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浅谈保持健康 – 译学馆
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浅谈保持健康

Casually Explained: Being Healthy

Well, it’s pretty common knowledge that certain foods are healthy,
众所周知 有些食物有利于健康
and others aren’t so much
有些则没那么健康
it’s pretty rare that you ever get an explanation as to why.
但几乎没人能说出这是为什么
And one thing that bothers me quite a bit is
另外 还有件很令人头疼的事
when someone says to eat something because:
当人们劝你吃某种食物的时候 他们会说因为
“It’s good for you!” or”It’s a superfood!”
它对你有好处!或者 这是超级食物!
And almost universally,
但是在绝大多数情况下
what was that really translation is it grows in nature
这话其实是说它是天然食品
Ironically, half the time,
讽刺的是 这个理论也不尽然
it only grows in nature because
恰恰是经过了人类数千年的选择育种
we’ve selectively bred it over thousands of years to be that way.
它们才得以自然生长
And when half of our leading source of nutrition advice
如今我们的一些营养建议
is Pinterest recipes
来自于拼趣食谱
a lot of what we consider”common knowledge” is actually completely made up.
我们眼中的许多“常识”事实上都是编造出来的
As an example, one of the common terms you’ll see online
比如 网上常流传的关于健康食物的说法
with regards to healthy food is that something gets rid of toxins
有些食物可以帮助我们排出身体里的毒素
in your body, which really doesn’t make any sense.
其实这完全没有任何道理
“If your body is filled with toxins and certain foods, remove them,”
要是你体内有毒素 某种食物就能帮你排出的话
then that means”We could’ve brought back Steve Irwin with a blueberry smoothie.”
那一杯蓝莓汁就能救回史蒂夫•欧文了
In reality, almost all supplements or foods that get rid
事实上 几乎所有声称有排毒功效的补品或食物
of toxins are really just laxatives or diuretics.
都只是通便药或利尿剂而已
So it makes you feel like they’re somehow flushing something away,
所以你会感觉它们以某种方式帮你排出了些东西
when in reality, you could have just put three
实际上,你可以像普通人那样
shots of vodka in your latte like a regular person.
往拿铁里加点伏特加就行了
The next thing you’ll often run into are
还有个经常看到的说法就是
online recipes for anything made overnight with a mason jar,
有些网上食谱建议可以用梅森罐装任何东西 做成隔夜食物
telling you’re not getting enough antioxidants.
这些食谱声称人们缺乏抗氧化物
And one of the ways you can tell if you’re not getting antioxidants is by looking at your
而判断方法之一就是看你的皮肤
skin and seeing if it’s starting to rust.
看颜色是否开始变成铁锈色
And while they do play a role in your body,
当然 你的身体的确需要抗氧化物
the problem with suggesting that you should consume more
但我建议你再好好想一想这个说法
is that it’s fundamentally like saying
其存在的问题本质上等同于这句话:
“The more oil you have in your car,
“给车加越多的油
the less likely it is to break down.”
车越不容易出故障”
Which is not true, because too much actually makes things worse.
这是错的 因为物极必反
The good news is that
不过有个好消息
you do have too much oil in your car
你车里的油的确太多了
you can add the excess to your overnight oats,
可以把多出的加到隔夜燕麦里
because motor oil is also high in antioxidants.
因为机油也富含抗氧化物
Another common idea that’s recently started to shift is that
另一个近期才开始转变的观念是
you should never skip breakfast, which there is absolutely no scientific basis
人必须吃早饭 这完全没有科学依据
for except that breakfast food is my favorite.
除非是我爱吃的我才会吃
I think the funny thing is that
我觉得有趣的地方在于
when I used to tell people I skipped breakfast,
以前当我说我不吃早饭时
they thought I was crazy,but now I can say
别人会认为我疯了 但现在我会说
I’m doing intermittent fasting
我在进行间歇性断食
And they’re like:”Oh, very disciplined.”
然后他们就会说 哇你真自律
When in reality, I just woke up at noon.
事实上 我只是睡到中午才醒
Relatedly,the next thing that’s often incredibly misunderstood is diet.
与此相关 另一个往往被误解的问题就是节食
Especially with things like paleo, keto, intermittent fasting,
特别是原始人饮食 生酮饮食 间歇性断食
and varying degrees of vegetarianism becoming so popular.
以及不同程度的素食主义都流行开来
We’ve all heard limitless jokes about:
我们都听过很夸张的笑话 比如
“How do you know if someone is a vegan;
“如何知道某人是否是素食主义者
because they’ll tell you. Hahaha, classic comedy!”
他自己会告诉你的 哈哈哈经典笑话!”
That’s not even the case anymore.
这甚至已经不再是玩笑了
I see way more people on low-carb ketogenic diets
我看到过很多低碳水生酮饮食的人
