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从慢动作看大炮的冲击波

Cannon Shock Waves in Ultra Slow Motion - Smarter Every Day 200

嘿 我是达斯汀
Hey, it’s me Destin.
欢迎回来 《机灵日》节目
Welcome back to Smarter Everyday.
今天我们来到田纳西州郊区
Today we’re in rural Tennessee
参观真正的大炮竞赛
for an actual artillery competition.
你可以从我后面这辆卡车看出
And if you learn anything from this truck that’s coming up behind me.
这次活动是很正式的
This is pretty legit.
有全国各地来的人
There’s dudes from all over the country
他们有真正的加农炮 我们今天要好好了解他们
that have actual cannons and we’re gonna learn about them today.
这家伙要撞到我了
Pretty sure this guy’s gonna hit me.
总之 我准备了两台高速镜头
Anyway, I’ve got two high speed cameras.
我们将了解各种加农炮
We’re gonna learn about cannons of all types.
让我们每天都变聪明一点吧
Let’s get smarter everyday.
[愉快的音乐]
(upbeat music)
《机灵日》
这是马特兄弟 这里是你的地盘 对吗?
Okay, this is Matt Brothers and this is your land, right?

That’s correct.
所以那些是你养的鸡?
And so those are your chickens over there?

It is.
它们对这一切怎么看?
What do they think about this?
呃 它们……
Well, they’re…
希望不会太受到惊吓 不过它们不会有事的
Hopefully won’t get too alarmed, but they’ll hopefully be alright.
所以我想知道
So the question is.
这活动是怎么开始的?
How does this happen?
-这片地是你的 -对
-You own this land.- Right
而你同意所有人来这炮击?
And you just let people come from all over to shoot?
嗯 对
Well, yes.
大概十年前
About 10 years ago
有位自己有加农炮的瓦匠 正好住在附近
a local roofer who has a cannon that lives around here.
他来这给我母亲盖了房子
He came and roofed my mother’s house.
他看到了这个农场
Saw the farm.
他认为这个地方是
Saw the potential
开展这类解压活动的安全场所
for being a wonderful place to cure, safe to have an activity like this.
所以他问能不能在这举办炮击比赛
So he asked if he could do it
而我很不情愿的说了好
and I reluctantly said yes.
我们尝试了一下
we’ll give it a try.
结果我发现他们很专业
I found out that they’re very professional,
他们组织这项活动很专业 一切都很安全
they did a wonderful job organizing it , keeping everything safe
这是一次很棒的经历
and just had a wonderful time
从此我们就开始举办这项活动了
and we’ve done it ever since.
这很棒啊
That’s awesome.
你曾经被活动中发生的任何事情惊吓到吗?
So have you ever been scared about anything happening on your land or anything?
不啊 我一直都很淡定
No, I’ve been vary comfortable.
当然 第一年我有点不放心
Again, the first year, I was a little skeptical.
因为我完全不知道他们在干嘛
Cause I had no clue what they were doing.
但他们展现了自己的能力
But once they showed me what they were capable of
成功办好了这场活动 我没问题了
and how they were able to manage it.No problem.
这太棒了
That’s awesome.
多亏你提供场地才有了这个活动
Well, thank you for doing this with your land, I appreciate it.
的确如此 达斯汀
You bet, Des.
有趣的是我们为这次拍摄准备了两台高速相机
The interesting thing about this shoot is there’s two high speed cameras.
除了我之前经常使用的超高速的V2511型相机外
The V2511, that I normally use, ultra high-speed
这次还有一台新相机
but there’s also the new camera,
是我从视觉研究所借来的V2640型
the V2640 that I borrowed from Vision Research.
这台摄像机的传感器芯片使它分辨率更高
It has a higher resolution chip on it, a sensor,
所以我们可以获得
so we’re gonna get a good trade off
兼具超高速和清晰度的图像
between ultra high-speed and beautiful imagery.
另一件有趣的事是
Another interesting thing is,
我需要跟那些打扮成美国内战时期的人
I get to explain those facts to people that are dressed
解释这些高速摄像机
like they’re in the civil war.
嗨 朋友们 我是达斯汀
Yeah, guys, my name is Destin.
这两台是国内最新的高速摄像机
We have the newest high-speed camera in the country here,
它们超棒的
actually, it’s awesome.
这是拍摄连续镜头最顶级的配置了
It’s literally the best footage you can get right now.
经过短暂的安全会议和祷告后
After a quick meeting about safety and a prayer,
终于要掀起炮火声了
it was time to roll out the thunder.
他们正把加农炮从车上卸下来 要动真格的了
You know it’s about to get real when you’re unloading the cannon.
[班卓琴音乐]
(banjo music)
好 开始了 这太棒了
Okay, here we go, this is awesome.
准备好了吗?
Are you ready?
三 二 一 开火!
three, two, one, fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[人们低语]
(man mumbles)
这太疯狂了
This is nuts.
这行为疯疯癫癫的
This is like stupid nuts.
这个太近了
That’s pretty close.
这活动既有灰白胡须的老家伙
Like all these, old gray-beard dudes,
也有年轻人参与
you’ve got the young guys doing the work,
拍到了一些高速镜头 太好了
you’ve got some high speed, it’s pretty rad.
[班卓琴音乐]
(banjo music)
哇哦!
Whoa.
看看这些未燃尽的火药
Look at all the unburnt powder!
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[人声]哇呼!
[Man] Whooo!
[人声]开火!
