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为什么好的骇客可以塑造好公民 – 译学馆
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为什么好的骇客可以塑造好公民

Catherine Bracy: Why good hackers make good citizens

今天我要谈的是有关黑客的话题
I’m going to talk about hackers.
当我说到“黑客”这个词的时候
And the image that comes to your mind
你脑中所出现的画面可能不会是
when I say that word is probably not
本杰明·富兰克林
of Benjamin Franklin,
但我想要告诉你 为什么应该是富兰克林
but I’m going to explain to you why it should be.
你脑中出现的画面
The image that comes to your mind
估计是一个面色苍白的年轻人
is probably more likely of a pasty kid
在地下室里做坏事
sitting in a basement doing something mischievous,
他可能要盗用你的身份
or of a shady criminal who is trying to steal your identity,
或者进行有政治意图的
or of an international rogue
跨国诈骗
with a political agenda.
主流文化告诉我们
And mainstream culture has kind of fed this idea
黑客是我们应当害怕 并且远离的人群但是
that hackers are people that we should be afraid of.
在科技世界里的
But like most things in technology
大部分科技活动
and the technology world,
黑客制造福祉 和破坏的能力是等同的
hacking has equal power for good as it has for evil.
有个在试图盗用你身份的黑客
For every hacker that’s trying to steal your identity
同时就有一个黑客在创建
there’s one that’s building a tool
可以帮助你在灾难后寻找亲人的工具
that will help you find your loved ones after a disaster
或者在漏油事件后
or to monitor environmental quality
监控环境质量的工具
after an oil spill.
黑客行为真的只是一种对现有系统
Hacking is really just any amateur innovation
的业余创新行为
on an existing system,
并且是一种影响深远的民主活动
and it is a deeply democratic activity.
它与批判性思维有关
It’s about critical thinking.
它也与挑战现有的处事方式有关
It’s about questioning existing ways of doing things.
主要的意义是 当你发现问题 你不是仅仅在旁边抱怨
It’s the idea that if you see a problem, you work to fix it,
而是会找到方法去解决问题
and not just complain about it.
从某种程度上来说 黑客行为建立了美国
And in many ways, hacking is what built America.
贝琪·罗斯是一个黑客 (译者注:她设计并缝制了美国第一面国旗)
Betsy Ross was a hacker.
地铁的设计是一个绝妙的黑客发明
The Underground Railroad was a brilliant hack.
从怀特兄弟到史蒂夫·乔布斯
And from the Wright brothers to Steve Jobs,
黑客行为一直是美国
hacking has always been at the foundation
民主的基石
of American democracy.
所以今天 我想要告诉你们最重要的是
So if there’s one thing I want to leave you here with today,
下次当你们想黑客是什么样的时候
it’s that the next time you think about who a hacker is,
你不要想到这个家伙
you think not of this guy
而是这位先生 本杰明·富兰克林
but of this guy, Benjamin Franklin,
他是史上最伟大的黑客
who was one of the greatest hackers of all time.
他是美国最多产的发明家之一
He was one of America’s most prolific inventors,
尽管他不曾有一个专利
though he famously never filed a patent,
因为他认为
because he thought that all human knowledge
人类的知识发明
should be freely available.
应免费共享他发明了双光眼镜和避雷针当然
He brought us bifocals and the lightning rod,
他还协助建立了
and of course there was his collaboration
美国民主制度
on the invention of American democracy.
我所在的机构“为美国编程”( code for america)
And in Code For America, we really try to embody
就尝试去实践本杰明 · 富兰克林的精神
the spirit of Ben Franklin.
他是一位多面手和政治家他认为
He was a tinkerer and a statesman
作为公民
whose conception of citizenship
需要将公民的想法付诸行动
was always predicated on action.
他认为政府可以
He believed that government could be built
由人民建立
by the people,
我们称呼这些人为公民黑客
and we call those people civic hackers.
所以不足为奇的是
So it’s no wonder that the values
支撑起健康的民主机制的价值基石
that underly a healthy democracy,
像协作和赋予权力、
like collaboration and empowerment
参与和创业精神
and participation and enterprise,
和互联网的价值基石是同样的
are the same values that underly the Internet.
所以不令人意外的是
And so it’s no surprise that many hackers
很多骇客把注意力转向政府的问题
are turning their attention to the problem of government.
但在我给你举几个例子
But before I give you a few examples
告诉你什么是公民黑客之前
of what civic hacking looks like,
我想要清楚地告诉你
I want to make clear that you don’t have
你不需要先成为一名程序员才能做公民黑客
to be a programmer to be a civic hacker.
你只需要相信
You just have to believe that you can bring
你可以用 21 世纪的现代工具来解决
a 21st-century tool set to bear
政府面临着的问题
on the problems that government faces.
我们时常发现
And we hear all the time from our community
我们“为美国编程”社群的公民黑客
of civic hackers at Code for America
并不懂到底有多少非技术性工作
that they didn’t understand how much nontechnical work
进入民间黑客项目因此
actually went into civic hacking projects.
请记住
So keep that in mind.
