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我们应该如何看待emoji表情

Can You Speak Emoji?

大约1999年初 栗田穣崇制作了表情符号
Around early 1999, Shigetaka Kurita created emoji.
当时他是日本最大的移动通信运营商-多科莫公司的一名员工
At the time, he was an employee at Docomo, the largest mobile phone operator in Japan.
在接受The Verge采访时
Speaking with The Verge
栗田谈到了那时多家移动网络服务平台遇到的种种问题
Kurita talks about the problems with many other mobile Internet service platforms at the time
比如 信息混杂和含义丢失
problems of confusion and lost meaning
密集的文字不方便阅读等
Word dense screens are hard to read.
简短的文字难以传达出人们的真实意思
And short-form-text-only communication make it unclear what people really mean.
他们是诚恳还是无礼呢?
Are they being genuine or brusque?
这仍然是一个常见的问题
This is a familiar problem still
符号表情在某种程度上解决了这个问题
and one solved, up to a point, with emoticons.
但这些符号表情也有缺点
But those have their own drawbacks.
它们输入不便 速度慢
They’re unwieldy, slow to compose,
而且除了一些个例之外 并没有进行规范化
and non-standardized beyond just a few instances
此外 在表情符号的基础上 产生了一种更复杂 和微妙的表情符号
Plus, composing a more complex and potentially nuanced emoticon
它们有时被称为颜表情
sometimes called a kaomoji
使用多于圆括号和冒号的复杂符号
Using more than parentheses and colons is
许多人会觉得相当困难
for many people, a pretty difficult task.
栗田想 假如在技术上将小的真实图片
What if, Kurita thought, small actual pictures
像单个字母符号一样处理
were treated technologically like individual letter glyphs
来代替一个人打H-A-P-P-Y 空格 F-A-C-E
in the way one types H-A-P-P-Y space F-A-C-E
如果一个人可以正好打出一个笑脸会怎样?
what if one could just type a happy face?
于是 emoji诞生了
Thus, emoji were born.
栗田说 他自己也深受颜文字的影响
Highly influenced, Kurita says, by kaomoji’s ability,
引用原话就是“用单个字符表达抽象想法”
to quote, “express abstract ideas in a single character.”
emoji传播到了日本的其他移动公司
Emoji spread to other Japanese mobile carriers
最终走向了世界
and eventually, the world
在2010年 emoji被收录到了统一码中
In 2010, emoji were adopted into unicode
这是一种通过计算机显示和传送书写系统文本的全球标准
the global standard for displaying and transmitting the text of writing systems via computers.
这件事意义深远
This is a significant thing.
在很大程度上 这意味着emoji得到了管理
It means emoji, to a large degree, are controlled.
人们可以创造一个新的表情符号 颜文字
One could create a new emoticon, kaomoji,
或者如果一个人很厉害的话 此时此刻甚至可以创造一个新单词
or if one is so embiggened, even a new word at this very moment.
这是一件完美的事
That is a perfectly cromulent thing to do.
但总体来说 特别是作为一个安卓或iOS用户
But by and large, especially if you are a stock Android or iOS user
新创作的emoji上架会需要一定时间
one must wait for new emoji.
由于种种原因 新的emoji的出现值得庆祝
And when they arrive, it is a cause celebre for a couple reasons.
第一个原因 墨西哥玉米卷emoji的出现
Reason number one, taco emoji
第二个原因 当emoji变得流行起来后
and reason number two, as emoji have grown in popularity,
在交流中 它们经常起到像GIF动画一样的作用
they often stand in much like animated GIFs for ourselves in our communication.
并且直到最近
And until recently, on iOS
至少对于很多西方人来说 iOS平台是emoji的标准使用平台
which for many people is the standard bearer for emoji in the west at least
许多人物或身体部位的emoji表情是白人或其身体部位
many emoji of people or body parts were emoji of caucasian people or body parts.
