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你真的能通过表情来看穿谎言吗? – 译学馆
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你真的能通过表情来看穿谎言吗?

Can You Spot a Liar Just by Someone's Looks? | Alexander Todorov

面容是心灵的窗户吗?
Is Your Face a Window to Your Soul?
心理学或是通过研究面部表情的伪科学
So physiognomy or the so-called pseudoscience
已有悠久的历史
to feed in character from faces has a very very long history.
最早的历史记载可追溯到
The first historical document date all the way
亚里士多德时代
back to the time of Aristotle.
但它在17 18世纪时才广受欢迎
But it really got extremely extremely popular in the 18th and 19th century.
曾经有一段时间
And for a while,
即20世纪初
so there were quite a few studies
人们做了不少研究
in the beginning of the 20th century,
但在20世纪20 30年代
we are talking about twenties and the thirties,
心理学家发现的有关
by psychologist finding very very little
准确推理观相术的证据少之又少
evidence for the accuracy of physiognomic inferences.
举个例子 最近
And recently there was for example,
一篇计算机科学论文指出
a computer science paper claiming that presumably
基于人们的面部表情
you can guess whether a person is a criminal or not
你可以推断他们是否有罪
based on their facial image.
事实上心理学很早以前
And actually the history of identifying the criminal
就涉及了指认罪犯这一功能
has a very very long history in physiognomy.
多项研究表明
There’s lots of lots of studies
面部表情有不同程度的影响
showing effects of appearance across different domains.
十多年前 我们在实验室研究发现
In my own lab, more than 10 years ago,
通过分析政客的面部表情
we showed that you can predict electoral success
可以推测大选的胜利花落谁家
based on judgement from the appearance of politicians.
法律领域也有多项研究
Then there have been many other studies in the legal domain.
比如最近一项研究表明
So for example, a recent study show that
罪行一样 有些人却判了死刑
prisoners who were sentenced to death
有些人却不得假释
for the same crime as those who were sentenced to a
而获终生监禁
a life sentence without parole,
两者最大的不同是
the main difference was the prisoners
判死刑的那些人看起来更不可靠
who were sentenced to death look less trustworthy.
在经济博弈中有大量证据表明
There’s been a lot of evidence in economic game.
比如
So for example,
经济学家喜欢这类有关经济的游戏
economists love this sort of economic games
不论何时 我们进行沟通的时候
where we have any interactions.
如果你对自己一无所知
And if I don’t know anything about you,
我是否要冒险投资你有待考虑
I have a risky choice whether to invest in you or not.
如果我投资了你 且你很可靠
If I invest, and you are trustworthy,
那么就是双赢的局面
then we are both better off.
但是如果你不值得信赖
But if you are untrustworthy,
把我的钱卷走
you can take away my money and run away.
这就造成了风险
So it’s… it creates this risk situation.
很多研究建议
And many studies suggest that in fact,
如果我们觉得对方的表情不靠谱
if…we think if the appearance of the other person is untrustworthy,
会避免投资他们
we tend not to invest in these people.
有趣的是
Interestingly, there was a study
德国和瑞士的一项调查显示
that was done in Germany in Switzerland
人们匿名地玩这种游戏时
when in fact people played anonymously.
也会分析不同的面部表情
And they also did different measurements of the faces.
结果这些本应该能
Turns out that these measurements that are supposed
判断对方可信度和竞争力的分析
to predict untrustworthiness or aggressiveness
根本推测不出
didn’t predict at all how people will behave
人们在这类匿名的经济游戏的表现
in this kind of anonymous economic game.
游戏中有意思的部分是
The interesting part is that these participants,
它会鼓励参与者去做出真实答复
they were incentivized for accurate responses.
这些真实的答复
And, so for every accurate response,
主要用于预测
they were essentially trying to predict
人们在某种情境下的行为
what the person did in the situation.
但由于太信赖忠诚的外表
They ended up losing money
他们损失了大笔财富
because they were relying on these kinds of appearence.
然而在现实生活中
But you can see how in the real life situation,
你有着各种自我验证的推测
you can have all kinds of self-fulfilling prophecies.
比如说我俩一起玩个游戏
So we come and play with you in a game.
