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芝加哥历险记之四:超大体型的啮齿目动物(和其他哺乳动物)

Chicago Adventure, Part Four: Rodents of Unusual Size (And Other Mammals, Too)

《大脑能量》
The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest
芝加哥菲尔德博物馆是世界上最大
and most respected natural history museums in the world.
最令人向往的自然历史博物馆之一
Join me as we go behind the scenes!
跟我一起去幕后瞧瞧吧!
Dun Dun Dun
当 当 当
Are these elephants?!
这些是大象吗?!
Oh my god!
我的天啊!
Here, oh let me just open my cabinet of elephants.
让我来打开大象标本的柜子
Good thing I’ve been working out.
还好我一直在锻炼
Oh my god!
我的天啊!
This is one half of an ancient elephant jaw.
这是一头远古大象下颚的一半
– So, this was sawed at the synthesis between the two dentaries. – Oh my god!

-它在两块齿骨结合处被锯开了 -我的天啊!
This is one dentary, right?
这是一块齿骨 知道吧?
– This is one tooth, okay? – In one mandible.
-这是一颗牙齿 知道吧? -在一块下颚骨上
And elephants are bizarre in that their tooth replacement
而且大象换牙方式与众不同
is not like you and me, it’s from behind.
跟人不同 它们的牙齿从后面长出来
– What? – Yeah, so, the tooth is- the new tooth- is formed back here
-不会吧? -是的 新牙从后面成型长出
and as the elephant grows, it migrates forward and pushes this one out.
随着大象成长 新牙向前移 挤掉之前那颗
That’s crazy!
太不可思议了!
And in an elephant’s lifetime, in each quarter
在大象的一生中 在口腔的四个方位
one quarter, two quarter, three quarter, four quarter
右下 右上 左上 左下
there are six teeth.
有六副牙齿
– Nuh. You’re making it up. – Yeah.

-我不信 你编的 -真的
– You’re a liar! – I kid you not. I am not a liar!
-你骗我! -我没逗你 我没撒谎!
And, so this tooth then, pushes this one forward.
然后 这颗牙齿把这颗向前推
Sometimes you’ll see uh, two of them together,
有时你能看到 两颗牙挤在一起
one on the way out, one on the way in.
一颗长出来 一颗被挤出去
As the elephant goes from very small to larger,
当小象慢慢长大
the tooth that fits in the small elephant
适合小象的牙齿
wouldn’t function very well in the larger elephant.
无法在成年象身上发挥作用
So the sixth and last tooth is in place, uh,
当第六颗 也就是最后一颗牙长出来时
when the animal is an adult,
它也就成年了
and then stays with it for the rest of its life.
然后它就不再换牙了
That’s amazing. This is awesome.
太惊人了 这太神奇了
That is so big.
真的好大啊
This is the cranium that goes with this guy.
这是这家伙的头盖骨
– This was collected in central Sumatra in 1923, – Oh my god!
-这是1923年 在苏门答腊中部找到的 -我的天!
and the eye was here, the tusk was here, the trunk was here
这儿是眼睛 这是象牙 鼻子在这儿
and the animal is sort of moving in this direction.
它大概面朝这个方向
Look at this cranium! It’s like- like a bulbous shape.
看这个颅骨!像个鳞茎的形状
That’s the ear, where the ear comes in and out of
这是耳朵 是耳朵长出来的位置
with the ear, the ear beds. I can’t even formulate sentences anymore.
叫它耳朵或耳床 我甚至不知道怎么说了
This one, uh, you’re looking sort of straight on. It’s tilted up a little bit.
你看这个像是直的 但其实是有点上翘的
This is plaster that was put in place, uh, because this came off exhibit.
这里填充了石膏 因为这是展品
But, the tusks were here,
象牙在这里
and the trunk fed up here into the nasal cavity right here, okay?
鼻子就在这儿连着鼻腔 你懂吧?
Now in prehistoric times, that is before we started recording history,
在史前时期 就是人类开始记载史实之前
uh, ancient civilizations were digging up
古人类就不断挖掘出
fossilized mammals, mammoth, mastodons, elephants.
哺乳动物化石 猛犸象 乳齿象化石
Uh, but they had no idea what those animals were.
但他们并不知道那些动物是什么
And so, this skull supported the myth of the cyclops,
所以 这个颅骨成了独眼巨人神话的佐证
– Oohhhh, yeah! – because of the hole in the middle there.
-噢 明白了! -就因为中间这个孔
That’s crazy!
太不可思议了!
– I get where they see that. – Yeah.
-我懂了! -对
– I mean, I- yeah. – And in fact, so you’ll see some,
-我是说 对 -事实上 你会看到一些
um, renderings of cyclops where they actually have fangs.
独眼巨人的渲染图 它们竟然长着尖牙
And it’s because the skulls they were finding still had tusks.
而他们发现的这颗颅骨上还带有长牙
Oh my gosh, that’s crazy. Are these phalanges?
天啊 真不可思议 这些是趾骨吗?
– Those are the foot bones, from the feet. – These are- oh, wow.
-那些是脚骨 -这些是 噢 哇
– So this is like one toe bone, this is like… – Mmhm. Yep.
-这像是个脚趾骨 有点像…… -嗯 对

