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你能在核事故中生存下来吗 – 译学馆
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你能在核事故中生存下来吗

Can you survive nuclear fallout? - Brooke Buddemeier and Jessica S. Wieder

“厝火积薪 防不胜防”
一次核爆波及的范围几乎是难以想象的
The full scope of a nuclear detonationis almost unimaginable.
还好 没人会再次经历这样的灾难事件
Hopefully, no one will ever experienceanother of these catastrophic incidents.
但有一套科学的行动计划
But there is a scientifically supportedplan of action
能够在发生核爆的环境下
that could save hundredsof thousands of lives
拯救成千上万的生命
in the area surroundinga nuclear explosion.
那么该如何行动?它如何能保护我们?
So what is this plan, and what exactly would it protect us from?
为了造成毁灭性的爆炸
To create their destructive blast,
这些武器利用了核裂变的能量
these weapons harnessthe power of nuclear fission–
即一个原子核被分成两部分
in which an atom’s nucleusis split in two.
这个过程会产生令人难以置信的巨大能量
This process produces an incredibleamount of energy,
而且在某些物质中 由一次裂变产生的中子
and in some materials the neutronsproduced by one fission
会被周围的原子吸收
are absorbed by nearby atoms,
并分裂成更多的原子核
splitting additional nuclei.
这些连锁反应可以产生一系列爆炸
These chain reactions can producea range of explosive yields,
假设有一次相当于1万吨TNT的爆炸
but let’s consider an explosionequivalent to 10,000 tons of TNT.
像这样的一次爆炸
An explosion like this would create
会产生能毁灭数条街区的大火球
a fireball capable of decimating a few city blocks
以及能够破坏数千米外建筑物的冲击波
and a shockwave damaging buildingsseveral kilometers away.
遗憾的是 在爆炸半径范围内
There is tragically nothingthat can be done
做任何事都是徒劳的
to save those in the fireball’s radius.
然而 对于在冲击波中及其范围之外的人
However,for those in theshockwave and beyond,
我们的这套科学方案可能会救命
our scientifically supported protocolcould be life saving.
听起来可能令人惊讶
And though it may sound surprising,
在一次核爆之前 过程中以及之后
the best way to stay protected before, during,
最安全的做法
and after a nuclear detonation,
就是待在室内
is getting inside.
和在龙卷风和飓风中自保相似
Similar to protecting yourselffrom tornadoes or hurricanes,
待在一个坚固的建筑物中
getting and staying inside a sturdybuilding would offer protection
会减少你受到冲击波 高温以及辐射的危害
from the explosion’s shockwave,heat, and radiation.
在爆炸之初的几秒 冲击波的能量
The shockwave of energy would travel several kilometers
会在火球半径之外传播数千米
beyond the fireball’s radius in the first few seconds.
在这个范围内的坚固建筑
Sturdy buildings within that range should
应该能够抵挡冲击波
be able to withstand the shockwave,
待在这些建筑的地下室的正中间
and staying in the centers and basementsof these buildings
也能在高温和飞石中保护自己
also helps provide protection fromheat and flying objects.
在爆炸发生地接近地表时
Finding shelter is especially important
寻找避难所尤其重要
if the fireball occurs close to the earth,
因为爆炸会掀起数千吨的尘土飞石
as it will pull thousands of tons of dirtand debris
飞至数千米的高空
several kilometers into the atmosphere.
随着火球的冷却
As the fireball cools,
由核裂变导致的不稳定原子与碎片混合
unstable atoms created by the nuclear fission mix with the debris
从而产生这次核爆最危险的长期影响:
to produce the most dangerous long-termeffect of a nuclear detonation:
名为“原子尘”的放射性微粒群
radioactive particles called fallout.
这些沙子大小的粒子会发出电离辐射
These sand-sized particles emitionizing radiation,
它们能够将电子从分子和原子中分离
capable of separating electrons frommolecules and atoms.
暴露在这样大量的辐射下
Exposure to massive amounts of this radiation
会导致细胞损伤
can result in cell damage,
辐射烧伤 辐射病 癌症 甚至死亡
