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以粘土为3D打印材料制造房屋

Chemistry turns backyard clay into a 3-D printable building material

3D printing isn’t only used to make small parts.
3D打印不仅能制作小零件
It can also be used to build large structures quickly and cheaply.
它还能快速且经济地制造大型建筑
In Austin, Texas, for example,
例如 在德克萨斯的奥斯汀
people have used 3-D printing—also known as additive manufacturing—
人们通过3D打印 ——也叫增材制造——
to make concrete shelters for people experiencing homelessness.
为无家可归的人建造水泥房子
But concrete has some environmental downsides.
但水泥会对环境产生不利影响
Some studies estimate that making concrete generates as much as
有研究表明制造水泥产生的碳排放
8% of human-produced global CO2 emissions,
多达二氧化碳总排放量的8%
and the material is difficult to recycle when it’s no longer needed.
并且当水泥建筑作废时 水泥很难循环利用
So at Texas A&M University, researchers are developing alternative materials
所以 德克萨斯A&M大学的研究人员在寻找新的材料
to reduce the industry’s reliance on concrete.
以取代水泥 减少其使用量
They propose adapting locally harvested soils for 3-D printing.
他们打算改良当地的土 用来3D打印
To demonstrate the idea,
为了验证这一想法
they created this material which is made with clay from a colleague’s backyard.
研究人员用某同事家后院里的土做出了眼前这种材料
Aayushi Bajpayee: It’s from a professor’s backyard.
Aayushi Bajpayee:土是教授家后院的
So our approach was to take the most complex form that is available in nature,
我们的方法是试验自然界中能够获得的 成分最复杂的土
because if we prove that we can do the complex mixture,
因为 如果成分混杂的土都能用来打印的话
then doing noncomplex mixtures and store-bought mixtures are much easier.
那么用比较纯净的土或商店里现成的土来打印的话会更容易
To make a 3-D printable material from clay,
为了使土能够用来3D打印
Aayushi mixed backyard samples with sodium silicate and an alkaline catalyst.
Aayushi在土里添加了硅酸钠和碱性催化剂
The silicate precursors react to form a cross-linked siloxane framework
硅酸盐反应生成交联的硅氧烷结构
that binds the clay particles together as the printed material cures.
硅氧烷结构固化后能使土粘结在一起
Aayushi tailored the formula
经Aayushi优化配方后
so it would flow easily through a 3-D printer
这种粘土在打印机里能更好的流动
and cure quickly to support the next layer of material.
并且能够很快的固化 来支撑下一层
Then she used it to build a test structure.
她用这种粘土打印了个实验建筑
Group leader Sarbajit Banerjee says the chemistry makes it possible to use a variety of local soils
领头人Sarbajit Banerjee说他们的化学配方能够适用当地多种土壤
and avoids the need to transport materials long distances.
这样就不需要长途运输建筑物料了
Sarbajit Banerjee: If you could do a quick analysis of the local soils
Sarbajit Banerjee:我们想研发出一种全能的化学配方
we’d like to have a fairly versatile chemistry tool kitduo
当你简单分析了当地土壤后
that you could just adjust a little bit
只需要稍微调整该配方
and then sort of get to printing.
就能把当地的土用来打印
For now, Sarbajit says, the material is best suited for nonstructural elements
据Sarbajit说 他们目前研发出的材料最好是用来做非承重结构
like a building’s facade.
比如屋子的外观
But the team is working to optimize their chemistry tool kit to produce stronger materials
但是 该团队正在优化他们的化学配方
that can flow through giant 3-D printers
以做出既能应用在3D打印机上
while keeping the technology’s carbon footprint in check.
又能减少碳排放的更结实的材料
Sarbajit Banerjee: If additive manufacturing takes off and it happens only with concrete,
Sarbajit Banerjee:如果增材制造在建筑行业兴起
it would increase the carbon footprint of the construction industry.
但只能用水泥的话 会使碳排放量增加
I think we’re poised on the brink of a huge paradigm change in construction
我认为我们将迎来建筑方式的巨大变革
and chemistry is going to be a big part of that.
而化学将做出巨大贡献

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视频概述

以粘土为3D打印材料制造房屋,取代传统的水泥,以减少碳排放

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCMpltEZDd4

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