This is huge!
这个好大!
This is like as big as m- almost my forearm!
差不多和我的前臂一样大
– You wanna see something really big? – Yeah.
-想看点真正大的东西吗? -好啊
– How many cervical vertebrae do you have? – I have seven.
-你有多少块颈椎骨? -我有七块
– How many does Michael have? – Probably seven.
-Michael有多少? -很可能也是七块
– How many does Jane Hanna have? – I think most humans have seven.
-Jane Hanna有多少? -我觉得大多数人都是七块
– How many does the giraffe have? – Seven!
-长颈鹿有多少块? -七块!
Oh-ho-ho!
噢 噢 噢!
This is crazy!
不可思议!
– What, so this is one vertebrae. – One cervical vertebrae.
-不会吧 这是一块椎骨 -一块颈椎骨
One cervical vertebrae from a giraffe.
一根长颈鹿的颈椎骨
So put it up next to your neck.
把它放到你脖子旁边
– It’s like as bi- it’s as long as my neck. – I rest my case.
-这个和我脖子一样长 -无需我多言了吧
– You see the tissue that’s on here? Right here? – Yeah.
-你看到这上面的组织了吗? -是的
So, historically, we would look at that and say
往常看到这些 我们会说
we didn’t do a good job cleaning that.
清洁工作没做好
– And this is- this is a danger to us because it’s an attraction for pests, right? – For the beetles.
-这对我们来说有点风险 因为它会招来虫子 对吧? -招来甲虫
– But, increasingly, we get requests for DNA from different animals. – Oh yeah.
-但是 我们收到的对不同动物的DNA需求越来越多 -噢 是吧
And, we come to these places- this is a gold mine now
现在我们把目光投向这些地方 这简直是座宝藏
because we can scrape that off and get DNA
因为我们可以从颅骨上
out of these little bits of tissue that are on the skull.
刮点组织下来提取DNA
– So we used to really curse and swear at the person who prepared the specimen – Mmhmm.
-我们过去曾经埋怨制作这些样本的人 -嗯
– where it was really dirty. – Yeah.
-真的很脏 -是的
Um, these days, we curse them and then we- we are in love with them
可最近 我们既埋怨他们却又感激他们
– because we can get material to get DNA and they don’t have to snip any of the skins. – Yeah.
-因为我们不必剪破任何皮肤就能获得提取DNA的材料 -对
– So being lazy pays off? – Yeah.
-所以偷懒还得到回报了? -对
But don’t follow that advice.
但是别信刚才那话
当天晚些时候……
– This is a sabrinus collected in the 1800’s from Washington state. – What?
-这是19世纪在华盛顿州收集来的一只飞鼠 -什么?
It was actually specifically 1898.
确切地说是1898年
– So as you know, flying squirrels don’t fly, they glide, right? – Yeah.
-你知道 飞鼠其实不会飞 而是滑行 对吧? -对
– And they have this cartilaginous rod that sticks out and supports this membrane that goes all the way to the back foot. – Mmhmm.
-它们有根软骨 伸展开撑起一直到后腿的膜 -嗯
– And, um, when they jump out, they spread their legs and they can glide. – Like a saucer
-当它们起跳后 展开四肢就能滑行了 -类似碟状
– The flat tail actually allows them to alter that flight path as they move. – Mmhmm.
-扁平的尾巴使它们得以在滑行中改变路线 -嗯
But what I want to show you is that we- while we have two species in the States,
