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芝加哥历险记之五:鸭嘴兽、皮肤标本和低温贮藏

Chicago Adventure, Part Five: The Platypus, The Skin, & The Cold

《大脑能量》
主持人 艾米丽·格拉斯丽
The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest
芝加哥菲尔德博物馆是世界上最大的
and most respected natural history museums in the world.
也是最有声望的自然历史博物馆之一
Join me as we go behind the scenes!
跟我一起去幕后看看吧!
Dun dun dun!
当当当
– There it is. – Pull that drawer open.
– 我们到了 – 打开那个抽屉
I’m scared.
我有点怕
Oh my gosh.
我的天哪
Why did nature…Why…AGH!
为什么自然……啊!
He has eyes on him! Oh my gosh!
它的眼睛还在!天啊!
Why?
为什么?
Ooh, weird.
哇 太诡异了
Is this the mandible? What are these teeth?!
这是下颌骨吗?这些牙齿又是什么鬼?!
They don’t even go- They go out the wrong way!
它们甚至……长错了方向!
This is so weird!
这也太奇怪了吧!
Oh my gosh!
噢 我的天啊!
Why did they- Why are they dipped in?
这些牙齿为什么……陷在里面?
Why aren’t they- Why don’t they go out?
它们为什么……没有长出来?
Why don’t they have cusps?
这些牙齿为什么不是尖的?
I don’t know.
我不知道
Does any- of- wha-
有任何的……
Why?
为什么?
Look at this thing.
看这些
Oh my- It looks like a- an insect.
噢天 它看起来像只昆虫
I don’t even understand why its teeth look like this.
我甚至不能理解为什么它的牙齿长这样
This is the craziest thing I’ve ever seen in my life.
这是我见过的最奇怪的东西了
I don’t understand. I cannot compute this.
我真的不懂 不知道怎么说
Like- th- uh,
就像是 呃
it looks so weird.
它看着太诡异了
And you know about the spines, right?
你知道它们的脊椎吧?
Yeah, they have poisonous spines.
我知道 它们的脊椎有毒
Yeah, there you go.
对 你说的没错
What.
什么
– See ’em? – What? In its feet?
– 看见了吗? – 什么?它的脚上是什么?
Right there.
那里
Ohhh. What!
哦 天哪!
Ew, weird! Look at that!
呕 太诡异了吧! 看这个!
– What kind of, uh, venom… – So venom is produced
– 什么样的毒液…… – 毒液从这个腺体生成
in the gland there and then travels along the spine.
然后流经脊柱
And the current thinking is that it helps to keep other males at bay.
现有的解释是 这能够阻止其他雄性接近
– But there’s still so much we don’t know – Crazy.
– 但关于鸭嘴兽 – 太奇怪了
about these animals.
我们不知道的还有很多
This is why we have the specimens here,
这也是我们保存标本的原因
so that you and I can test different hypotheses
我们可以利用标本检验不同假设
about the function, the form,
比如它们的功能 外形
and the evolution of some of the most beautiful creatures on Earth.
以及地球上一些美丽生物的进化史等
I just don’t even understand why everybody isn’t a platypus scientist.
我不懂为什么没有人专门研究鸭嘴兽
Because they’re the craziest things I’ve ever seen in my life. I don’t even-
这是我见过最奇葩的生物了 我甚至
And people often- They get the idea that the duck bill is quite hard.
– 人们通常认为 鸭嘴兽的表皮很坚硬 – 对
– It’s stiff now. But in life, it’s actually quite leathery and soft. – It’s rubbery.
– 现在是很硬 但实际上它们生前的表皮粗糙而柔软 – 很有弹性
Yeah. There run nerves- running
是的 在鸭嘴兽的牙齿和嘴角之间
between those teeth and the naze- and the beak there
有神经穿过
that, um, are, how they are sensing
通过这条神经 它们可以感觉到
the invertebrates that are in the mud.
泥土里的无脊椎动物
I don’t even understand.
我还是不明白
I’m holding a platypus right now.
现在我手上拿着一只鸭嘴兽
And it’s…
它的眼睛还在
got eyes and it’s looking at me and it’s… happy.
而且正对着我 看上去有点开心?
I don’t know.
我也说不上来
皮肤标本冷藏库
So, some skins are too big to keep in the drawers with everybody else,
有些皮肤标本面积太大 抽屉放不下
so we have these three giant skin refrigerators
– 所以我们建了三个大型的冷藏库 – 好的
– and this is where we store, um… – Whoa. Pulling out the key.
– 专门储藏这些标本 – 哇 抽出钥匙
It’s very serious in here.
真的太多了
I can imagine why.
可以想象
Whoooa. WHOOOOA.
哇——
It’s like our cold room!Except huge!
这比一般的冷库大太多了!
These are amazing. You have grizzlies!
太神奇了 有灰熊
You have polar bears!
还有北极熊!
– So, people, uh, people- rich folk, who’ve got rugs, – Yeah.
– 有些有钱人 买了动物皮毯 – 嗯
They’re like, you know, ‘I don’t need this anymore’, so they donate rugs,
觉得不需要了就会捐掉
– so we’ve got these, like, modified, like, – Oh my gosh.
– 就捐到我们这里了 – 天哪
– polar bear rugs. – Huge.
– 这是加工过的北极熊皮毯 – 好大
Is that a panda?
那是熊猫吗?
– It is a panda. – That’s a panda!
– 是的 – 真的是熊猫耶!
You have pandas!
你们连熊猫都有!
Dogs?
这是狗吗?
– German shepherd, St. Bernard… – Ew!
– 德国牧羊犬 圣伯纳犬… – 呕!
Weird.
太不可思议了
– I guess, I mean you gotta save ’em. – Yeah.
– 我猜你们必须保存别人捐的东西 – 是的
You have like sloths and weird things in here,
这里有树懒 还有其他奇奇怪怪的东西
tanned hides…
鞣制皮革……
– African lion. – 1935.
– 非洲狮 – 1935年的
Whoa.

