The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest
and most respected natural history museums in the world.
Join me as we go behind the scenes!
Dun Dun Dun
当 当 当
Are these elephants?!
Oh my god!
Here, oh let me just open my cabinet of elephants.
Good thing I’ve been working out.
Oh my god!
This is one half of an ancient elephant jaw.
– So, this was sawed at the synthesis between the two dentaries. – Oh my god!
This is one dentary, right?
– This is one tooth, okay? – In one mandible.
-这是一颗牙齿 知道吧？ -在一块下颚骨上
And elephants are bizarre in that their tooth replacement
is not like you and me, it’s from behind.
– What? – Yeah, so, the tooth is- the new tooth- is formed back here
-不会吧？ -是的 新牙从后面成型长出
and as the elephant grows, it migrates forward and pushes this one out.
随着大象成长 新牙向前移 挤掉之前那颗
And in an elephant’s lifetime, in each quarter
one quarter, two quarter, three quarter, four quarter
右下 右上 左上 左下
there are six teeth.
– Nuh. You’re making it up. – Yeah.
-我不信 你编的 -真的
– You’re a liar! – I kid you not. I am not a liar!
-你骗我！ -我没逗你 我没撒谎！
And, so this tooth then, pushes this one forward.
Sometimes you’ll see uh, two of them together,
one on the way out, one on the way in.
As the elephant goes from very small to larger,
the tooth that fits in the small elephant
wouldn’t function very well in the larger elephant.
So the sixth and last tooth is in place, uh,
when the animal is an adult,
and then stays with it for the rest of its life.
That’s amazing. This is awesome.
That is so big.
This is the cranium that goes with this guy.
– This was collected in central Sumatra in 1923, – Oh my god!
-这是1923年 在苏门答腊中部找到的 -我的天！
and the eye was here, the tusk was here, the trunk was here
这儿是眼睛 这是象牙 鼻子在这儿
and the animal is sort of moving in this direction.
Look at this cranium! It’s like- like a bulbous shape.
That’s the ear, where the ear comes in and out of
with the ear, the ear beds. I can’t even formulate sentences anymore.
This one, uh, you’re looking sort of straight on. It’s tilted up a little bit.
This is plaster that was put in place, uh, because this came off exhibit.
But, the tusks were here,
and the trunk fed up here into the nasal cavity right here, okay?
Now in prehistoric times, that is before we started recording history,
uh, ancient civilizations were digging up
fossilized mammals, mammoth, mastodons, elephants.
哺乳动物化石 猛犸象 乳齿象化石
Uh, but they had no idea what those animals were.
And so, this skull supported the myth of the cyclops,
– Oohhhh, yeah! – because of the hole in the middle there.
-噢 明白了！ -就因为中间这个孔
– I get where they see that. – Yeah.
– I mean, I- yeah. – And in fact, so you’ll see some,
-我是说 对 -事实上 你会看到一些
um, renderings of cyclops where they actually have fangs.
And it’s because the skulls they were finding still had tusks.
Oh my gosh, that’s crazy. Are these phalanges?
天啊 真不可思议 这些是趾骨吗？
– Those are the foot bones, from the feet. – These are- oh, wow.
-那些是脚骨 -这些是 噢 哇
– So this is like one toe bone, this is like… – Mmhm. Yep.
-这像是个脚趾骨 有点像…… -嗯 对
This is huge!
This is like as big as m- almost my forearm!
– You wanna see something really big? – Yeah.
– How many cervical vertebrae do you have? – I have seven.
– How many does Michael have? – Probably seven.
– How many does Jane Hanna have? – I think most humans have seven.
-Jane Hanna有多少？ -我觉得大多数人都是七块
– How many does the giraffe have? – Seven!
噢 噢 噢！
This is crazy!
– What, so this is one vertebrae. – One cervical vertebrae.
-不会吧 这是一块椎骨 -一块颈椎骨
One cervical vertebrae from a giraffe.
So put it up next to your neck.
– It’s like as bi- it’s as long as my neck. – I rest my case.
– You see the tissue that’s on here? Right here? – Yeah.
So, historically, we would look at that and say
we didn’t do a good job cleaning that.
– And this is- this is a danger to us because it’s an attraction for pests, right? – For the beetles.
-这对我们来说有点风险 因为它会招来虫子 对吧？ -招来甲虫
– But, increasingly, we get requests for DNA from different animals. – Oh yeah.
-但是 我们收到的对不同动物的DNA需求越来越多 -噢 是吧
And, we come to these places- this is a gold mine now
because we can scrape that off and get DNA
out of these little bits of tissue that are on the skull.
– So we used to really curse and swear at the person who prepared the specimen – Mmhmm.
– where it was really dirty. – Yeah.
Um, these days, we curse them and then we- we are in love with them
– because we can get material to get DNA and they don’t have to snip any of the skins. – Yeah.
– So being lazy pays off? – Yeah.
But don’t follow that advice.
– This is a sabrinus collected in the 1800’s from Washington state. – What?
It was actually specifically 1898.
– So as you know, flying squirrels don’t fly, they glide, right? – Yeah.
-你知道 飞鼠其实不会飞 而是滑行 对吧？ -对
– And they have this cartilaginous rod that sticks out and supports this membrane that goes all the way to the back foot. – Mmhmm.
-它们有根软骨 伸展开撑起一直到后腿的膜 -嗯
– And, um, when they jump out, they spread their legs and they can glide. – Like a saucer
-当它们起跳后 展开四肢就能滑行了 -类似碟状
– The flat tail actually allows them to alter that flight path as they move. – Mmhmm.
But what I want to show you is that we- while we have two species in the States,
flying squirrels occur in other parts of the world.
– They are also found on the island of Borneo. – What?
OH my GOD! This thing is hu- you’re kidding me!
– That thing is gigantic! – Check it out!
– That’s like a UFO! – Check it out.
Notice the cartilaginous rod sticks out, supports the membrane,
all the way to the back foot.
This is- that’s- this is crazy talk- it’s like a flying beaver!
– It’s huge! – This is diddly-squat.
– No! – I’m telling you, Emily.
-够大了！ -让你见识一下 Emily
Oh my GOD! These are huge!
I did not even know they could be this big ever!
Th- This is crazy talk!
– Where are these from? – China, 1925.
-这些都是哪儿来的？ -1925年 从中国
There’s ju- this doesn’t even compute.
We have Rocky, that I showed you originally.
We’ve got Borneo, we have China.
– We have representation of the diversity of flying squirrels, right? – Mmhmm.
-我们有飞鼠多样性的例证 对吧？ -嗯
So you, the student of flying squirrel evolution, or ecology, or conservation,
所以 学习有关飞鼠进化 生态或保护的学生
can come here, and have at your fingertips:
the biggest, the smallest, the fattest, the skinniest, the blackest, the whitest,
体验大小不同 体态各异 颜色迥然
the male, the female, the 1900, the 2005.
So if you go to Times Square
New Year’s, watch the ball drop, you look around,
– there’s hundreds of thousands of people that are all standing next to you. – Mmhmm.
– Not one looks like you. – Yeah.
– And so, that’s the same thing with flying squirrels, it’s the same thing, uh, with raccoons. – Wow.
-所以对于飞鼠也是一样的 浣熊也是 -哇
And, we’re here, we have this collection
and we’re continuing to add to it and we are maintaining it
so that we can figure out what makes this planet tick.
I want to be a flying squirrel expert. Can I do that?
– You bet! – Hell yeah!
-你肯定行 -哈 借你吉言
I am so has brain on it