are from Snickers?
可能男人都吃玛氏棒 女人都吃士力架?
Regardless, what about chocolate that’s not deep-fried?
不管怎样 那非油炸的巧克力呢?
There’s been a few population studies that have followed people over time,
有几项人口研究对人们进行了长期跟踪调查
and found that those who ate chocolate appeared to have lower stroke rates,
结果发现 那些吃巧克力的人似乎中风的几率更低
since confirmed by another study.
另一项研究证实了这一结果
But maybe chocolate consumption just happens to be related
但也许巧克力的摄入量只是碰巧
to other behaviors that are heart and brain healthy.
与其他有益于心脏和大脑健康的行为有关
Like hey, people that exercise a lot have to eat more food, period,
就像经常锻炼的人不得不吃更多食物
so maybe they eat more chocolate?
所以他们可能会吃更多的巧克力?
They didn’t see any evidence of that but you can’t account for everything.
他们没有看到任何证据 但人不能对一切都做出解释
I mean, to prove cause and effect
我的意思是 为了证明因果关系
you’d have to like randomize people into two groups
你最好将人们随机分为两组
and make half eat chocolate and the other half not
让一半人吃巧克力 另一半不吃
and follow them out for a decade or two.
并且跟踪他们10年或20年
To which one researcher replied “fat chance.”
对此 一位研究人员说“不太可能”
You try to get people into a study
你想让人们参加一项研究
where they could be randomized to 16 years without chocolate.
而这可能会让他们16年都不能吃巧克力

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视频概述

吃巧克力到底会不会使中风几率下降呢?是所有种类的巧克力都会对中风有帮助吗?让我们一起通过这个视频来找出答案吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Wendy

审核员

审核员LR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3etQBMtBO_Y

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