你们都有可能成为公民黑客
All of you are potential civic hackers.
公民黑客是怎样的呢?
So what does civic hacking look like?
我们团队去年在檀香山
Our team last year in Honolulu,
这三位都是全职雇员
which in this case was three full-time fellows
他们正在担任为期一年的公职
who were doing a year of public service,
工作是按市政府的要求重建网站
were asked by the city to rebuild the website.
它是成千上万页面的大规模工作这工作
And it’s a massive thing of tens of thousands of pages
在他们仅有的几个月时间内
which just wasn’t going to be possible
是不可能完成的所以
in the few months that they had.
他们决定建立一个平行的网站
So instead, they decided to build a parallel site
更好地符合公民实际上
that better conformed to how citizens actually
想要从城市网站上 汲取信息的需求
want to interact with information on a city website.
他们在寻找答案
They’re looking for answers to questions,
他们想要在网站做好的时候人们可以有实际的行动
and they want to take action when they’re done,
从这样的一个网站
which is really hard to do from a site
真的很难
that looks like this.
随后我们的团队搭建了“檀香山答案”
So our team built Honolulu Answers,
它是一个超简单的搜索界面
which is a super-simple search interface
你只需要输入搜索词或一个问题
where you enter a search term or a question
就可以得到用平实语言写成的答案
and get back plain language answers
这驱使用户继续使用
that drive a user towards action.
网站本身是容易建成的
Now the site itself was easy enough to build,
但团队面临的挑战是
but the team was faced with the challenge
他们如何填充所有内容
of how they populate all of the content.
这将会占用他们三个人
It would have taken the three of them
很长的时间
a very long time,
特别是在他们都不是 檀香山本地人的情况下
especially given that none of them are actually from Honolulu.
所以他们做了一件真的很前卫的事
And so they did something that’s really radical,
之所以这么讲
when you think about how government
是因为要他们颠覆了人们关于政府该如何运作的想象
is used to working.
他们要求公民自己书写内容
They asked citizens to write the content.
你应该听说过“编程马拉松” (hack-a-thon)
So you’ve heard of a hack-a-thon.
他们举行了“书写马拉松” (write-a-thon)
They held a write-a-thon,
在某个星期六的下午
where on one Saturday afternoon —
–(“野猪被人讨厌要怎么办?”)(笑声)–
(“What do I do about wild pigs being a nuisance?”) (Laughter) —
在檀香山 野猪显然是个大问题
Wild pigs are a huge problem in Honolulu, apparently.
在星期六的下午
In one Saturday afternoon,
他们能够书写填充大部分内容
they were able to populate most of the content
以解答大多数的常见问题
for most of the frequently asked questions,
但比这更重要的是
but more importantly than that,
他们创造了公民参与政府互动的新途径
they created a new way for citizens to participate in their government.
我觉得这本身就是一个很酷的故事
Now, I think this is a really cool story in and of itself,
它变得越来越棒
but it gets more awesome.
今年的公民黑客日
On the National Day of Civic Hacking
在六月时 在我居住的奥克兰举办
this past June in Oakland, where I live,
“为美国编程”团队在奥克兰
the Code For America team in Oakland
采取了开放“檀香山答案”源码的代码
took the open source code base of Honolulu Answers
并把它变成了“奥克兰答案”
and turned it into Oakland Answers,
于是我们再次举行“书写马拉松”
and again we held a write-a-thon
我们收集了最常见的问题
where we took the most frequently asked questions
并号召市民做出解答
and had citizens write the answers to them,
随后我开始行动
and I got into the act.
我和其他几个人创作了这个答案
I authored this answer, and a few others.
这一天我试图感觉到
And I’m trying to this day to articulate
我对所生活居住的城市
the sense of empowerment and responsibility
有被赋予权力和责任的滋味
that I feel for the place that I live
这样的感受只是基于 参与活动这件这小小的举动
based simply on this small act of participation.
把我的小小行动和
And by stitching together my small act
成千上万人参与的 小小行动加在一起
with the thousands of other small acts of participation
我们就有能力通过公民黑客行为
that we’re enabling through civic hacking,
重振公民权利
we think we can reenergize citizenship
并且恢复对政府的信任此时
and restore trust in government.
你可能会想
At this point, you may be wondering
市政公务人员会如何看待这一切
what city officials think of all this.
他们很喜欢
They actually love it.
你们中大部分人知道
As most of you guys know, cities are being asked
人们每天期待着 城市能花小钱办大事
every day to do more with less,
他们一直在寻找 创新的解决方案
and they’re always looking for innovative solutions
来处理这根深蒂固的问题所以
to entrenched problems.
当你给予公民参与的路径
So when you give citizens a way to participate
除了出席市政厅会议以外的路径
beyond attending a town hall meeting,
城市实际上可以汲取
cities can actually capture
居住在这里的社群的能力
the capacity in their communities
来为政府出谋划策
to do the business of government.
我不想留下这样的印象
Now I don’t want to leave the impression
公民黑客只是美国才会出现的现象
that civic hacking is just an American phenomenon.
