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猫的社交能力怎么样? – 译学馆
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猫的社交能力怎么样?

Cats rival dogs on many tests of social smarts. But is anyone brave enough to study them?

我家里有两只猫
I have two cats at home.
除了它们捣蛋的时候 大多时候都很棒
They’re mostly wonderful, except for when they’re terrible.
我想大多数的猫主人都知道他们的猫
I think most cat owners know that their cats
聪明并且富有感情
are smart and affectionate
我们的猫贾斯帕 当我和它在外面的时候
our cat Jasper, when I’m outside with him,
它会一会儿看看我 一会儿看看墙
he’ll look at me, he’ll look at the wall,
一会儿又回头看我 如果我弯腰
he’ll look back at me, and if I bend over,
它就跳上我的背再跳到墙上
he jumps on my back and he jumps on the wall.
所以 这有点复杂
And so there’s this complex —
尽管它不能和我说话 但我很清楚它的意思
Even though he can’t talk to me, it’s very clear to me what he wants.
并且它也非常清楚怎么和我表达
And it’s very clear to him how to communicate
它想从我这得到什么东西
what he wants with me.
我是David Grimm
I’m David Grimm.
我是《科学》杂志的线上新闻编辑
I’m the online news editor at Science.
很长一段时间科学家都没有研究出
So for a long time scientists did not study
猫狗的学习过程
cats and dogs when it came to studying,
我们所说的社交认知能力
what we call, social cognition.
这是研究猫和狗
This is the idea of studying how cats and dogs
及其他动物如何与人共处的观念
and other animals relate to us as human beings.
有一种观念是我们所做的每一次驯化
there was this idea that everything we’ve done over domestication
都某种程度上建立了这种模糊的信号
had sort of created this kind of fuzzy signal Whereas,
如果研究过黑猩猩或乌鸦的大脑
if you studied the mind of a chimpanzee or a crow,
你将得到更单纯的反应 因为它们是
you’re getting a purer signal, because this is
完全没有被饲养过或者挑选过
an animal that has not been bred or selected
和人类一起生活过的动物
to live with people in any way Now,
1998年这个观念被扭转
that all changed in 1998,
当时 两个独立实验机构展示了
when two independent labs showed that dogs
当我们指着某个物体时 狗可以明白我们的意图
could understand what we mean when we point at an object.
如果你指着一个物体
So if you point at an object… even a toddler
甚至是幼儿也能明白“看那个”
understands”Look at that thing.”
当我们对黑猩猩这样做时 它们根本不能明白
And when we do that with chimpanzees, they don’t understand that at all.
它们不知道我们在做什么
They have no idea what we’re doing.
但惊讶的是 1998年
But lo and behold in 1998,
一些实验室展示了 他们对狗这么做时
a couple of labs showed that when they did that with dogs,
狗看向了那个物体
dogs looked at the object.
这在业内的确是一个令人震惊的事
And this was really a shocker for the field.
目前 世界上有超过12个实验室
So today, there are more than a dozen labs
研究犬类认知能力
around the world that study canine cognition.
但关于猫的研究却寥寥无几
And yet, there’s been almost nothing with cats.
研究者大多忽略了猫同时却花费很多精力
Researchers have largely ignored cats while they’ve been focusing a lot
关注狗
of energy on dogs.
科学家对研究猫避而远之的其中一个原因是
one of the reasons that scientists avoid studying cats,
它们很难共事
is that they’re very difficult to work with.
你带一只狗进研究室 通常情况下
You bring a dog into a laboratory, and for the most part,
这只狗想取悦你
this dog wants to please you.
所以带它们去做实验不是什么难事
So taking them to a lab is not a big deal.
狗非常容易相处
It’s pretty easy to work with dogs.
猫就不是这样了
Cats are another story.
大多数的猫天天被养在家里
A lot of cats are just kept in the home
所以 带它们去
all the time, so taking them them to a
一个新的环境对它们来说非常恐怖
new environment is very scary for them.
2005年的研究显示
There was this study in 2005 that’s showing
猫可以做人类的指令
cats can do human pointing, but even
但即使在这个研究里
in that study
很多猫中途退出了说明它们基本上不会合作
a lot of the cats dropped out of the study, which meant, they basically wouldn’t cooperate.
它们甚至离开了房间
They either just left the room,
大部分情况是许多猫踱着步子
A lot of them just sort of walked
离开了测试点
away from the testing site for the most part,