[Man] Fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[人们交谈]
(man talks)
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
就在那儿
Right there.
-哦哇 太厉害了-哦 快看那个
– Oh wow, it’s neat- Oh, look at that.
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[人们呢喃声]
(people mumbling)
[加农炮开火的慢镜头]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[人们欢呼鼓掌]
(people cheer and clap)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
三秒倒计时!
Three second interval!
听我的指令!
On my command!
开火!
Fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
一 二 三 开火!
Two three fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
一 二 三 开火!
One two three fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
一 二 三 开火!
One two three fire!
我应该能射中那边
I shoulda got over there.
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannons slowly fires)
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
又打到了左下角那个东西
It hit the bottom left one again.
开火!
Fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
七号炮 准备开火!
Gun number seven, prepare to fire!
开火!
Fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
继续
Keep going.
哇哦!
Whoa!
[笑]哇哦
(laughs) Wow,
真高兴我们提前避开了!
I’m glad we were clear!
真庆幸我们提前退开了
I’m really glad we were cleared back
大炮往后退了好长一段距离
cause that went a long ways!
退了差不多有20英尺!
That’s like 20 feet!
[男声咕哝]
(men grunt)
四号 开火!
Number 4, fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
这些视频让我太惊奇了
These videos are amazing to me.
这里有很多的力学原理
There’s a lot of mechanics going on
我非常想弄清楚
that my brain really likes to hone in on.
有两件特别的事我想跟你们说说
There’s two things in particular I want to focus on with you.
第一 炮筒底架本身
Number one, the gun carriage itself.
那个是木制结构
That’s the wooden structure,
包括轮子和大炮周围的所有东西
the wheels and all that stuff around the gun.
这些是孟诺教徒做的复制品
These are reproductions made by the Amish.
我有理由相信
But the people that originally designed these.
加农炮最初的设计者肯定想看到
I have to believe that they would love to watch
这个炮筒底架吸收反作用力时的慢动作
slow motion of that gun carriage absorbing the recoil of the cannon itself.
你看 我们现在是文明社会
I mean, here we are in the modern world,
我们只是因为感兴趣才看这些
we get to watch it just for fun.
但想想以前那些加农炮的设计者们
But back in the day, think about what the person that designed that
如果他们看到慢放的视频 他们会想什么
would be thinking about as they watched this in slow motion.
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
第二件 我特别关注视频拍到的冲击波
The second thing I want to look at, specifically on this video, are the shock waves.
观察冲击波有一个非常简单的办法
Now a really easy way to see the shock wave
就是看炮管之前的草坪
is just observing the grass out in front of the barrel.
如果你仔细看
If you look you can see
你可以看到球形冲击波在地面的传播
there’s this spherical wave-front that propagates over the ground
还有加农炮前的草是怎么运动的
and you can see how the grass behaves out in front of the cannon.
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
另一个观察冲击波的办法是快速帧间差分法
Another way to look at shock waves is something called fast-frame differencing.
你把一个视频层叠加到另一个视频层上
What you do is take one layer of video and put another layer of video on top of it
再将底层视频减去1-2帧
and then offset it by a frame or two.
以此作背景进行对比
What you can do then,
就能得到“背景减除图”的混合模型
is set up a blending mode called difference,
这个模型能显示出帧间变化的像素点
which basically only shows you the pixels that are different from the one below it.
一直以来人们用这种有趣的技术来捕捉动作
It’s a pretty interesting technique that people use all the time to detect motion
比如说用在联网监控或其他方面
for example in like a webcam or something like that.
总之 在拍摄高速影响时使用快速帧差异的
Anyway, if you use this fast-frame differencing
算法或者说技术 不管你怎么称呼它
algorithm, technique, whatever you want to call it, in this particular case,
你可以看到反冲波在地面上的反弹
you can see the reflected shock wave bounce up off the ground and
对我来说很有趣的是
what’s neat to me is that
这个反冲波看起来不完全是球形的
that reflected shockwave doesn’t exactly look spherical.
你必须很仔细的看
You have to look very close.
没有多少像素呈现出具体发生了什么
There’s not a lot of pixels here showing you what’s going on
不过冲击波看起来非常像椭圆形
but it almost looks like that reflected shockwave is an ellipse
因为它多少受加农炮喷出的气波影响
