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巧克力里的科学 – 译学馆
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巧克力里的科学

Choc Full of Science

这些长得像月球坑的东西实际上是
These moon-like craters are actually
一种复杂分子物质中的不稳定晶体
unstable crystals in acomplicated molecular material
这种物质就是巧克力
known as chocolate.
如何制作令人垂涎的巧克力
Understanding how crystals form is
关键在于理解这些晶体的形成方式
key in craftingmouthwatering chocolate
这一点非常重要但经常被忽视
that has a vital andoften overlooked quality.
人们喜欢巧克力有很多原因
People like chocolate for many reasons
但他们可能并没有真正地考虑过为什么
that perhaps they don’treally directly think about.
他们或许认为自己喜欢巧克力的味道
They think about thetaste of chocolate,
或许是因为巧克力很甜
they think about thesweetness of chocolate.
但巧克力有一个极其重要的特点就是它的口感
But an extremely important property of chocolateis its texture
它在室温下是脆脆的固体
and it’s property of beinghard at room temperature
但却可以在你嘴里完全融化
but yet completely melting in your mouth.
这种入口即化的特性
This melt-in-your-mouth property
使得巧克力块成为了一种独特的固体食物
makes a chocolate bar a unique type of solid.
我们平时会吃很多不同的固体食物
We eat a great many different solids,
比如面包和意大利面
bread and pasta.
巧克力是一种很有意思的固体食物
Chocolate is a veryinteresting kind of solid
因为它是一种很少见的结晶固体食物
because it’s one of the very fewcrystalline solids that we eat.
结晶固体 或把它叫做晶体
Crystalline solids, or crystals,
是由分子 原子或离子有序组合而成
have molecules, atoms,or ions packed together
形成平坦的表面
in an orderly pattern andappear to have flat surfaces.
我们常吃的晶体有冰 糖 盐和巧克力
The crystal solid we eat areice, sugar, salt, chocolate.
说出来你可能不信 还有黄油和人造黄油
And believe it or not,butter and margarine
他们都是由晶体构成的
are all made of crystals.
巧克力 黄油和人造黄油
Chocolate and butter and margarine
都是脂肪酸晶体构成的食物
are the fattycrystals that we eat.
然而 我们都知道 它们具有截然不同的特性
But yet, as we all know, theyhave really very different properties.
三种食物之中 只有巧克力在室温下是固体
Of those three, only chocolateis solid at room temperature.
所以你能把它拿起来
So you can pick it up, you can
你还能掰下一块巧克力
break a piece off of your candy bar
拿给你的朋友们
and give it to a friend
不用担心把你的手指头弄得油油的
and you don’t have to worry aboutyour fingers getting all greasy.
想象一下你在室温下拿起一小块黄油
So if you imagine pickingup a pat of butter at room temperature,
你可以把它拿起来 但是手上会很油腻
you can do it, but it’s not very pleasant.
实际上 巧克力中晶体的形成
The formation of thecrystal in chocolate
也是巧克力制作过程中的一门学问
is actually part of theart of making chocolate.
将巧克力做成入口即化的块状固体
The art of making chocolate into a solid barthat melts in your mouth
这样的制作工艺发源于赤道附近地区
begins near the equator.
在那里 一种叫做可可豆荚的果实
There, often in the shadeof a coconut, plantain,
常生长在椰子树 车前草 香蕉树的荫凉下
or banana trees, grows offruit called a cocoa pod.
豆荚里的可可豆往往还在果肉中
The cocoa beans inside thepod are fermented,
就已经发酵了
often in their own pulp.
当地的细菌 真菌和酵母
The local bacteria, fungi, and yeast,
作为发酵过程中的一环
part of the fermentation process,
赋予了巧克力独特的风味
give the chocolate unique flavors.
将可可豆放在太阳下晒干 筛选
Then the beans are dried in the sun, cleaned,
就能运送到世界各地的巧克力工坊
and shipped around the world
比如马氏兄弟巧克力公司
to chocolate makerslike Mast Brothers.
制作巧克力块的工艺由烘焙可可豆开始
The journey from bean to barbegins with roasting the beans.
再经过古老的风选工艺
Then the age-old processof winnowing, or removing
将可可豆的豆皮除去
the shell, from the cocoa bean.
上千年前 玛雅人就开创了风选去皮的工艺