radiation burns, radiation sickness,cancer, and even death.
蔓延至数千米的高空
Created several kilometers up,
这些危险物质的浓烟
dangerous concentrations of this material
会被上层气流推动
would be driven by upperatmospheric winds,
可能会发展成极具危险的
potentially leading to hazardouslevels of fallout
覆盖数千米顺风区域的原子尘
in areas up to tens ofkilometers downwind.
不过还好 同样能抵御爆炸的建筑
Thankfully,the same buildings that offerprotection from the blast
在抵御辐射方面甚至效果更佳
are even better atguarding against fallout.
辐射在穿越空间和物质时会减弱
Radiation is reduced as it travelsthrough space and mass.
因此 一个破窗户和一个密闭的窗户
So while a broken window and sealed window
在防辐射上都有最低限度的效果
both have the same minimaleffect on radiation,
钢筋 混凝土厚层以及土层
thick layers of steel, concrete,and packed earth
能够提供不错的保护
can offer serious protection.
因为原子尘在一小时内
And since fallout gives off half
会散去一半的能量
of its energy in the first hour
而在一天内会发散80%
and 80% in the first day,
所以在室内待上24小时 能够极大提高
staying inside for 24 hours coulddramatically improve the odds
自己免受严重辐射影响的可能性
of avoiding the most seriouseffects of radiation.
爆炸之后 原子尘开始发散之前
Following the blast there would be at least 15 minutes to find shelter
至少有15分钟寻找避难所
before the fallout begins.
因为最危险的放射性粒子是最重的
Since the most hazardous fallout particlesare the heaviest,
它们会穿过空气下沉并聚集在街道和房顶
they sink through the air and collect on streets and rooftops,
所以理想的避难所是在地下
making ideal shelters underground
或者在高层建筑的正中间
or in the middle of high-rise buildings.
但如果有人暴露在了原子尘中
But if someone were to getcaught in the fallout,
他们仍可以采取一些措施
there are still measures they could take.
在找到安全的地方后
After finding a safe space,
他们应该脱掉鞋和外装
they should remove their shoes and outer layers,
清洗暴露过的皮肤
wash any exposed skin,
然后远离污染衣物
and store the contaminated clothing far away.
一旦进入室内 至少计划停留24小时
Once inside, plan on staying therefor at least 24 hours.
若避难所简陋
If the shelter is poor,
或者室内有人需要紧急医护
or someone inside needs urgent medical attention,
也要在1小时后再外出求救
try seeking outside help after an hour.
但是 最好还是待在室内等待收音机的消息
But ideally, stay inside and stay tuned for more information from first responders.
尽管电力 手机服务和网络将会中断
While electric power, cell service, andInternet would be down,
但是许多收音机也许仍然可用
most radios would likely survive.
所以注意收听紧急通告
So listen in for emergency responders
并依此决定最安全的前进路线
to determine the safest course forward.
核武器
Nuclear weapons are some
是地球上破坏力最强的武器之一
of the most powerful tools of destruction on Earth,
寄希望于简单的保护措施
and it may seem naive to put faith
也许看起来很天真
in these straightforward protective measures.
但是经过研究和计算机模拟 反复表明待在室内的好处
But studies and simulations haverepeatedly shown the benefits of getting inside.
希望我们永远没必要这么做
So while we’ll hopefully never need to,
如有万一 请进入室内 留在室内 打开电台
remember to Get Inside, Stay Inside,and Stay Tuned.
说到核战争
when it comes to nuclear war,
人类曾差点酿成大祸
humanity has had some near misses
在古巴导弹危机的故事中
in this episode on the Cuban missile crisis
你会了解到 外交是如何之谨慎
you’ll learn how careful diplomacy
以及一个男人
and one man’s courage
如何以一己之勇气阻止了世界之灾难
prevented an international catastrophe

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视频概述

万一发生核战争,如何尽可能地自我保护?

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHBb25lzNVM

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