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网络时代 今天你焦虑了吗? – 译学馆
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网络时代 今天你焦虑了吗?

Check Email and Social Media Obsessively? It’s Basic Biology | Tim Wu

你知道 网络是我们目前生活中最重要的组成部分之一
You know one of the most important chapters in establishing our present existence
或者说多媒体生活最重要的组成部分之一 就是多次查看社交软件
so to speak, our present media existence was the realization of the power of the check-in.
也许你已经感受到了那种焦虑比如我必须要看一下我的邮箱或者
That is that urge, maybe you’ve felt it, I’ve got to check my email or
也许我该看看推特上面有什么新鲜事 或该上脸书看看了
maybe I should see what’s going on in my Twitter stream or it’s time to go to Facebook.
那是一种不正常的情况
That’s kind of an unusual thing.
我不知道你会如何向另一辈解释 但它很像
I don’t know how you’d explain it to another generation but it’s kind of almost like
一种生理反应——你想要上网看看
a biological feeling that you need to check-in.
它是在20世纪70年代伴随着第一批电子邮件出现的
I would say it was invented sometime in the 1970’s with email, the first emails.
事实上 我所知的第一起邮件上瘾事件是一个名为史蒂芬 卢卡斯克的人
In fact, the first email addict in my reading was a man named Stephen Lukasik
他是20世纪70年代早期美国五角大楼国防部高级研究计划署的领导人
who was the head of the ARPA agency in the Pentagon in the early 1970’s.
同时他是一个有趣的家伙 因为在70年代 他会随身带一台便携式电脑
And he was an interesting guy because he carried around what was then a portable computer in70’s
这样巨大的一个终端 可他却不论走到哪里都会接好它
This huge terminal and he would plug it in everywhere he went
然后看看他的邮箱
and he would check his email.
并且 他支持每一个人都这样做 他最早拥有我们现在都有的这个东西
And he insisted everyone do it and he was the first guy who had what many of us have right now
那就是对查看社交软件的痴迷
which is just this almost addiction to checking in.
在这背后存在的心理现象非常有趣
Now the psychology behind it is interesting.
这很容易让我们想起斯金纳所说的操作性条件反射
It is very reminiscent of what B.F. skinner described as operant conditioning
就是说所有生物处事的趋向 不止是人类 还包括鸽子和其他所有动物
That is to say that the tendency of all creatures, not just humans but pigeons and other animals
都会去做有奖励的事情
to take actions that will lead to rewards
就像啄一个小按钮就能得到食物
you know, pecking at a little button to get a little snack
我认为斯金纳发现的一件事跟我们的生活息息相关
But one of the things that Skinner noticed that I think is very relevant for our lives
不可预测的收获最令人上瘾
is the most addictive forms of rewards are those that are unpredictable.
就比如说 如果你每次都能啄按钮都能得到一点奖励的话
And so, for example, if you peck every time and outcomes a little prize
那这就不是很有趣了
that’s not that interesting.
让人着迷的是无法预测的事 即使只是投币游戏机
It’s the things that you can’t predict whether they’re slot machines
钓鱼或是打高尔夫
whether it’s fishing, whether it’s playing golf.
让我们非常着迷的都是那些
All the things that like actually really capture our interest are things where the reward payout
可获得非常不确定的奖励的事
is quite unpredictable.
邮箱明显就是这样的东西
And email obviously has that quality.
脸书也是
So does Facebook.
大多数时候 你上线遇不到什么事
Most of the time you show up there’s nothing much there.
但偶然你可能会通过邮箱收到一些好消息
But occasionally you might see something extraordinary in email with great news
或一条意义重大的消息
or maybe a very meaningful message.
大多数时候你登录社交媒体都觉得很无聊
You know you log into social media, most of the time it’s kind of a bore but occasionally
但有时会发现十分有意义的事
something quite profound is there.
这就说明最吸引人的是那些让人无法预测奖励的东西
And this turns out to be the most addictive kind of thing, these unpredictable reward schemes
我有一种我们是那群小鸽子的感觉 在我们的盒子里啄那个按钮
And I think there’s a sense in which we’re little pigeons sitting inside our boxes pecking away
我不是说这是人性中最给人启发的的一面 但有时的确是这样
I mean this is not the most inspiring model of humanity but sometimes it all like that.
“啄那个按钮”然后等着看会得到什么 已经证明这很让人上瘾
Pecking away and waiting to see what rewards come to us and that has proven to be a very
我不知道这么说是否合适 但这确实是很吸引人的
addictive – I don’t know if that’s the right word but very compelling scheme and
我认为大多数人已经身陷其中了
one which I think many of us have gotten involved in.

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为什么沉迷于刷动态、微博?为什么迫切想上线看看?这个段视频将给你答案

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