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巧克力:短暂但甜蜜的历史

Chocolate: A short but sweet history | Episode 3 | BBC Ideas

Chocolate… food of the gods!
巧克力 上帝的食物!
That’s the Greek meaning of Theobroma cacao,
巧克力在希腊语中是可可树的意思
the name of the tree that provides it.
可可树是巧克力的来源
For a plant which is notoriously difficult to cultivate,
作为植物而言 可可树公认地不易种植
its takeover of global tastes is decidedly impressive.
但从巧克力在全球的风靡可以看出人们对它的喜爱
Although not sold in Britain until the 1650s,
尽管巧克力于17世纪50年代才在英国出售
its history goes back about 2,500 years before that,
但它的历史可以追溯到大约2500年前
when it was almost certainly first domesticated in Central and South America.
当中南美洲人民第一次培育种植出了可可树时
Chocolate was an important part of early Central and South American culture.
巧克力是中南美洲早期文化中重要的一部分
The classic Mayans and their successors, including the Aztecs,
典型的玛雅人及后代 包括阿兹特人
consumed chocolate, usually as a drink,
通常把巧克力当成饮料
with water and perhaps chilli, or thickened with maize.
在其中加入水 辣椒或是用玉米增添风味
They also used the beans as currency,
他们还把可可豆作为货币
as well as using them in ceremonies from baptism to burial.
也会在洗礼葬礼等重要仪式上使用可可豆
It was a rich person’s beverage,
作为一种贵族饮料
imbued with health and spiritual properties,
巧克力被赋予了健康和神圣的寓意
and inevitably when the Spanish invaded
这也不可避免地使得西班牙入侵中南美洲时
and colonised the areas where it was found,
将有可可树的地方作为殖民地
they adopted it for their own use.
并把可可树据为己有
At first, it was slow to spread.
一开始可可豆流传得并不快
When one Spanish ship transporting the beans
16世纪时 一艘运送着可可豆的西班牙商船
was captured by the British in the 16th Century,
被英国人截获
they apparently threw the cargo overboard,
英国人明显把可可豆误认是某种粪便
thinking it was some form of dung.
把这些豆子全部扔下了船
However, as the Spanish, and then the French, and then the Italians,
然而 当西班牙人 法国人和意大利人
adapted the drink for their own tastes,
按自己的喜好调味巧克力饮料
they replaced the water with milk, and added sugar,
他们用牛奶代替水 再加上糖
and also started drinking it hot.
并开始将巧克力当成热饮饮用
By the time the British cottoned on,
当英国人开始了解它时
it was a rich, thick concoction,
巧克力饮料是一种浓稠的混合物
both delicious and pleasingly exotic.
既可口又具异国风味
It was also healthy –
巧克力也有益健康
17th Century medicine wasn’t always certain
17世纪的医学不太发达
what the new foods from the Americas would do to a Western disposition,
人们不知道来自美洲的新食物在欧洲会引发什么
but chocolate mainly got a resolute thumbs up.
但几乎所有人都对巧克力赞不绝口
Taken correctly, it was said to “restore natural heat,
据说适当食用能“让身体恢复热量
generate pure blood, enliven the heart,
产生纯净的血液 并活跃心脏
and conserve the natural faculties.”
保护自然身体机能”
It was also claimed to be an aphrodisiac,
巧克力也被认为是一种催情剂
and one author wrote, “Twill make old women young and fresh,
一位作者写道 “巧克力能使老年妇女焕发生机
create new motions of the flesh,
身体灵活
and cause them to long for you know what,
并让她们在做某事时更持久
if they but taste of chocolate.”
只要尝一尝巧克力”
The Marquis de Sade was said to be addicted to it,
据说萨德侯爵沉迷于此
using it to fuel ferocious orgies.
用巧克力来引爆纵欲的狂欢
No wonder it was popular!
难怪巧克力这么受欢迎!
At this time, chocolate was a drink.
在当时 巧克力只是一种饮料
But in the early 19th Century,
但是到了19世纪早期
manufacturers worked out how to remove much of the fat –
生产商们知道了如何去除可可中大部分的脂肪
called cocoa butter –
也就是可可油
which could then be added back carefully,
可以小心地加回饮料中
to improve the texture, making it edible
能改善些口感使巧克力好入口
though still very bitter.
但是依旧苦涩
The defatted chocolate became cocoa powder,
脱脂巧克力变成了可可粉
which allowed the poor access to their own version of the food of the gods.
使穷人终于能够接触到廉价版上帝的食物
It was also used for cooking,
可可粉也被用来烘焙
though we had to wait a few more decades for chocolate cake.
尽管又过了几十年才出现巧克力蛋糕
It wasn’t until the second half of the 19th Century
直到19世纪下半叶
that developments in milk processing, a sharp reduction in the price of sugar,
牛奶加工技术的发展和砂糖价格的陡降
and fierce competition between confectionery companies
还有糖果公司间激烈的斗争
resulted in the first really popular eating chocolate
产生了世界上第一款相当受欢迎的巧克力
milk chocolate.
牛奶巧克力
Sales exploded, and chocolate quickly came to mean the stuff you ate,
销量爆增 巧克力也很快从一种饮料
not the stuff you drank.
转变成固体食物
Less than 50 years later,
过了不到半个世纪
chocoholics could choose from an ever-increasing range
巧克力爱好者的选择范围逐渐扩大
of bars, boxes and novelty shapes.
有条状的 盒状的和新奇形状的巧克力
Today chocolate is polarised –
如今巧克力呈现两极化
from cheap, milky, sugary stuff, to high-end black bars of joy.
有便宜的含奶含糖巧克力也有高档黑巧克力
The former, we’re told, high in sugar and fat,
我们被告知 前一种糖和脂肪含量较高
is leading to an obese nation,
导致了肥胖族
but the latter, it’s hinted, may actually be beneficial.
但是后者 暗示对健康或许确实有益
Early studies suggest small doses of very dark chocolate,
早期研究表明 少量的纯黑巧克力
rich in anti-oxidants, theobromine and caffeine
富含抗氧化剂 可可碱和咖啡因
may make us happier, healthier and less stressed.
也许能让我们更开心 更健康 更少压力
Perhaps those 17th Century chocolate lovers were right after all.
也许那些17世纪的巧克力爱好者是对的
Thanks for watching.
谢谢观看
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别忘记订阅并关注接收新视频的通知
See you again soon!
下期再见!

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视频概述

巧克力简史,包括巧克力的来源、功能、种类、发展和传播。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

楼舜

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-h0VFmyAZxc

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