post things on the internet like:
在网上晒图
“Look at this fool I saw today,
配文“我今天碰到一个傻子
eating an apple like an absolute normie,”
像个麻瓜似的在啃苹果”
as they show their Costco haul of pork rinds and butter.
再秀一下在Costco买的一堆猪皮和黄油
The most important thing to know is
最重要的是
that generally speaking:
要知道 一般来说
Weight is regulated by calorie intake,
体重受我们摄入的卡路里调控
so you have a certain amount of calories you burn in a day
你一天需要消耗一定量的卡路里
and if you repeatedly intake more than that, you’ll gain weight,
如果摄入大于消耗 你就会发胖
and if you intake less of that, you’ll lose weight.
如果低于消耗 你就会变轻
As a quick disclaimer,
简单说明下
the exact amount of calories absorbed from food isn’t always 100%
我们不可能百分百吸收食物中的热量
which is why some people claimcalories in, calories out isn’t true,
这就是为什么有人认为卡路里的摄入与消耗的说法并不准确
But being more exact,
更准确来说
calories metabolized and absorbed minus calories burned always is true.
是代谢吸收量减去消耗量
Now for the average person, the amount of calories burned
对于普通人来说 每天总共消耗的卡路里
is around 2000 – 2500 calories a day,
大约在2000大卡到2500大卡
then the generally accepted rule is that there is 3500
目前公认每磅体脂
calories in a pound of body fat.
约含3500大卡
So say you wanted to get thick because it’s 2019,
因此假如在2019年你想变壮些
you would have to eat roughly 500 calories
你大概需要每天摄入超过日常所需
above your daily maintenance for 71 days to gain 10 pounds.
500大卡 坚持71天 就能增重10磅
Then if we look at the composition of food itself,
接着我们来看一下食物的组成成分
all food is made up of three primary macronutrients
食物主要由三大营养素构成
that serve a different bodily function,
它们负责人体中不同的生理功能
and each has a different calorie value:
每种营养素有不同的热值
We have fat, which has 9 calories per gram.
脂肪 每克9大卡
Protine,which has 4 calories per gram.
蛋白质 每克4大卡
And carbohydrates which have 4 calories per gram as well.
还有糖类也是每克4大卡
And then there’s a fourth bonus macronutrient: alcohol,
酒精是第四大常量营养素
which has 7 calories per gram.
热值是每克7大卡
As for their physiological roles, loosely speaking:
至于它们的生理学作用 笼统来说
Fat regulates hormones and stops your cells from imploding.
脂质可以控制激素分泌 支撑细胞形态
Protein is for bodily function and muscular regeneration.
蛋白质负责机体功能和肌肉再生
Carbohydrates are primarily for aerobic and anaerobic activity.
糖类主要用于有氧和无氧活动
And then alcohol, which sadly just poisons you.
还有酒精 它只会让你中毒
The good news is that because too much alcohol is toxic,
不过有个好消息 因为过量的酒精是有毒的
if your friend is passed out in the club bathroom,
如果你朋友醉倒在俱乐部的洗手间里
you can flush out the alcohol by popping a blueberry
你可以在他舌头下塞颗蓝莓帮他排出酒精
under their tongue, just like a senzu bean.
功效就和森祖豆类似
Below that, we have fibre and micronutrients,
除此之外 我们还需纤维素和微量营养素
which are all your vitamins and minerals,
它们来源于维生素和矿物质
just make sure you get enough of these
要确保足够的纤维素和微量营养素摄入
or your teeth will fall out.
否则你的牙齿可能会脱落
Now, with these fundamentals in mind,
现在我们已明白这些原理
if we start to take a look at all the popular and successful diets out there nowdays
让我们重新审视当下盛行的这些饮食法
the fact of the matter is that almost all of them have good points
事实上 它们大部分既有些优点
but they also all have bad points.
也有弊端
Meaning you’re not an enlightened member of the nutritional Illuminati,
所以说 光靠再也不吃面包
just because you’ve stopped eating bread.
你恐怕不会成为营养光明会里的智者
If we take a look at all the most common diets
看看大部分人的日常饮食
that cover the full spectrum of plant-based to animal-based,
它们涵盖了植物来源和动物来源的食物
you can see they all have pros and cons.
你要明白 素食和肉食各有利弊
Veganism is sustainable and very nice to the animals,
素食主义是可持续的 同时也有利于保护动物
but it’s a bit hard to get the right macronutrients,
但难以补充人体常量营养素
and you constantly to wonder
并且你会时常怀疑
if your friends don’t want you for dinner
你的朋友们到底是因为你诸多的饮食限制
because of your dietary restrictions, or just your personality.
还是因为你的性格而不愿和你一起吃饭
Vegetarianism is sustainable and nice to the animals,
素食主义是可持续的 保护动物
but limited food choices
但是食物选择范围有限
Paleo diets are good for weight loss,
原始人饮食法有利于减轻体重
