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细胞vs病毒:健康之战 – 译学馆
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细胞vs病毒:健康之战

Cell vs. virus: A battle for health - Shannon Stiles

[音乐]
[music]
你正在杂货店排队
You’re in line at the grocery store
突然一个人冲你打了个喷嚏
when, uh oh, someone sneezes on you.
感冒病毒被你吸入肺部
The cold virus is sucked inside your lungs
附着在呼吸道细胞上
and lands on a cell on your airway lining.
地球上的生物都由细胞构成
Every living thing on Earth is made of cells,
小至单细胞细菌 大至蓝鲸 你也一样
from the smallest one-celled bacteria to the giant blue whale to you.
人体每个细胞的最外层都是细胞膜
Each cell in your body is surrounded by a cell membrane,
这是一层由脂质和蛋白质构成的柔软厚膜
a thick flexible layer made of fats and proteins,
它包围并保护细胞内容物
that surrounds and protects the inner components.
细胞膜是半渗透膜
It’s semipermeable, meaning that
能使某些物质进入或阻隔在胞外
it lets some thing pass in and out but blocks others.
膜上有许多受体
The cell membrane is covered with tiny projections.
它们都有功能 如介导细胞间的粘附
They all have functions, like helping cells adhere to their neighbors
或结合细胞需要的养分
or binding to nutrients the cell will need.
动植物细胞都有细胞膜
Animal and plant cells have cell membranes.
只有植物细胞有细胞壁
Only plant cells have a cell wall,
这是层致密的纤维素膜
which is made of rigid cellulose
负责维持细胞形态
that gives the plant structure.
经飞沫传播 潜入肺的病毒相当卑鄙
The virus cell that was sneezed into your lungs is sneaky.
它伪装成无害者
Pretending to be a friend,
由膜上受体介导
it attaches to a projection on the cell membrane,
穿过细胞膜进入细胞
and the cell brings it through the cell membrane and inside.
然后细胞发现
When the virus gets through,
病毒不该进来的 自己引狼入室了!
the cell recognizes its mistake. An enemy is inside!
对应的酶赶到 将病毒分解
Special enzymes arrive at the scene and chop the virus to pieces.
并将抗原呈递至细胞膜表面
They then send one of the pieces back through the cell membrane,
提示周围细胞入侵者的信息
where the cell displays it to warn neighboring cells about the invader.
附近的细胞收到信息立即行动
A nearby cell sees the warning and immediately goes into action.
制造抗体
It needs to make antibodies,
这是种能攻击并消灭病毒的蛋白质
proteins that will attack and kill the invading virus.
该过程始于细胞核
This process starts in the nucleus.
细胞核里有我们的DNA
The nucleus contains our DNA,
DNA作为蓝图 在其指导下
the blueprint that tells our cells
细胞产生维持机体运作所需的一切物质
how to make everything our bodies need to function.
DNA上特定的区域包含
A certain section of our DNA contains instructions
负责指导抗体生成的指令
that tell our cells how to make antibodies.
细胞核中的酶能结合相应DNA区域
Enzymes in the nucleus find the right section of DNA,
以这段DNA为模板转录形成信使RNA
then create a copy of these instructions, called messenger RNA.
mRNA离开胞核去执行自己的使命
The messenger RNA leaves the nucleus to carry out its orders.
它到达核糖体
The messenger RNA travels to a ribosome.
人类一个细胞里大概有1千万个核糖体
There can be as many as 10 million ribosomes in a human cell,
均镶嵌在名为内质网的网状管道系统中
all studded along a ribbon-like structure called the endoplasmic reticulum.
核糖体根据mRNA携带的指令
This ribosome reads the instructions from the nucleus.
将氨基酸依次串联
It takes amino acids and links them together one by one
形成抗体蛋白对抗病毒
creating an antibody protein that will go fight the virus.
它在离开细胞后
But before it can do that,
将负责抵御病毒
the antibody needs to leave the cell.
抗体进入高尔基体
The antibody heads to the golgi apparatus.
经其加工运输至胞外
Here, it’s packed up for delivery outside the cell.
抗体被与胞膜质地相同的囊泡包裹
Enclosed in a bubble made of the same material as the cell membrane,
在高尔基体的指引下
the golgi apparatus also gives the antibody directions,
到达细胞边缘
telling it how to get to the edge of the cell.
在此 包裹抗体的囊泡
When it gets there, the bubble surrounding the antibody
与胞膜融合 抗体被排出细胞
fuses to the cell membrane. The cell ejects the antibody,
去追踪病毒
and it heads out to track down the virus.
残余囊泡被细胞溶酶体分解后
The leftover bubble will be broken down by the cell’s lysosomes
循环利用
and its pieces recycled over and over again.
以上过程的能量哪里来的呢?
Where did the cell get the energy to do all this?
线粒体中的循环会产生能量
That’s the roll of the mitochondria.
人吸入氧气仅仅是因为
To make energy, the mitochondria takes oxygen,
线粒体需要氧气
this is the only reason we breathe it,
与食物中的电子反应生成水 以获得能量
and adds electrons from the food we eat to make water molecules.
这个过程还会生成高能分子ATP
That process also creates a high energy molecule called ATP
其能量均为细胞所用
which the cell uses to power all of its parts.
植物细胞产生能量的方式则不同
Plant cells make energy a different way.
它们有叶绿体 可以结合二氧化碳和水
They have chloroplasts that combine carbon dioxide and water
在光能作用下产生氧气和糖
with light energy from the sun to create oxygen and sugar,
生成的化学能
a form of chemical energy.
细胞各部分共同协作
All the parts of a cell have to work together
一切方能有条不紊
to keep things running smoothly,
机体各细胞齐心协力
and all the cells of your body have to work together
你才能健康生活
to keep you running smoothly.
这需要许多细胞参与
That’s a whole lot of cells.
科学家认为大概需要37万亿个细胞参与此过程
Scientists think there are about 37 trillion of them.
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视频概述

当别人冲你打了一个含有病毒的喷嚏……机体如何抵御这不速之客?这是一个简短的小科普。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

郑丹翎

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oqGuJhOeMek

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