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用惩罚和奖励来改变自己的习惯 – 译学馆
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用惩罚和奖励来改变自己的习惯

Change Your Behavior with Adorable Rewards – and Pavlovian Shocks | Nichol Bradford

经常有人问我 技术变革的局限在哪里
People often ask me what I think the limitations are for transformative technology.
我会说 没有任何东西能取代 和你在乎的人面对面地
And I would say that I don’t think anything replaces sitting down one-on-one with someone
坐下来
that you love or care about.
这事是无可替代的
There’s nothing that replaces that.
我们又不是活在单一的世界
But we don’t live in an only one thing world.
我深信我们有一系列可用的手段
I really believe in having a suite of tools that we use.
所以如果你不能和你爱的人见面你们被迫相隔两地
And so when you can’t be one-on-one with your loved one and you are forced to be at
那技术能帮你解决这种问题
distance then to have things that support you in that.
就他的局限来说 我觉得很多限制都只是我们的想象
And in terms of other limitations I think a lot of the limitations are really our imagination
因为正是想象力让我们开发出了新产品
because it’s out of our imaginations that we develop products.
最早的翻盖手机看起来像《星际迷航》里的通讯器
It isn’t really a coincidence that the first flip phones look like the communicators on
并不是巧合
Star Trek.
就像这不是巧合一样
Like that’s not a coincidence.
它更像是先设定成这样然后我们才制造出来的
It was sort of set and then we worked to make it so.
所以我觉得变革性的技术 或者其他任何的技术的实质在于这样一种心态
And so I think with transformative technology or any technology really it’s being of the
不只有一种方法 也不应该只有一种输入
mindset that there won’t be one way and there shouldn’t be one input.
所以我们永远应该把现实生活中 与他人的互动放在首要位置
So we should always prioritize real live interactions with other people.
我们应该优先考虑健康的环境和城市 能让人们口头交流又思想碰撞
We should prioritize having healthy spaces and cities where people can connect and collide.
我们应该有能让不同背景不同阶层的人共处的空间
We should have spaces where people of different backgrounds and socioeconomic levels come
以免发生阶层固化
together so we don’t have stratified experiences.
因为成长和成人的一部分就是要经历许多不同的
Because part of growing up and becoming an adult is being exposed to a lot of different
事情
things.
所以我们也应该拥有这些经历
So we should have those too.
我们也需要有辅助我们现有工作的
And then we should also have technology that helps us work on the things that we’re working
技术
on.
有个装置我特别喜欢
There’s one device that I particularly love.
我对行为变化很感兴趣
I’m really interested in behavior change.
我对它感兴趣是因为行为改变很难
I’m really interested in behavior change because it’s really quite hard and there’s
并且已经发表过很多关于人类意志力的研究
been a couple of studies that have come out on human willpower.
我们的意志力实际上没有那么强大
And our willpower actually isn’t that strong.
所以我正在探索两个作用于行为变化的装置
And so there’s two products that work on behavior change that I’ve been tracking.
一个用肯定作为手段 另一个则用停止作为手段
One uses affirmation and the other one uses cessation as a tool.
利用停止的那个叫Pavlok当你做一些你不想做的事情时
So the cessation one is called Pavlok and it shocks you when you do something that you
它会震你一下
don’t want to do.
这是很轻的电击 但它还是电了你
So it’s a slight electrical shock but it shocks you nonetheless.
如果你想 你还可以把电流调大
And you can sort of amp it up if you want to.
目前它可以识别你的一些行为所以你可以输入一个
Right now there are some things that it can tell that you’re doing so you can put in
网址列表
a list of websites.
所以如果你沉迷脸书 而且你想摆脱这种状况
So if you have a Facebook addiction and you want to get off that every time you go to
你每次上脸书的时候你手腕上的可穿戴设备就会震你一下
Facebook the wearable which you wear on your wrist can shock you.
它们确实帮助了色情成瘾者
Or they’ve really been helping people with porn addictions because there’s basically
因为大概有10个重要的关键词 你可以把这些关键词输入应用
like ten words that matter and you can put all of those in the app and every time you
然后每次你进入含有这些关键词的网站时 你就会被电
go to a website with those words in it then you get shocked.
它们确实帮助了人们因为如果一件事对你来说是个问题的话
And they’re actually really helping people because if that’s a problem for you it’s
那它就真是个问题
a real problem.
所以人们需要能够帮他们改变自己行为的东西
And so people need to have things that help them change the behaviors that they want to.
相反地 另一个装置叫Moti 我喜欢这个
The flip side of that is another device called Moti which I just love it.
这是个放在你桌上的小球 上面有个小脸
It’s this little ball that sits on your desk and it’s got a little face on it.
每次你要做你想做的事时 摁它一下 它就会眨眼
And every time you do something that you want to do you touch it and it sort of – it blinks
颤动和咕咕叫
and vibrates and it coos.
听起来很蠢
And it sounds like a really silly thing.
你会想自己为什么要做这个
You’re like why would you do that.
但事实是 我们的内心 我们的大脑本能地喜欢做这件事
But it turns out that our inner mind, our monkey mind, the lizard brain loves that.
我们就是单纯地喜欢做这个
We just love it.
所以每次你做自己想做的事情每次你早睡或者晚睡
And so every time you do something that you want to do, every time you go to bed early or you don’t
或者每次你起床锻炼的时候 摁它一下它可以记录你的–告诉它你需要记录的东西
or you get up and go and exercise you touch it and it can track your – you tell it what
这样你就可以积累对正面改变的奖励
you’re tracking and so you can accumulate rewards for your positive change.
但你可以得到这种声音强化噢 这很棒
But you get this sort of physical sound reinforcement that oh, that was good.
两种情况下研究者都发现它们有助于改变那些人们以为
And in both cases they’re finding that they’re helping people change behaviors that people
无法改变的行为
thought they couldn’t change.
这是个很好的例子没错 任何类型的技术都有局限
And so that’s a really great example of yes, there are limitations to technologies
但是仍然有很多的方法可以帮助人们达成他们的
of any kind but there’s also so many great ways it can help people with private and personal
个人目标
goals that they have.

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