不过我想告诉你的是 美国有两个不同种类的飞鼠
flying squirrels occur in other parts of the world.
飞鼠在世界其他地方也出现过
– They are also found on the island of Borneo. – What?
-婆罗洲岛也发现过它们的踪迹 -是吗?
OH my GOD! This thing is hu- you’re kidding me!
天啊!开什么玩笑 这个东西这么大!
– That thing is gigantic! – Check it out!
-这东西真大! -见识一下吧!
– That’s like a UFO! – Check it out.
-像个UFO! -仔细看看
Notice the cartilaginous rod sticks out, supports the membrane,
注意这根展开的软骨 支撑着这个膜
all the way to the back foot.
一直到后腿
This is- that’s- this is crazy talk- it’s like a flying beaver!
这太难以置信了 就像只会飞的河狸!
– It’s huge! – This is diddly-squat.
-太大了! -一般啦
– No! – I’m telling you, Emily.
-够大了! -让你见识一下 Emily
So big.
这就挺大了
What?
不会吧?
Oh my GOD! These are huge!
天啊!这也太大了吧!
I did not even know they could be this big ever!
我没想到它们能长这么大!
Th- This is crazy talk!
这也让人太难以置信了!
– Where are these from? – China, 1925.
-这些都是哪儿来的? -1925年 从中国
There’s ju- this doesn’t even compute.
这真是难以置信
We have Rocky, that I showed you originally.
最开始给你看的是来自落基山的飞鼠
We’ve got Borneo, we have China.
我们还有来自婆罗洲的和来自中国的
– We have representation of the diversity of flying squirrels, right? – Mmhmm.
-我们有飞鼠多样性的例证 对吧? -嗯
So you, the student of flying squirrel evolution, or ecology, or conservation,
所以 学习有关飞鼠进化 生态或保护的学生
can come here, and have at your fingertips:
可以到这儿来 亲手触碰
the biggest, the smallest, the fattest, the skinniest, the blackest, the whitest,
体验大小不同 体态各异 颜色迥然
the male, the female, the 1900, the 2005.
雌雄差别 不同年份的标本
So if you go to Times Square
如果你去时代广场
New Year’s, watch the ball drop, you look around,
观看新年水晶球降落仪式 你看看周围
– there’s hundreds of thousands of people that are all standing next to you. – Mmhmm.
-你身旁站着成千上万的人 -嗯
– Not one looks like you. – Yeah.
-但没人长得像你 -是的
– And so, that’s the same thing with flying squirrels, it’s the same thing, uh, with raccoons. – Wow.
-所以对于飞鼠也是一样的 浣熊也是 -哇
And, we’re here, we have this collection
这就是我们的藏品
and we’re continuing to add to it and we are maintaining it
我们会继续增加藏品并保存下去
so that we can figure out what makes this planet tick.
这让我们弄明白是什么让地球生生不息
I want to be a flying squirrel expert. Can I do that?
我想成为研究飞鼠的专家 我行吗?
– You bet! – Hell yeah!
-你肯定行 -哈 借你吉言
特别鸣谢 菲尔德自然历史博物馆

I am so has brain on it
我就是干这个的料

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视频概述

芝加哥菲尔德博物馆有着来自世界各地物种样本,其稀有度、代表性和丰富程度令人咋舌!快来跟姑娘艾米莉一起走进幕后吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jayson

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heiyGjUko8M

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