because it’s kinda being influenced by all that expanding gas coming out of the cannon.
所以我试着鼓起勇气
So I was trying to work up the nerve to see
看看他们能不能让我自己来开炮
if they would let me fire one myself,
然后我看到了这个
and then I saw this one.
我就是这样的人
And I was like that’s me.
我主动寻求机会
I have to ask.
然后他们同意了
There it is.
[笑]
(laughs)
开始吧 达斯汀
Here we go, Stan. Three,
三 二 一
two, one,
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
这棒极了
That was awesome.
放炮不像我想象中那么难
It’s not as hard of a pull as I thought it would be.
不难
No.
每个人都会做这个
That’s why everybody does this,
不过放炮后 他们经常是闪到一边
and they usually end up popping it off.
所以拧一下就好了?
So you just rotate?
你只需要拧一下
That’s all you need to do.
真简单!
That’s awesome!
谢谢给我开炮的机会
Thank you for letting me do that.
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
[加农炮开火过程慢放]
(cannon slowly fires)
观察和思考这个放炮过程是非常有趣的
This stuff is interesting to observe and think about.
因为这里面涉及很多动力学原理
I mean, there’s a lot of dynamic things going on here,
但是在今天视频的结尾
but at the end of the day,
我们对这些战争武器需要严肃的看待
these were weapons of war which is pretty intense to think about.
来听听这位先生给我解释霰弹筒
For example, listen to this gentlemen explain canister round to me.
特别引人深思
It’s pretty sobering.
简单来说 这门炮就像24盎司的啤酒罐
The easiest way I can describe it for this gun here. It’d look like a 24 oz beer can.
只是后面装填了弹药
With a powder charged attached to the back of it
弹药里装上30个铁球
and you’d have to have about 30 iron balls in it.
它们每颗射弹大概20毫米大小
And they were all about the size of a 20 mm projectile.
射弹使用铁而不是铅的原因是
Now the reason they used iron and not lead
铅撞击在坚固的东西上就变平了
is because lead flattens out when it hits something solid
比如胸膛 脊椎 或是臀部
like a breast plate or a spine or a hip.
铁子弹能直接穿过人体
Iron goes right through you,
射穿你身后的那个人
right through the man standing behind you in the rear rank.
攻击到你身后20码远的地方
Hits the ground 20 yards behind you
然后马上开始下一波攻击
skips up and goes through the next wave.
– 懂了- 从你身后
– Gotcha.- From behind you.
– 这不稀奇 – 一门炮就能击倒一支队伍
It was not uncommon – So it can go against formations.
一门炮可以用一发炮弹击倒40人
It was not uncommon that one round of canister
这不是稀奇的事
can take out 40 guys with one shot.
所以亨特将发射一发炮弹
So Hunter is about to shoot a canister round
是什么炮弹来着?
which is what?
这是58口径的炮弹
It’s got 58 caliber balls.
我不知道确切有多少
I don’t know how many, exactly.
这个用木屑包裹着
Packed in sawdust.
明白
Gotcha.
这个会有很恐怖的威力
So this is gonna make a mess.
你要朝那边的山炮击
And you’re gonna make a mess out of that hill right over there.
我们正准备这么做
It’s what we’re trying to.
好的 真棒
Okay. Awesome,
听起来不错
sounds good.
开火!
Fire!
[加农炮开火]
(cannon fires)
[开火过程慢放]
(rounds slowly fire)
打炮不是在玩闹
Canister rounds are not a joke.
这是很严肃的事
That is some serious stuff.
有趣的是我每次都能发现
What is funny, though, is every time I caught
这些美国内战士兵在用手机
a civil war soldier using their cell phone.
我吃完饭以后带你们去看
Which I’ll show you right after I eat.
[哔] 对
(beep) Yeah,
看起来就是这么逗
that was as ride as it looks. Okay,
这是内战时期加农炮的第一个视频
so that was the first video on civil war cannons.
我想拍一个怎么击发炮弹的视频
I want to do one on how to ignite them.
关于那个拉绳的作用原理
That pull-string, how that thing works.
加农炮上还有个特别的东西 叫“惠式螺纹”
And also there’s a special one called a whitworth.
我想研究一下这个
I want to talk about that.
但在这里我要感谢本次视频的赞助者
But I want to say thanks to the sponsor of this video,
就是“你好新鲜”
which is Hello Fresh.
今天晚餐我点了胡椒牛排
Tonight is peppercorn steak night which was my request.
“你好新鲜”提供非常棒的服务
Hello Fresh is a really cool service.
他们会直接把食材送到你家
They will send food directly to your house
并且提供完整的食谱
with a full-on recipe for how to make everything
以及足够分量的佐料
and the perfect amount of ingredients that you need.
我们经常自己做饭 所以非常喜欢这种服务
We are cooking more and we love it.
今天的晚餐是两人份
Tonight we have a meal for two.
看起来不错 对吧?
That’s kind of a nice thing, isn’t it?
这很棒
It is nice.
我们不是经常这样做
We don’t get that very often, so
一起做饭 然后共进晚餐
we’re cooking and we’re about to eat a meal together.
感觉像是约会
Which feels like date night.
老实讲 我们不是经常这样做
I’m going to be honest here, we don’t get to do that very often.
现在干嘛?
What happened?
我开始做土豆了
I started the potatoes.
哦 棒!
Oh sweet,
也就是我们要放胡椒了
that means we’re doing the peppercorn thing.