在一些努力之后
cats after a few trials,
猫完成了实验 它们做到了
they’ve had it, they’re done.
这些问题让研究很难进行
all of these problems made it very difficult to do these studies,
这也是为什么2005年首次
which is why even when this first study came
发表研究时 没有人能真正进行跟踪研究
out in 2005, nobody really followed up on it,
包括实际做了这些工作的实验室
including the lab that actually did the work.
直到五六年前
And it wasn’t until about five or six years ago
才开始有所好转
that we’ve started to see this uptick again
人们开始再次考察猫的社交认知方面
in people starting to look at cats again in terms of social cognition.
俄勒冈州立大学有世界上最大的猫咪实验室
Oregon State University They’re one of the big cat labs in the world,
他们做的其中一项就是
and one of the things that they’re doing is really
研究猫和人类的社交联络 他们称其中一项为依附测试
studying this social connection that cats have with people One of the tests they do is called an attachment test.
内容基本是
And basically what this involves is,
主人和猫进到一个房间
the owner and the cat will go into a room,
这时猫有点恐慌 因为它们不知道
so the cat’s kind of a little freaked out because they’re
在这个房间里将会发生什么
in this room and they don’t know what’s going on.
当然主人也在 但并没什么用
And yes, their owner’s there, but whatever.
这时主人离开 猫咪很惊恐
And then the owner leaves, and then the cat’s really freaked out,
并且将会开始不停喵喵叫
right And the cats will tend to meow
如果它们非常惊慌的话
a lot, and maybe turn and… Maybe go in circles,
可能会兜圈子
almost if they’re kind of panicking.
这时主人回到房间里 坐到地上
And then the owner comes back into the room sits down on
猫咪大多会跑回主人身边
the ground, and often the cat will come running back to
这时会发生一些有趣的事
the owner, And then something very interesting happens, All of
它们会突然的离开主人
a sudden they will leave the owner,
开始探索房间 在角落里嗅
and they will start exploring the room So they’ll sniff out the corners.
如果地板上有玩具 它们会玩玩具
Maybe there’s a toy on the floor, they’ll play with the toy.
普通人看完都会得出结论 “嗯 很明显
And the average person would look at and go, “ Well, clearly,
猫不关心它们的主人
the cat doesn’t care about their owner.
如果主人在 所有的猫想做的是
Their owner’s there and all the cat wants
探索房间”
to do is explore the room.”
但事实上情况相反
But it’s actually the opposite that’s true.
猫如此依赖它们的主人 以至于它们
the cat has such a close bond with their owner
做出“好了 我主人在这
that they go, “ Okay, now my owner
我现在可以自由的做
is here, So now I’m free to do what
身为猫喜欢做的
I like to do as a cat, which is
玩耍和探索了”
kind of go out and explore.”
他们也做了一个由意大利团队首创的测试
They also do this test, which an Italian group pioneered basically,
再次包括
what it involves is again, the cat and
猫和主人在一个白色的实验房间内
the owner are in this white lab room.
研究人员放入
And the researchers bring in this object,
附有一些彩带的电风扇
it’s a fan with these streamers attached to it.
当研究人员打开开关
And then the researchers would turn the fanon.
当然 电风扇吹动起来会有大量噪音
So of course, this fan’s blowing, it’s making a lot of noise.
猫很明显对此会非常惊慌
And cats will get, obviously, pretty freaked out about that.
主人要做的是按指示去称赞电风扇
And then what the owner does is, the owner is instructed to make nice with the fan,
“多么好的电风扇呀 多可爱的电风扇呀”
“What a nice fan, what a lovely fan.”
“你想要试试电风扇吗
“Do you wanna meet the fan?
你想碰一碰电风扇吗
Do you wanna touch the fan?
你想了解一下电风扇吗”
Do you wanna get to know the fan?”
有时 主人会起身触碰电风扇
And sometimes, the owner will actually go up and touch the fan.
令人惊讶的是 一些猫咪会立刻
And what’s really surprising, some cats will all of a sudden,
冷静下来
they kinda calm down,
当主人触碰电风扇的时候 它们也会去触碰
they’ll approach the fan when the owner approaches the fan.
我甚至在一种情况里看到
And I even saw in one situation where a cat went
猫咪径直走向电风扇
right up to the fan and just laid down right in