Cocoa beans were winnowed by Mayansthousands of years ago.
可可豆会被轧碎
The beans would have been crushed,
扔进风中 风会带走较轻的豆皮
then thrown up into the wind and the wind would blow away the lighters shells.
在纽约 马氏兄弟开发了自己的去皮技术
To winnow shells in New York City, the Mast brothers developed their own technique.
将可可豆轧碎与豆皮分离
Cracking the beans, extracting the shell,
让较重的豆仁掉进下面的器皿中
and the heavier nib willfall into the pan below.
器皿中的豆仁会被研磨成巧克力浆
The nibs are groundand made into a chocolate liquor.
其中不含酒精 只是单纯的巧克力浆
No alcohol content here, justan old world name for liquid.
可可豆小颗粒会悬浮在可可油脂中
The cocoa particles becomesuspended in the cocoa butter fat.
这些可可豆本身就含有
The beans themselves are actually made
百分之五十的可可脂
of about 50% cocoa butter.
在石块的重压下
Under the weight of the stones
进行研磨 以及研磨过程中产生的热量
and the friction and the heat
使可可豆很快就融化成浆
will start to melt thosecocoa nibs pretty quickly.
在这时 会加入糖和其他成分
At this point,sugar and other ingredients,
比如要做牛奶巧克力 那就加牛奶
such as milk in the case ofmilk chocolate, are added.
用石臼研磨机对巧克力进行精研
The stone grindersconche the chocolate,
这样可可豆碎粒的尺寸会更小
or mix it to reduce thesize of the particles,
并且还能够释放出可可豆的香气以及蕴藏在液体中的可可酸
and release the flavors andacids embedded in the liquor.
这一流程要花上好几天
The process cantake several days.
我们和所有人的目标一致
We want, like everybody wants,
就是想创造出美味丝滑的口感
that sexy, velvety texture.
没有人喜欢尝起来像沙子的巧克力
You don’t want it to be sandy.
精研是巧克力调味过程中
Conching is an important part
非常重要的一环
of flavoring the chocolate, but leaves
但也会使得可可脂不稳定
the cocoa butter unstable.
为了使可可脂稳定
To make the cocoa butter stable,
原料需要经过回火工艺
it goes through a tempering process,
回火工艺是为了保证结晶度
and tempering isall about crystals.
当我们把水放进冰箱做冰块时
When we put water in the freezer,
我们不会考虑做出来的冰块
we don’t have to worry about making the right kind
晶体结构是否合适
of crystalline water if we’re making an ice cube.
我们就只是把水放进冰箱
We just put the water in the freezer
然后等一会 水就会结冰
and wait a certain amount of timeand then crystallizes.
但对于巧克力来说可没这么简单
But in chocolate,that can’t happen
因为巧克力有六种不同的结晶形态
because there are actually sixdifferent kinds of crystals in chocolate.
每种形态不仅有不同的结构
They have different structures,
而且熔点也完全不一样
but also importantly different melting points.
我们只要第五种结晶形态
Only form five is needed,
所以巧克力匠们慢慢地加热这些混合物
so chocolate makers slowly heat up the mixture
直到刚好到低于第五种晶体的熔点
until just below form five’s melting point,
同时熔化那些不需要的晶体形态
dissolving the unwanted forms of crystals.
剩下的就是丝滑的巧克力
What’s left is smooth chocolate,
即将成型 打开包装
ready to be molded, unwrapped,
被掰开 被吃掉了
snapped, and eaten.
巧克力应该具有特定的外形
Chocolate should have a certain look to it,
应该有好看的光泽
have a gloss and sheen to it.
它应该很脆
It needs to have asnap and it needs
也应该入口即化
to have the right mouthfeel.
所以 你手上的巧克力是一样很复杂的东西
And what you have is afairly complicated thing.
当你把它放进嘴里
And then when youput it in your mouth
耐住性子等一会 别心急
and you wait long enough,if you’re not impatient,
它会融化并呈现出所有的风味
it will melt back to that liquor and release all the flavor.

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视频概述

介绍了巧克力制作的工艺流程以及简介了其中的原理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ZFAnnG

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xRp2i3epxD0

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