Which if you think about it doesn’t really seem that long ago
你可能觉得这些东西捐的时间
– to contribute these things. 1905. – No.
– 没那么早 这个是1905年的 – 不会
And you can see, like, their- where they- they were shot.
看这个 这是它们被枪杀时留下的弹痕
– Yeah. – Like you can see the holes.
– 看到了 – 这里有个孔
– Wow. – It’s- They’re such gorgeous specimens.
– 哇 – 这些都是非常好的标本
低温贮藏
Kathleen Kelly 藏品管理员助手
That is so cool.
这个太酷了
That is so space-age.
太先进了这个
So, uh, this is DNA from what exactly?
所以 这些具体是什么动物的DNA?
– These are all tissue samples of amphibians and reptiles. – Okay.
– 这些都是两栖动物和爬行动物的组织样本 – 这样
And how many can fit in one of these containers?
一个盒子能装多少样本?
Usually there are a hundred tissue vials in a box.
通常一个盒子可以放100个组织瓶
– In one of those? – In one of these.
– 一个盒子? – 对 一个盒子
Okay.
好的
– See, there’s that little grid. – Yeah.
– 看到了吗?那些小格 – 嗯
So 1 to 100.
一个盒子有100格
And then we have 13 boxes in every rack.
每个架子上有13个盒子
So 1,300.
所以是1300个样本
And then we have 54 racks.
然后我们有54个架子
– I’m not that good at math. – About 70,000 vials.
– 我数学不太好 – 大概有七万个组织瓶
– Really? – Yes. Yes.
– 真的吗? – 是的
– 70,000 in each one of the tanks. – Yes.
– 每个低温贮罐里有七万个组织瓶 – 是的
That’s a lot of vials.
好多啊
– It is. So that’s why we have to be really well organized. – Yeah.
– 是的 所以我们必须整理得井井有条 – 当然
Well org- well organized and, um,
整理得很有条理 而且
it looks like it’s kind of dangerous.
看起来还有点危险
Well, if you’re not wearing gloves, it’s dangerous.
嗯 没戴手套会很危险
Yeah. I mean, those are some pretty heavy duty gloves.
是啊 那些手套“责任重大”
It’s really cool.
太酷了
And so, you today, um,
所以你今天
take tissue samples from every specimen that comes in now? Every new one?
提取了每个新标本的组织样本吗?
We like to have tissue samples of everything if possible.
我们会尽可能从每个标本中提取组织样本
– Okay. – We actually just got a collection in from Honduras, today,
– 嗯 – 实际上 今天有一批从洪都拉斯送过来的标本
– and everything came with a tissue sample. – Ooo.
– 每个标本都提取了组织样本 – 哇哦
Oh, so it’s kinda becoming standard practice for natural history museums
噢 所以 为了保存DNA
– to just keep parts of DNA. – Yes.
– 这已经是自然历史博物馆的常规操作了 – 对的
Well, it’s really important that they collect a tissue sample before they pickle it.
在标本浸泡前 提取组织样本非常重要
– Oh, okay. – Because the formalin
– 噢 这样 – 因为福尔马林
– mangles the DNA. Yeah. – Yeah, destroys the DNA.
– 会破坏DNA – 对 会损坏DNA
That’s wonderful.
太棒了
And, so, potentially, with having the DNA sample, what are- what-
所以 得到DNA样本之后
what’re you gonna do with it now?
你们下一步要做什么?
– Just hold on to it and see what science- – The sky’s the limit.
– 先保存 然后看哪个科学家… – 这不一定
– Yeah? – I mean, we’re pretty much end lending library of genetic material.
– 嗯? – 我的意思是 我们最后很可能把标本借给遗传物质库
So, if someone is doing a research project,
所以 如果有人正在做研究项目
um, as long as it looks legit, and we have enough sample, we’ll send it to them.
只要项目合法 样本充足 我们就会寄过去
That’s awesome.
太给力了
That’s really fascinating.
真的很棒

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视频概述

和Emily Graslie一起,探索幕后的芝加哥菲尔德博物馆!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

别兹妮

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajNN7rXUQvI

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