在全球其他地区也在发生着
It’s happening across the globe,
我最喜欢的例子之一
and one of my favorite examples
是墨西哥城
is from Mexico City, where earlier this year,
今年年初墨西哥众议院的代表
the Mexico House of Representatives
与一个软件开发公司签订了合同
entered into a contract with a software development firm
要建立一个应用程序
to build an app that legislators would use
使议员能够用来跟进条例草案
to track bills.
这只是为少数几个
So this was just for the handful of legislators
在众议院的议员
in the House.
合同为期两年数额为
And the contract was a two-year contract
930
for 9.3 million dollars.
万美金很多人都对这件事表示很生气
Now a lot of people were really angry about this,
特别是程序员们知道
especially geeks who knew that 9.3 million dollars
要写这样一个非常简单的应用程序930
was an absolutely outrageous amount of money
万绝对是夸张到令人愤慨的高昂报价
for what was a very simple app.
但他们没有走上街头抗议
But instead of taking to the streets,
而是发出了挑战
they issued a challenge.
他们要求在墨西哥的程序员们
They asked programmers in Mexico
创建出更好且更便宜的程序
to build something better and cheaper,
他们提供的奖金是 9300 美元
and they offered a prize of 9,300 dollars —
–比政府合同
10,000 times cheaper
便宜一万倍
than the government contract,
他们给参赛者 10
and they gave the entrants 10 days.
天时间在那十天里
And in those 10 days,
参赛者共提交了 173
they submitted 173 apps,
个应用程序其中五个被筛选出来送往议会
five of which were presented to Congress
目前仍然能够在苹果在线商店看到它们
and are still in the app store today.
因为这一行动
And because of this action,
该合同被撤销了
that contract was vacated,
在墨西哥城 现在 这行动引发了一场运动
and now this has sparked a movement in Mexico City
这是我们另一个伙伴的故事
which is home to one of our partners,
“为墨西哥城编程”
Code for Mexico City.
你在这三个地方可以看到的是
And so what you see in all three of these places,
它们是檀香山 奥克兰和墨西哥城
in Honolulu and in Oakland and in Mexico City,
公民黑客核心要素的组成部分
are the elements that are at the core of civic hacking.
公民看到可改进的地方
It’s citizens who saw things that could be working better
于是决定要修复它们
and they decided to fix them,
通过这项工作 他们正在创建
and through that work, they’re creating
参与政务的 21 世纪生态系统
a 21st-century ecosystem of participation.
他们正在创建一套全新的方法
They’re creating a whole new set of ways
让公民参与
for citizens to be involved,
除了投票、签署请愿书 或抗议之外的政治参与行动实际上
besides voting or signing a petition or protesting.
他们可以建立政府
They can actually build government.
所以回到我们的朋友 本杰明·富兰克林
So back to our friend Ben Franklin,
他不那么鲜为人知的成就之一就是于
who, one of his lesser-known accomplishments
1736 年 他在费城创立了
was that in 1736 he founded
第一个志愿性的消防公司
the first volunteer firefighting company in Philadelphia,
叫作“消防小分队
called a brigade.
“这是因为他和他的朋友们注意到
And it’s because he and his friends noticed
城市所遇到的麻烦
that the city was having trouble keeping up
通常与在城市内着火有关
with all the fires that were happening in the city,
正是因为他们有公民黑客的潜质才能这样做
so in true civic hacker fashion,
他们建立了一个解决方案
they built a solution.
我们在“为美国编程” 组织内也有自己的旅
And we have our own brigades at Code for America
从事我刚才所描述的工作
working on the projects that I’ve just described,
我们希望你
and we want to ask you
能够跟随本杰明·富兰克林的脚步
to follow in Ben Franklin’s footsteps
来加入我们
and come join us.
我们在美国有 31
We have 31 brigades in the U.S.
个旅今天我们很高兴地宣布
We are pleased to announce today
我们的“小分队”要向国际城市开放
that we’re opening up the brigade to international cities
这是第一次发生的事
for the first time,
我们开始与波兰、日本 还有爱尔兰等城市合作 你可以在 brigade
starting with cities in Poland and Japan and Ireland.
.codeforamerica.org
You can find out if there’s a brigade where you live
这网页找出在你居住的地方是否有一个旅
at brigade.codeforamerica.org,
如果你居住的地方没有旅 我们将帮助你
and if there’s not a brigade where you live, we will help you.
我们已经创建了一个工具包
We’ve created a tool kit which also lives
也可以在brigade.codeforamerica.org
at brigade.codeforamerica.org,
这网站上找到 我们会支持你一路向前
and we will support you along the way.
我们的目标是创建 一个公民黑客的全球网络
Our goal is to create a global network of civic hackers
其中聚合所有试图 在现有系统上做出创新的人
who are innovating on the existing system
为了生成能够解决
in order to build tools that will solve
根深蒂固的问题的工具
entrenched problems,
能够用于帮助地方政府
that will support local government,
能够用于提高公民被赋予的力量
and that will empower citizens.
所以请来和我们一起当黑客
So please come hack with us.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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