We’re gonna show you four different kids answering a question
and you have to decide whether they’re lying
or telling the truth.
Each kid is told that
if they get seven out of ten balls in the basket,
they will be given five dollars.
But just before they start,
the experimenter finds an excuse to leave the room and
asks them to stand behind the line
and throw the balls into the basket one at a time.
So these kids are now alone in the room.
So the incentive to cheat is pretty high.
But little do they know,
the scientists have placed a hidden camera in the room.
The question the experimenter asked
when they got back was:
“Did you cheat?” And here were their answers:
I threw the ball once.
Could you tell which ones were telling the truth
and which were lying?
I threw the ball once.
It turns out that kids 1 and 2 were telling the truth
and kids 3 and 4 were lying.
But in fact 80% of kids over the age of 4
will lie in this scenario.
When guessing who was lying,
the answer was either yes or no.
So you had a 50% chance of getting it right.
So even if you did guess correctly,
you’re actually not necessarily
that good at detecting lies and it turns out no one really is.
Dr. Kang Lee is a lying researcher.
Now he is not a researcher who lies, okay.
He is a researcher who studies lying.
My name is Kang Lee.
I’m a professor at the University of Toronto.
Once we did the studies with many many children
when they tell lies they look right into your eyes.
So, they don’t blink at you.
And so that……that commonsense view is totally
out of the……out of the way right away.
Studies show that across multiple professions like judges,
social workers or police officers.
People who would expect are good at detecting lies
turns out they aren’t.
Okay. So we are here at Congolese developmental lab
and I’m with Sarah
who’s gonna help us with one of the technologies
that can detect emotions and lying.
So what are we gonna do?
We are going to use FACET,
which is behind me.
We had already recorded you
making some interesting facial expressions.
It’s different. I tried to make different emotions.
Okay. So what are we looking at?
We have my face and a bunch of bars, graphs.
What do they mean?
So each of these different colors is a different emotion.
So right now, we’re looking at ‘Joy’.
There’s ‘Anger’, ‘Surprise’, ‘Fear’ and ‘Contempt’.
You look great…About here.
It looks like you’re about to
experience a little bit of disgust.
Yeah. That’s very clearly disgust.
I really was asked about eating toenails. So…
So how do you do this with kids
and in like a more experimental environment?
Yeah. So this…there’s kind of two options
you can use this technology with.
One is you get a person to sit down
and watch and record them with the webcam.
You can put some stimuli on the screen,
see how they react to it.
But that really doesn’t help us out with lying.
Instead, we want to see how do kids
or even adults lie in the real world.
So we put them into real situations
where they’re lying to us or
telling the truth and we secretly record their faces.
-And later on, we can take that video, plug it in there.-Then you plug it into this.
But what happens if someone lies with a neutral face?
I mean it’s not that hard like watch this.
I, in fact, did not steal the pargs of Michael Stern,
the coolest kid in my class in Grade Seven.
Even parents cannot assess accurately
when their own kids are lying.
But thankfully scientists is here to help us out.
We recently developed a new technology called
Transdermal Optical Imaging Technology.
So the idea basically is you…Literally,
It has peeled of the skin like this.
Then you see the blood underneath your skin.
And then you link up in the frames of the videos.
And then you can see the blood flow changes
in different parts of the face.
And by doing so, then you combine them all together
and using machine learning again
and you can detect the passions
in which the child is lying, versus,
the patterns in which the child is telling the truth.
One of the major features is actually
when you lie, the facial blood flow on the cheek goes down,
but their blood flow in the nose goes up.
So one of the studies were wrong.
And we show that above 85% accuracy.
We can tell the child is lying or not lying.
So blood flow to the face can help us detect
if someone is lying and hilariously
blood actually flows to your nose
Lying obviously requires your brain.
So how do we study what’s going on in the brain when someone’s lying?
So what exactly is this even called?
This is our F-Nears machine,
which is functional near-infrared spectroscopy.
Ooh! Okay, cool.
-F-Nears is much easier to say.-Yeah, I feel sometime…I feel it like a slang
Call me F-Nears…I don’t know. Like autotune?
看那ELLE Lady Gaga和York 这才是最新潮的帽子
Look ELLE, Lady Gaga and York .The newest hat is here.
So these the red ones is emitting the light
and then the blue one is trying to measure
how much light it can receive
and depending on how much light is lost.
Between these two ports, we can kind of determine
how much oxygen is in the blood and
where the brain is most active.
But turns out there are differences in the brain.
So when children are lying，
we discovered that in the prefrontal cortex.
It’s more actived
when you’re lying than telling the truth.
When you are lying,
it takes more neural resources to do controls
and telling the truth requires very limited neural controls.
And we discovered that before
it’s kind of well-organized or synchronized and after you have told a lie,
then the brain just goes haywire.
So…so telling a lie is really not very good for your brain.
We can definitely relate to that one.
Whenever I lie, I always panic so much
and I realize I can’t hold the conversation anymore.
Because my brain has gone like completely haywire.
But I barely ever lie.
No. It’s all the time every day all day.
It’s amazing to think though that Dr. Lee’s lab has been able to look
at brains in real time as they lie and see
the chaos that ensues
when you’re trying to tell a fib.
It’s pretty fascinating to think about the ways
in which this technology could be used I mean imagine in the next presidential election
being able to see in real time
if someone is lying or telling the truth.
I mean it’s pretty powerful thing.
But it’s got to be perfected first
so that it’s not used or abused in the wrong way.
Thank you so much for watching.
Really appreciate it and make sure you subscribe to ASAP science
and let us know if there’s any other labs or things happening
that you want us to go on the scene to check out.
-We live in Toronto though so hopefully okay.-We can fly, whatever.
I will see you next time.Peace.