奇怪的是 如果你是个有色人种
The weirdness is that if you are a person of color,
这种与你自己语言的文本没有任何技术上的区别的标准
this managed standard, treated with no technological distinction from the text of your own language,
并不能表现出你的身份
couldn’t represent you
在这一点上emoji阻止了某些人
Emoji, at that point, stopped certain people
用自己的语言直接明确地来谈论他们自己
from speaking directly and explicitly about themselves in their own language.
2015年初 在统一码协会通过加入更多不同人种的emoji表情的方式解决了这一问题
The Unicode Consortium addressed this in early 2015, by including more racially diverse emoji
允许更多的人谈论自己
allowing more people to speak about themselves.
但是 哇 等等 你们有人在说“讲话”?
But whoa, hold on, some of you are saying, speaking?
emoji语言?
Language emoji?
这些东西甚至一起出现了?
Do these things even go together?
这一争论进一步升级
And this debate has raged
尤其是在牛津字典将“笑哭脸”定为2015年度单词之后
especially after the Oxford Dictionary named crying face while laughing the 2015 word of the year.
emoji是单词吗?
Are emojis words?
emoji的使用形成了全球的象形语言了吗?
Does the use of emoji constitute its own global, pictographic language?
让我们讨论一下这个问题
Let’s talk about that for a second.
语言学家格雷琴·麦卡洛克 她的博客叫“万物语言学”
Linguist Gretchen McCulloch, whose blog All Things Linguistic
她的博客非常棒 如果你还没关注它 你应该关注
which is amazing, and if you don’t follow it, you should
我们会在下面的视频简介中放个链接
we’ll put a link in the description
把emoji比作手势
likens emoji to gesture
在《心理牙线》上 她写到 emoji以及感情符和创意标点
On Mental Floss, she writes emoji alongside emoticons and creative punctuation
“是一种数字形式 相当于你说话时做的一个鬼脸或一个蠢蠢的手势”
quote, “are the digital equivalent of making a face or a silly hand gesture while you’re speaking,” end quote.
但是否因为单个emoji不是单词
But just because individual emoji aren’t words
就意味着他们放在一起也不能成为语言或类似语言的东西吗?
does that mean all together they can’t be language or language like?
《连线》杂志的尼克·斯托克顿说 不能
Nick Stockton at Wired says, no.
他说emoji“更像一种胚胎中的语言
He says emoji are, quote, “more like an embryonic language
像一群有朝一日可能发育成语言的细胞”
a cluster of cells that might be a language some day.”
在为BBC写的文章中 语言学家尼尔·科恩说emoji不总是装饰品
Writing for the BBC, linguist Neil Cohn says that emoji are not always embellishments.
有时成串的emoji能沟通传达意愿
And sometimes strings of them communicate meaning.
参见弗莱德·本南森的《白鲸记》
See Fred Benenson’s “Emoji Dick.”
但说实话 语言问题归根结底是
But really, the language question comes down to
它们是否有语法
whether they have a grammar
一组关于信息如何排序和包装的规则
a set of rules for how messages are ordered and packaged
科恩说emoji的语法发展还在雏形阶段
Cohn says an emoji grammar is nascent.
但还有另一个大的障碍
But there’s also another big roadblock.
emoji是相对大的语意单元
Emoji are relatively large units of meaning.
只要他们能成为一种语言
In so far as they may become a language
我们就回到原点 在相对受限的系统中微调
we’re back to square one, ringing nuance out of a relatively restricted system.
emoji可以表达一小部分容易表达的情感
Emoji may encode a small set of easily depicted emotions
但取决于平台的不同
but depending upon the platform
要么能仅仅谈论种族 性别或残疾 要么不能
either cannot or can just barely talk about race, gender, or disability
而且不总能跨平台
and not consistently across platforms.
关于世界和其中的人的特定观点
Certain ideas about the world and people in it
并不能用emoji这种设计符号来交流
are incommunicable with emoji, probably by design.
emoji是语言的附件
Emoji are an accessory to language.
除非那些语意自然地表现出来
And unless those meanings emerge naturally
它是一个受限的系统 一个能够造成交流错误的系统
it’s a restricted system, one capable of creating miscommunication
有时有大量的未知意义
sometimes in light of largely unknown meanings.
