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心肌病的动画演示

Cardiomyopathy, animation

心肌症是一种使心脏肌肉心肌层变弱的疾病症候
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that weaken the heart muscle – the myocardium,
使得心脏供血不足
making it harder for the heart to pump blood.
心肌病减少了血液输出 可能导致心脏衰竭
Cardiomyopathy reduces blood output, and maylead to heart failure.
这种病或许遗传自父母
The condition may be inherited from a parent,
或许是其他疾病或其他因素的并发症
or develop as a consequence of another disease or factor.
某些病人没有明显症状
Some patients do not experience any symptoms.
而症状显现时包括
When present, symptoms may include:
呼吸短促 疲劳 心跳加速 胸口痛
shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid heartbeats, chest pain,
下肢肿胀 眩晕或晕厥
swelling of lower limbs, dizziness andfainting.
心肌症的恶化进程因人而异
Progression of the disease varies greatlyfrom person to person.
某些患者的症状出现得很突然 并极速恶化
In some people, symptoms may appear suddenly, and worsen quickly;
而有些人在很长一段时间 恶化缓慢
while others see a gradual development over a long period of time.
心肌症主要有三种
There are 3 major types of cardiomyopathy: –
肥大型心肌病 也称HCM
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM,
就是心肌变厚
is the thickening of the heart muscle.
通常 肥大型心肌病发生在内心室隔膜 对着左心室
Most commonly, this occurs in the inter-ventricular septum facing the left ventricle.
隔膜变厚阻碍了血液流进主动脉
The thickened septum obstructs blood flow to the aorta,
这种现象称为“血液流通障碍”
a condition called “ outflow tract obstruction”
或者“阻碍性心肌肥厚”
or “obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy”.
心肌增厚会造成 非梗阻性肥大型心肌病
Thickening elsewhere in the heart muscle causesnon-obstructive HCM.
这两种情况都会造成心输出量减少
In both cases, cardiac output is reduced.
但是高血压和年龄的增长也可能导致肥大型心肌病
While HCM can develop as a result of high blood pressure or aging,
这种病大多数情况下
it is most commonly
都是显性遗传的
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait:
而患有肥大型心肌病的父母的孩子
children of an affected parent have a 50 %
有50%的几率患上这种病
chance of inheriting the disease.
编码心肌蛋白的基因有多个位点的突变
Multiple mutations have been identified in genes encoding for proteins of the heart muscle.
建议进行基因筛查 尽早诊断因为该疾病可能迅速恶化
Genetic screening is recommended as the disease may progress rapidly,
从无症状到心力衰竭和心脏骤停
from asymptomatic to heart failure and cardiac arrest.
事实上 肥大型心肌病是造成
In fact, HCM is the major cause
年轻运动员心脏猝死的主要原因
of sudden cardiac death among young athletes.
被诊断出有肥大型心肌病的人应该避免高强度的运动
People who test positive for HCM are advised to avoid high-intensity activities.
扩张型心肌病 也就是DCM
– Dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM,
是指心肌变薄和心室扩张的疾病
is the thinning of the myocardium and enlargement of a heart chamber,
经常发生在左心室
most commonly the left ventricle.
扩张型心肌病多数是后天形成的 并且病因不明
DCM is usually acquired and the cause is unknown in most cases.
高血压是高危因素
Risk factors include high blood pressure;
会对心肌造成损伤的原因有
damage to the myocardium caused by previous
心脏病 酒精 可卡因的使用 毒品和传染病
heart attacks, alcohol or cocaine use, toxins or infections;
还有肥胖和糖尿病
and obesity or diabetes.
扩张型心肌病可以发生在任何年龄段的任何人身上
While DCM may develop in anyone at any age,
但是在中年男人身上高发
it is more common in men of middle age.
有一些扩张型心肌病是遗传的
Some DCM cases are inherited.
限制型心肌病 即RCM
– Restrictive cardiomyopathy, RCM,
是指心肌变得僵硬
is when the heart muscle becomes rigid,
缺少注血和泵血的弹性
lacking the elasticity required to properly fill and pump blood.
限制型心肌病通常是由瘢痕组织或者异常蛋白引起的
RCM usually results from building-up of scar tissues or abnormal proteins,
由各种原因造成
caused by a variety of conditions.
限制型心肌病通常发生在老年人身上
RCM is more likely in older people.
不常见的心肌症包括 心律失常性右心室发育不良
Less common types of cardiomyopathy include:arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia,
右心室组织有疤痕导致心律失常的情况
a condition in which the right ventricle tissue is scarred, causing arrhythmias;
压力心肌病 心碎综合症等
and stress cardiomyopathy, or broken heart syndrome:
过度的情绪或身体压力
a sudden temporary weakening of the heart
引起的心脏肌肉突然暂时衰弱
muscle triggered by excessive emotional orphysical stress.
治疗方法因心肌症的种类
Treatment varies depending on the type of cardiomyopathy,
潜在原因和症状的严重程度不同而采取不同的治疗方法
the underlying cause and severity
包括改变生活方式
of symptoms, and can range from life style changes,
使用药物或者进行手术
to medications and surgeries.

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人生而复杂,心脏更是。而心肌病又是啥呢?看完小视频你就懂了。

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