but again, limited food choice.
但同样 食物选择受限
Ketogenic diets, very good for weight loss because it massively
生酮饮食对于减重非常有帮助
regulates blood sugar, which affects cravings and appetite, but
因为它能显著调节血糖进而影响食欲
it’s extremely limited in terms of food choice.
但是它严重限制了食物选择
Not very good for anyone doing anaerobic sports because there
生酮饮食不适合做无氧运动的人
are no available carbohydrates, but it’s actually not bad
因为这种饮食糖类不足
if you run ultra, ultra, ultra marathons.
不过如果你要跑超级超级超级马拉松的话 这么吃也不错
So the next time you go for a hundred mile run,
所以 下次跑一百米时
make sure to bring your pepperoni holster.
你可以在腰上别个皮套来装意大利香肠
Carnivorous diets, these ones are a bit weird, and
至于肉食主义 这就有点难说了
they’re very unsustainable, but very good for weight loss and
它虽然对减重有帮助 但是很难以持续
autoimmune disorders / arthritis / certain types of depression.
还可能会造成免疫系统紊乱 关节炎 以及某些抑郁症
And while there have been some pretty miraculous anecdotes,
虽然一度流传过关于肉食主义的神奇传闻
the downside is that it has not been studied long term
它的缺点是没有经过长期研究证实
and everyone in the restaurant will think you’re a serial killer
而且 如果你在肯德基吃全家桶时剥掉面包糠
as you peel the breading off your KFC family bucket.
其他顾客可能会认为你是个连环杀手
For some reason the community is also really involved in cryptocurrency,
由于某些原因 营养光明会使用一种虚拟货币
so if anyone was actually in the nutritional luminati,
所以 如果有人真的在这个组织里
this would be it.
情况就会是这样的
And then finally the classic”If It Fits Your Macros”,
最后来看看经典理论 “机体宏指令适配”
which means eating whatever you want
意思就是想吃什么都可以
as long as if it fits within the designated calorie limit
只要限制在一定热量范围之内
and matches the amount of protein fat and carbohydrates you’ve allotted.
并且含有适当比例的蛋白质、脂肪和糖类
This is common for athletes and people who want to be bodybuilders,
运动员和健身人士早已习惯这样的饮食
but in the 7 years they’ve been going to the gym,
但是他们七年间坚持去健身房
they’ve only made 2 years worth of progress.
却只取得了两年的成效
我现在也很震惊 所以就不画讽刺的小漫画了
Speaking of the gym there are also a few misconceptions when it comes to exercise,
说到健身房 人们在锻炼方面也有些错误观念
and one of the most common jokes you hear
在举重区你会常常会
in weightlifting communities is making fun of people who say:
听到人们嘲笑那些说
“I’m just looking to tone.”
“我只想变得更健壮”的人
Because the only two variables to your physical appearance
因为决定你的体型的只有两个变量
is the volume of muscle you have, and
其中一个是你的肌肉量
the volume of fat you have.
另一个就是你的脂肪量
It’s also incredibly difficult to gain muscle,
而且 增肌的难度比你想象中大得多
so you’ll often hear girls and even guys say:
经常有女孩甚至小伙子们说
“You know, I’m worried that if I start lifting weights,
“你知道吗 我担心要是练举重
I’ll get too big.”
可能会长太多肌肉的”
And unfortunately, the thing is:
但是不幸的是 事实上
No matter how much you believe you’re an anime protagonist,
就算你以为自己是动漫主角
it just isn’t going to happen.
你也只是在杞人忧天罢了
Ultimately, there are two main ways of
根本来讲 促进身体健康的
improving your physical health through exercise,
锻炼形式主要分为两种
which are strength training, and cardiovascular training.
力量训练与心血管训练
In other words: How strong is your body,
换句话说 身体有多强壮
and how strong is your heart… And lungs.
你的心脏和肺就有多强壮
And even 30 minutes to an hour of walking a day
每天走30分钟到一小时
is enough to make sure everything keeps working,
就足以锻炼到全身
further training at the gym
在健身房里做更多锻炼
is not only a good idea, it’s a lifestyle.
不仅是个好主意 还是种生活方式
Where you can lift a heavy thing now,
你可以在健身房里练举重
so you can be in pain for a while,
然后肌肉会疼上一阵子
and then lift a slightly heavier thing later,
过段时间再稍稍增加重量
or ski on the elliptical until exhaustion
你还可以在椭圆机上踩到精疲力尽
so that once your heart eventually recovers,
当心跳最终恢复平稳时
you’ll have more love to give.
你会更爱这个世界

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视频概述

网络流行健康观念是否都对?真的有能排毒的食物吗?真的不能不吃早饭吗?流行的饮食方法是否完全正确?如何正确饮食维持身材?在健身房里如何锻炼?本文将为你一一揭晓。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

CLARA

审核员

审核员PH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uan3Aj0bHKc

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