新手使用emoji可能感觉很费劲
It is tough out there for an emoji newbie.
现在出现了emoji错误和emoji翻译器
There are emoji missteps and emoji translators
和那些带着防卫心态说不愿意说emoji的人
and those who say, defensively so, that they cannot speak emoji
种种这些现象将我们带向下一个问题
which brings us to the next step in this line of questioning.
emoji可能不是单词
Emoji may not be words.
它们可能不是语言
They might not be language.
但当我们使用他们或者通过那些可以使用它们的技术交流时
But when we use them and otherwise communicate using the technology where they are available
我们是在说话吗?
are we speaking?
答案不是肯定的
The answer isn’t yes.
但也不是一个简单的“不”
But neither is it a simple no.
在所有指责短信破坏了英语也可能破坏了其他语言的言论中
In all of the fretting over SMS speak ruining the English language and probably other languages
有这么个说法
there has emerged this saying.
简讯不是书信
Texting is not writing
所以如果简讯不是书信 那么它是什么?
so if texting is not writing, then what is it?
好了 符号表情 颜文字 emoji GIF动图
Well, emoticons, kaomoji, emoji, GIFs
它们都表明 无论简讯的内容是什么
they all suggest that whatever texting is
也许我们都想让它更像是语言
we may want it to be more like speaking.
但emoji和类似的表达也许并不能像语言那样使用
Emoji and their kin may not be speech.
但不管如何 它们是对捕捉言语之美的一次尝试
But all together, they’re an attempt to capture the aesthetic of speaking.
这是格雷琴·麦卡洛克要表达的意思
This is what Gretchen McCulloch is getting at
当她谈到emoji像手势
when she talks about emoji being like gestures
口头面对面讲话表现的一部分
part of the verbal in-person speaking performance
由我们即将讨论的一些不同部分组成
which is made up of a few different parts that we’re gonna talk about right now
基本交流方式都是通过表达
An utterance is the smallest unit of communication.
通常来说 沉默是表达的开端和结束
Generally, utterances begin and end with silence.
但总体来说 它们的界限是不固定的
But overall, their bounds can be fluid.
一个表达可能是一个单词
An utterance may be a word.
可能是一个完整的句子
It might be a complete sentence.
或是用一些“嗯” “啊”及其他片段组合起来的句子
It might be a set of sentences packaged along with some ums and ahs and other fragments.
然而更重要的是 表达在实际环境中发生
More importantly though, utterances take place in a practical context.
它们是合乎规矩的
They are done.
在谈话中 它们由讲话者执行
They are performed by a speaker in conversation
希望用语言表达意思
hoping to make meaning with language, yeah
但也希望表达与语言同时出现的交流的其他方面
but also other aspects of communication that work alongside language.
那些其他方面比如音高 语调
Those other aspects are things like pitch and intonation
音量 面部表情 身体语言以及手势
volume, facial expression, body language, and gesture
那些不是语言 但对于通过面对面语言传递的意思很重要
not language as such, but important to the meaning conveyed by face to face language.
这些共同组成了副语言
Together, these things comprise paralanguage
与语言一同的帮助传递细微差别的交流中的零碎部分
the odds and ends of communication that work alongside language to help convey the nuance
进一步传递我们讲话使用的东西(你知道的 是单词)的意义
and further the meaning of the stuff that we’re saying with, you know, words
传统上 表达在书面语中不存在
Traditionally, utterances don’t exist in the written word
只存在它们的代表
only representations of them do.
在写作时 我们通过文字表现语言
While writing, we are representing speech through text.
但在发短信或聊天时 由于其非正式 友好 时常对话性的性质
But while SMSing or chatting, because of their informal, friendly, and often conversational nature
我们想不仅仅通过文字表现表达 而且还想表现随之的动作
we want to represent not just utterances but also their performance through text.
