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变色龙是纳米技术大师 – 译学馆
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变色龙是纳米技术大师

Chameleons Are Masters of Nanotechnology

Chameleons are a top-tier freaky pet
变色龙是最为怪异的动物
that you just can’t help but be mesmerized by
你忍不住为之着迷
and their active color changing abilities
它们不断变换颜色的能力
are a picture perfect example of chemistry going hand in hand with evolution.
是化学与进化携手并进的杰作
Believe it or not,these oddball reptiles
信不信由你 实际上这些奇怪的爬行动物
are actually working with a different chemical toolbox
使用着与头足动物
than cephalopods and their other color-changing counterparts.
和其他改变颜色的动物截然不同的工具箱
Today we’re looking how they work their magic,
如今 我们正探索它们如何用自己的魔法
and how it’s inspired scientists to invent up-and-coming technologies!
以及如何启迪科学家发明大有用途的科技
One thing that really stands out about chameleons
有关变色龙突出的一点便是
is that they always have this suspiciously chilled out look on their faces,
它们的表情总是非常冷静
but that’s not all when it comes to bizarre features.
但是它们拥有的奇怪特征征远不止如此
Their feet are zygodactylous, with three toes facing forward
它们长着对趾足 其中三个脚趾朝前
and two going the opposite direction.
两个脚趾朝后
They also have monocular vision,
它们还有单目视觉
so their eyes can move about and focus independently from one another!
因此双眼能独立转动 聚焦
If you’ve ever seen a chameleon eat,
如果你曾见过变色龙进食
then you also know about their amazing projectile tongues!
就能了解它们神奇的可弹射舌头
But the cream of the crop of their freaky features
但它们最令人注目的怪异特征
is going to have to be their psychedelic skin.
便是拥有最迷惑性的皮肤
Chameleons have the ability to actively change both their color and brightness,
变色龙能够自主改变颜色和亮度
While it’s often thought to be used for just camouflage.
人们通常认为这是它们伪装自己的方式
Scientists believe that there are two other fundamental uses,
科学家认为还有另外两个基本功能
the first being intra-specific interspecies communication,
其中一项即进行种间交流
and the second being a means for thermoregulation.
第二项即用以进行温度调节
Because chameleons are cold blooded,
由于变色龙是冷血动物
they need sunlight to heat themselves up to get their metabolism running.
因此它们借助阳光提高体温以促进新陈代谢
By controlling how bright or dark they are,
通过调节自身亮度
they can better regulate how much heat they take on.
它们能够更好的管理吸收的热量
And while their color changing
尽管它们在改变颜色方面
may not seem to stand out from cephalopods and others
与头足类和其他动物不无区别
they do have a chemical mechanism that sets them apart from the crowd.
但它们却拥有与其他种群不同的化学机制
Cephalopods and chameleons
头足类动物与变色龙
have color-changing cells called chromatophores
拥有名为色素细胞的变色细胞
that carry pigments inside of them that can be displayed at will.
该细胞使得它们能够随意变换体内的色素
However, there is a big difference between the two.
然而 这两类动物有很大区别
The chameleon’s version comes equipped with an advanced layer of nano-science.
变色龙拥有先进的纳米表层
This colorful little guy is known as a panther chameleon,
这种彩色的小家伙是豹纹变色龙
and its skin can exhibit a range of these specific colors
它的皮肤能显示出一些特定的颜色
Here’s where it gets interesting: only /these/ specific colors.
有趣的地方是色素细胞只能通过典型色素
can be displayed by the typical pigments release by chromatophores.
释放出这些特定的颜色
So where do they get those whites, blues, and greens?
那么白色 蓝色 绿色从何而来呢
From unique cells called iridophores.
从一种名为闪光细胞的独特细胞变化而来
Iridophores aren’t filled with pigments
闪光细胞中没有色素
but instead with tiny little structures of
相反它的内部有许多小的纳米晶体结构
nano-crystals that can produce iridescent blue light at their resting state.
这些结构能在变色龙休息时发出荧光蓝色
The chameleon can excite these crystals,
变色龙能够控制这些晶体
rearranging them into a different structure that changes
将它们重组为不同的结构