Yes.
看我的!
Yes!
[敲打声]
(knocking)
他们把食材和完美配好的配料直接送到家了
They send food directly to your house with perfect, pre-measured ingredients.
你也许永远想不到去买这些配料
Things you would never think to
比如松露油 特殊的蘑菇之类的 这很酷
purchase like truffle oil, like special mushrooms and stuff, it’s pretty cool.
你要通过这个超酷的菜谱卡
You get to figure out how to cook this stuff
研究出怎么做这些菜
by reading this cool recipe card.
这个说明是一步一步来的
It’s a step by step instruction.
就像是重复别人在实验室做过的实验
It’s almost like replicating somebody’s experiment in a lab.
非常简单
It’s pretty simple stuff.
这个酱汁真的让我惊艳
The sauces are what really amaze me
我完全不知道怎么能做出这个
because I don’t really know how to make’em.
但如果你按照菜谱来 最后就能做出超棒的酱汁
But if you followed the recipe, you end up making a fancy sauce.
这个很厉害
It’s really good.
总之到“你好新鲜”去下单吧 有优惠哦
Anyway, to get a discount on Hello Fresh,
还可以赞助我们节目
and help Smarter Everyday.
登录hellofresh.com
Go to hellofresh.com
使用优惠码“smarter 60”
use the promocode”smarter60″
前三单可以优惠60美元
That’s 60 bucks off your first three meals
每一餐20美元的优惠即总共60美元优惠
that’s 20 bucks off the first three meals there for a total of 60 bucks.
你不仅支持了我们节目
You help Smarter Everyday.
还吃到了好吃的 学会了怎么做饭
You get tasty meals and you learn how to cook.
祝用餐愉快 拜
Have a good one, bye!
[哔]
(beep)
我特别喜欢抓到这些人玩手机的时候
I totally like catching these reenacters with their cell phones
他们会感到尴尬然后开始藏手机
because they get really embarrassed and they try to hide it and stuff.
这是不是某种内战时期的战地礼仪?
So is this the kind of field comms that they had in the civil war?
对 我会说“啊哦 我得把手机藏起来!”
Yeah, I was like whoops, let me hide this cell phone!
[大笑]
(laughs)
藏好了
Go ahead.
先生 看到你这身打扮
It’s a little strange, seeing you in your garb
还拿着手机拍照 有点奇怪
holding up a cell phone camera, sir.
是 嗯
Yeah, well.
就是忍不住
Can’t help it.
就是这样
That’s the way it is.
[笑]
(laughs)
朋友 趁我们活着赶紧拍下来吧
Get us while we’re still alive, man.
先生 老实说
I’m gonna be honest with you, sir.
你在玩那个时期的大炮
You’ve got the period piece going
但是又坐在这张现代休闲椅上
on and then you got this little lounge chair,
这是怎么回事?
what’s going on here?
这椅子实际上是1862年的
This is actually the 1862 model.
[笑]
(laughs)
当我们到达正确的射击位置时就告诉我
Tell me when we get to the right spot.
你说啥?
What’d you say?
供给车把我们放下来
Assisted living bus dropped us off
却并没有告诉我们要做什么!
and didn’t tell us what to do!
[笑]
(laughs)
看起来你们全体被编入加农炮队了
It looks like you’re on a cannon crew, today.
如果你喜欢这期节目 就请订阅我们吧!
If this video earned your subscription that’s really cool!
如果不订阅 也没关系
If not, that’s also cool.
我是达斯汀 希望你喜欢这个节目
I’m Destin, I hope you enjoyed this.
每天都变聪明一点
Getting smarter everyday.
祝你愉快
Have a good one.

Bye.

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译制信息
视频概述

参观美国田纳西州的大炮竞赛,观看高速镜头拍下的大炮发射时的冲击波

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

果子

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgqIWDPMALk

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