就躺在电风扇前 这值得注意
front of the fan, which is kind of a remarkable…
这个物体就在几分钟前
This is an object that just a couple of minutes ago
吓到它们
that was scaring the stuffing out of them.
但猫咪突然就对它很适应了
And all of a sudden they’re feeling comfortable now with it,
因为它们从主人那得到情绪提示 比如
because they picked up on these emotional cues from their owner, like, “Oh,
“哦 这不是我需要害怕的东西”
this isn’t something I should be afraidof.”
所以这些情况 比如跟随人类的视线
And so all of these things, like following human gaze,
理解我们的情绪状态
understanding our emotional states, show that cats,
都说明 猫能像狗一样能适应我们
very much like dogs, are very tuned into us,
这很有道理
which makes a lot of sense. Again,
我们探讨生物时
we’re talking about creatures
不仅基于生活的角度
that not only have to live in our homes,
还要预测到
but really have to anticipate, what do
我们这样做有什么意义
we mean when we do things?
我们对它们生气吗
Are we angry at them?
我们和它们一起开心吗 我们想让它们看一些东西吗
Are we happy with them Do we want them to look at something?
我们想让他们做什么事情吗
Do we want them to do something?
没有它们对这些事情的理解力 我们简直不可能
Without them understanding that, it’s really… Would be fairly impossible
拥有这种和其他动物的关系
for us to have the kind of relationship we have with these animals otherwise.
所以尽管看起来
So even though it looks like things
人们开始一起研究猫的认知能力了
are starting to come together for cat cognition,
我们在世界各地拥有一些实验室进行猫咪的研究
we’ve got a handful of labs around the world studying cats,
不断有论文发表 因此一个开放性问题是
we’ve got papers coming out, So one of the big open questions
这是否是运动的开端
is whether this is the beginning of a movement,
或者它是否仍值得成为科学探究的部分
or whether it’s gonna continue to be a very niche part of science
仅仅因为只有少数人
just because there’s only a few people
真的愿意和猫咪共事
out there that are actually willing to work with cats?
其中一些我们有兴趣探究的事情是
Some of the things they’re interested in looking at is,
“猫可以分辨事物吗”
“Can cats categorize things?”
我们知道狗在经过一些试误实际上可以做到
So we know that dogs can actually, after a little bit of trial and error,
分辨出它们看到的是一张风景照片
figure out if they’re being shown a picture of a landscape
还是另一只狗的照片
or a picture of another dog.
所以可能给它们看几张湖泊和山脉的照片
So you maybe show them a few pictures of lakes and mountains,
再给它们看其他狗的照片
and then you show them pictures of other dogs,
结果狗狗可以做到
And it turns out dogs can do that.
那么如果一个研究者想试试
And so now one researcheractually wants to try that
猫能不能分辨事物
with cats to see if cats can also categorize things.
我猜 没有结果
No pun intended, I guess.
因为猫以冷漠和反社会闻名
So cats have this reputation of being aloof and anti-social
甚至对比如像“猫什么都不会”以及其他事物表现的麻木不仁
and even dumb when it comes to things like, “Oh, cats can’t do tricks,” and all this other stuff.
但是这个研究说明不管是什么把戏
But what this research is showing is
无论狗狗能在进化过程中学会什么本领
that whatever tricks dogs able to pick up over the course of evolution,
猫也可以掌握很多这样的技能
cats also picked up a lot of those tricks.
只不过我们还没有花费足够的时间去寻找它们
It’s just that we haven’t spent enough time looking for them,
也没有找到正确的方式研究猫咪
and we haven’t find a great way to study cats
一旦我们做到了
And once we do,
可能我们会发现 猫咪的大脑很复杂
likely we’re gonna see that there’s a lot of complexity going on in the cat brain,
猫和人的关系也很复杂
and there’s a lot of complexity in the relationship between cats and people.
我们只需要做点研究去发现它们
We just need to do the studies to find that out.

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视频概述

一直以来,猫和狗的社交能力被误认为是人类过度驯化的结果,其实猫和狗一样可以本能理解人类行为,并做出反应。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Julianne

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvuxNR4iI1A

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