the wavelengths of light that they absorb and reflect.
从而改变它们吸收以及反射的光的波长
This turns them from blue to white.
进而将它们的颜色从蓝色变为白色
We’re not sure exactly how chameleons control their iridophores,
我们不能明确变色龙如何控制闪光细胞
but we suspect that they’re working with either neural or hormonal controls.
只能猜测它们是通过神经或荷尔蒙控制
And while some cephalopods are packing iridophores too,
尽管头足类动物也可带有闪光细胞
the chameleons are the ones that have truly mastered them.
但变色龙却能真正地控制它们
inside the panther chameleon’s skin
在豹纹变色龙的皮肤里
are several layers of different colored chromatophore
有好几层不同颜色的色素体
the top layers contains a mix of yellow xanthophores
最上层包含黄色的黄色素细胞
and red orange erythrophores
和红橘色的红色素细胞
The bottom layer has brown, melanin-bearing melanophores,
底层是棕色的 含有黑色素的黑色素团
mixed into the top layer of red and yellow chromatophores
混合到顶层的红色及黄色的色素团
for iridescent light generating iridophores
为闪光细胞生成彩色光
and in-between these two layers you find reflective iridophores.
并且你可以在上下两层之间找到反射闪光细胞
The chameleon changes its skin color
变色龙释放的色素改变皮肤颜色
by adjusting the pigments released by their chromatophores
通过调节色素团
and then takes things one step further
更进一步的是
by using those iridophores
通过使用这些闪光细胞
to change the way we perceive the chromatophore’s pigments
来改变我们感知色素细胞色素的方式
For example, the Panther Chameleon can produce a green color
例如 豹纹变色龙可以产生绿色
because those resting nanocrystals reflect blue light
因为那些静止的纳米晶体反射蓝光
So pair that with the yellow pigment up above
所以与上面的黄色色素配对
and your eyes perceive green.
你的眼睛就会感知到绿色
   Then when excited, the blue becomes white
然后 在兴奋时 蓝色变成白色
which will make the yellow xanthophores stand out more prominently.
这将使黄色的黄色素细胞更加突出
This use of nanocrystals is so ingenious
纳米晶体的这种使用是如此的巧妙
that it even inspired scientists in China
甚至激发了中国科学家
to come up with their own active camouflage nanotechnology!
提出他们自己的主动伪装纳米技术
Instead of of iridophores, these researchers created tiny gold nanoparticle domes
这些研究人员创造了代替闪光细胞的微小的黄金纳米颗粒圆顶
that they housed in cells filled with a silver ion loaded gel.
他们将这些圆顶置于充满载银离子凝胶的细胞中
By sending different charges through the gel
通过向凝胶中输送不同的电荷
silver ions will tack onto, or break off of the gold nano-domes
银离子会附着在凝胶上或从凝胶中断开
which changes the wavelengths of light they absorb and reflect.
使金纳米颗粒圆顶改变了它们吸收反射光的波长
The team attached this system to cameras
研究小组将这个系统安装在摄像机上
and can currently change the active color of the cells to red, green, and blue.
目前可将细胞的活性颜色改为红色 绿色 和蓝色
So what do you think? If this technology keeps advancing
你怎么看?如果这种技术不断发展
will we ever see active camouflage as advanced as the predators?
我们会看到和捕食者一样先进的动态伪装吗?
Let us know down in the comments.
请在评论中告诉我们
Before you go,we’d like to let you to check out America from scratch
结束前 我们想介绍一档叫《从零开始的美国》的节目
America from scratch is a new PBS digital studios series
《从零开始的美国》是美国公共广播公司新推出的系列数字电视节目
that asks what might be the US be like if it was founded today.
讲述的是如果美国今天成立 美国将是什么样子
its tell us some big questions.
它告诉我们一些大问题
Should 12 year olds be allowed to vote?
12岁的孩子应该被允许投票吗
What if they want to states?
如果他们想表达自己的观点呢?
Do we even need a president?
我们真的需要总统吗?
It’s like the best specifics class ever
这是最好的课程了
subscribe to American from scratch at the link in the description block
在描述块的链接中订阅《从零开始的美国》
Thanks
谢谢
Hit thumbs up and subscribe on the way out
请在离开的时候点赞并订阅
and we’ll see you again soon.
我们很快会再见

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视频概述

变色龙的怪异特征,尤其对纳米技术有出色运用

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfxApSZ5bCM

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