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宫颈癌预防及治疗

Cervical Cancer, HPV, and Pap Test, Animation

宫颈癌发生在
Cervical Cancer is
子宫下部的子宫颈
cancer of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus
即产道口处
that opens into the birth canal.
是全球女性癌症中最常见的
It is one of the most common types of cancer in women in worldwide,
也是最易预防的一种
but also one of the most preventable.
这要归功于巴氏试验
Thanks to early detection with Pap tests.
子宫颈主要由两种细胞构成
Cervix has two major cell types:
平鳞状细胞包覆在外围
flat squamous cells lining the outer part
柱状腺细胞覆盖于子宫颈管内部
and column shaped glandular cells covering the inside of the cervical canal.
这两种细胞都可能发生癌变
Both types can become cancerous.
鳞状细胞癌较为普遍
But squamous cell carcinomas are much more common.
癌变通常发生在两种细胞接壤处
Cancer usually starts in the zone where the two cell types meet
被称为转换带
known as the transformation zone.
几乎所有的宫颈癌
Virtually all Cervical Cancers are
都是由人类乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)引起的
caused by Human Papilloma Viruses or HPVs.
HPV有上百种类型
There are over a hundred different types of HPV.
其中有些是高危病毒
Some of which pose higher risks than others.
70%的宫颈癌由其中的两种引发
About 70 percent of all cases are caused by just two types:
HPV-16和HPV-18
HPV-16 and HPV-18.
HPV生产的两种蛋白质
Two proteins produced by HPV,
E6和E7
known as E6 and E7,
会干扰正常细胞
interfere with cell functions that normally prevent
防止细胞过度分裂的功能
excessive cell division.
这会导致细胞的增长不受控制
This causes the cells to grow in an uncontrolled manner.
HPV是种常见的性传播病毒
HPV is sexually transmitted and is very common.
但多数女性都能自体解决HPV感染
But in most women HPV infections resolved on their own,
不会因此患癌
and do not cause cancers.
可能增加HPV感染风险的因素
Factors that may increase the risk of persistent HPV infections
包括免疫系统差
include weakened immune system,
患有其他性病以及抽烟
other sexually transmitted diseases and smoking.
导致宫颈癌患病几率提高的还有
Chances of developing Cervical Cancer also increase
多次生育
with having many children
以及长期服用避孕药
and long term use of birth control pills.
宫颈癌早期通常没什么症状
Early stage Cervical Cancer generally produces no symptoms;
到中期会出现
advanced stage disease may cause
非正常 不规律的阴道出血
abnormal or irregular vaginal bleeding,
盆腔疼痛或阴道有异常分泌物
pelvic pain or unusual vaginal discharge.
早期检测是预防宫颈癌的关键
Early detection is the key to prevent Cervical Cancer.
宫颈癌筛查包括单一的巴氏试验
Cervical Cancer Screening may include Pap tests alone
或结合HPV的DNA检测的试验
or in combination with HPV DNA tests.
巴氏试验是从子宫颈处刮些细胞
In a Pap test, cells are scraped from the cervix
检查癌前病变
and examined for precancerous changes,
是否出现宫颈上皮内瘤样病变
known as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia,
或宫颈非典型增生
or Cervical Dysplasia.
这些形态变化造成的危害或大或小
These morphological changes can range from mild to severe
如果检查结果异常
if the results are abnormal
需要在六个月或一年后重新检查
the test is repeated again after six months or a year
来观察情况
to monitor the condition.
可能还需要其他的检查诊断
Additional diagnostic tests may also be performed.
通常携带少量异常细胞 机体会自行处理
In most cases, mild dysplasia resolves on its own
只需做个巴氏试验复查
and a follow-up Pap test is all that is required to confirm.
少数情况下
In a small number of cases,
这些异常细胞会产生癌变
these abnormal cells may develop into cancer
但这往往需要几年的时间
but they usually take years to do so
所以只要早日检查就有充足的治疗时间
which allows plenty of time for treatment when detected early.
在美国 医生建议
in the u.s., a Pap test is
年龄在21周岁以上的女性每三年做一次巴氏试验
recommended every three years from the age of 21
或者结合HPV检查每五年做一次
or every five years if combined with an HPV test.
针对宫颈癌可选的治疗方案包括
Treatment options for Cervical Cancer include
手术 放射 化疗
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy,
或三者结合
or a combination of these.
早期宫颈癌的常用治疗方法是
Early stage cervical cancer is typically treated
手术切除子宫
with surgical removal of the uterus.
这能有效
This option is the most effective in
防止癌症复发
preventing cancer from coming back and
也是不需维持生育能力的患者的最佳方案
is usually preferred when patients do not need to maintain fertility.

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视频概述

宫颈癌是一种常见的女性癌症,利用现有的巴氏试验,做到早检查、早预防、早治疗,可以降低宫颈癌的发病率。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

A-DAN

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9m-EpupYkRg

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