出于某种原因 我认为你不可信
I decided for some reason that you are untrustworthy.
所以最初我肯定不会好好合作
So my first move is not cooperative move.
那么 你同样也不会信任我
Well, you reciprocate in a similar way.
“我不信任你 你又怎么会相信我?”
“I don’t trust you, so why would you trust me?”
这就是自我验证的推测
And that kinds of leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy.
你可以在某个场景里
So you can create this kind of dynamic
创造不协调的动机
dynamic inconsistency in the situation
实际上对方是可信并有意配合的
where in fact the people could be perfectly trustworthy and might cooperate,
只是他们的外貌不那么可信罢了
but the appearance cues can get into the way.
现在人们都一致看重外表
Now, to the extent that you agree in these impressions,
一个重要的经验性问题是
an important empirical question is well
为何大家能够达成一致?
what is the, where is this agreement coming from?
过去几年我们建立了数学模型
And so in the past decades we have built mathematical models,
其他研究团队也建立了自己的模型
and other groups have built their own models that
这些模型试图发现
essentially are trying to discover
人们的某一个外表下
the cues that people are using
隐含的线索
when they form these impressions.
那么你能观察到什么线索呢?
So what kinds of cues you can observe?
好吧 你在决定某人是否可靠时
Well, when you are deciding whether somebody is trustworthy or not,
面部表情就是一个重要的提示
one of the most important input is emotional expressions.
所以我们在心理学上常说
So often in psychology we talk about
中性情绪面孔
that there’s emotional neutral faces and
这些面孔能表达不同的情感
there’s faces expressing different emotions.
但问题的实质在于
But the fact of the matter is that
中性情绪面孔只是一个假设
an emotional neutral face is a fiction,
一个心理学的假设
is a psychological fiction.
你的情感可以是中性的
You could be emotionally neutral,
但是如果你睡眠正常
but if you haven’t been sleep deprived,
且度过了美好的一天
you will look better.
即使你不笑
If you have a nice day, you will look better,
气色看起来会更好
even if you are not smiling.
所以即使你的面部表情
So although the expressions might
没有夸张地对外表现出来
not be explicit or exaggerated,
根据一些典型的
the way they’re typically studied,
有关面部表情的研究
in studies in emotional expressions,
还是能从你的表情里发现细微的情绪变化
there are subtle expressions on our faces.
所以这些表情能给人们留下重要的印象
So these expressions are very important input to impressions.
这些印象在此时此刻
Notice they might be accurate,
有可能是真实的
these impressions at the particular moment here now.
也有可能会很糟糕
But they would be very lousy,
因为它能反映出
as a guide to what the person is
人们在紧急情况下的样子
in general across timing situations.
回到信任的问题上
To get back to trustworthiness,
微笑的脸
faces that look like they’re smiling,
是积极的面部表情
they have a positive expressions,
传达着更加积极的情绪
they’re perceived more positively.
苦闷的脸
Faces that look disgruntle,
则传达出更加消极的情绪
they’re perceived more negatively.
其他对情绪的认识呢?
What are the other inputs?
这些认识大多来源于刻板印象
Many of the other inputs come from stereotypes.
比如 人们认为女性的面容
For example, feminine faces are perceived as
比男性更值得信任
more trustworthy than masculine faces.
另一方面
On the other hand,
男性的面容更具有领导性
masculine faces are perceived as more dominant.
所以有很多诸如此类的提示
So there are lots of and lots of cues
实际上你会完全相信某些提示
and there are cues that actually completely
用在别人身上也是正确的
you think corrective to others.
比如
For example,
有人长得和你喜欢的人很像
faces that resemble people that you already like,
你就会有喜欢他的倾向
you will tend to like,
即使对这个人一无所知
not knowing anything about this people.
同样的
And the other way around,
尽管对某人一无所知
faces that resemble people that you dislike,
如果他的面孔像你讨厌的人
you will tend not to like,
你也会倾向于讨厌他
bearing no other information about this people.
[结束音乐]
[ending music]

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视频概述

很多心理学研究表明通过面部表情可以看穿谎言。尤其是人交际中,对方的面部表情可以影响我们的判断。但是你怎么看呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8Tvb6EyBXE

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