这就是文本副语言做的事
This is what textual paralanguage does
例如大写和奇怪的标点 重复的字母来表明声音拉长
things like caps and weird punctuation, repeating letters to indicate phoneme extension
使用表情符号 当然还有emoji
with emoticons, and of course, emoji
卡尔斯塔德大学的彼得·维克斯多姆在其文章中称之为“动画特征”
what Peter Wikstrom of Karlstad University calls animating features in his paper
文章的标题最好是阅读 而不是说出来
with a title that is best read, not spoken.
传统写作中我们不会出现这种情况
We don’t do this kind of thing with traditional writing
因为传统表达通常采用叙述性语言
because there, represented speech is often accompanied by narration
尽管我猜想 你也可以用自己话表达出来
though I guess you could narrate your text messages.
[文本信息铃声]
[TEXT MESSAGE DINGS]
噢 抱歉
Oh, sorry.
好了
OK.
所有这些都表明 emoji不能像单词一样用于写作或阅读
All this is to say that emoji are not for writing or reading as words are
因此 它用来动作来表达意思的
therefore, indicating as performance does.
提问emoji是单词还是语言忽略了它们的用法
To ask whether emoji are words or language is to ignore how they’re used.
对我来说 认知和翻译emoji 与解读舞蹈动作有点相似
To me, the literacy and interpretation of emoji work similarly to that of dance moves.
它们可以出乎意料地写实 也可以极度抽象
They can be exceptionally literal but also wildly abstract
依旧传递可辨认的信息
and still convey a recognizable message
桃子 医院和漂浮的商人的意思可以是桃子 医院和漂浮的商人
Peach, hospital, and floating businessman can mean peach, hospital, and floating businessman.
但在上下文中 它们的意思可能或多或少 就像“whip”和“Nene”一样
But pending context, they can mean much more or less, just like the Whip and/or Nene.
#看我抽鞭子 看我跳舞#
#Now watch me whip, whip, watch me nay nay.#
我并不打算那样做
I’m not gonna do it.
emoji是语言和技术的应用 用途手段多样 几乎不受限制
Emoji are linguistically and technologically, and in more ways than one, limited.
像单词一样应用他们 是为了再现他们想要解决的问题
To think of or use them like words is to recreate the problem that they were intended to solve.
在格雷琴·麦卡洛克关于手势的引用的第二部分 她写到
In the second part of Gretchen McCulloch’s quote about gesture, she writes
在讲话时将手单调地系在背后 你会感到奇怪
“You’d feel weird having a conversation in monotone with your hands tied behind your back.
但那有点像用普通的没有新意的标准英语交谈
But that’s kind of what it’s like talking in plain vanilla standard English.”
没有emoji 我们“文字中的手”就被系上了
Without emoji, our textual hands are tied.
但我们也会问 emoji是怎样束缚我们的呢?
But we might also ask how emoji themselves tie our hands.
它们不能表现哪些手势呢?
What gestures can’t they make?
或者 它们阻止我们做了哪些条件反射的动作呢?
Or really, what gestures do they stop our digitally constituted bodies from making?
直到最近 才有了一个答案 这答案或许涉及到一些种族问题
Until recently, one answer would have involved some concerning race
一个我们身体与生俱来 常常不可避免的方面
an inherent and often inescapable aspect of our own physical bodies
至于包含emoji的对话
In so far as emoji comprised speech,
那是他们在演讲中不能表达出来的
that was speech that they couldn’t represent.
这是一个伟大又激动人心的时刻 不过随之而来的却是一系列的挑战
This, I think, is a great and exciting moment as well as a set of challenges that come along with it.
随着世界语言越来越媒体和多媒体化
As the world’s languages grow increasingly mediated and multimediated
已经不单单靠文字沟通了
communications which are not exactly but which function like literal speech
它将会依赖于由他人提供由标准指导的技术功能
will be dependent upon technological affordances provided by others, guided by standards.
而这些标准当中的漏洞 他们所不能表达的
Any gaps in those standards, things that they can’t represent
会告诉我们许多关于技术制造者的信息
will tell us an awful lot about who is making that technology
世界上哪些人期望用它来交流
and who in the world they expect to communicate using it
或者哪种理念影响设计者的创作
or the kinds of ideologies which shape their designs
缺乏对世界及人的考量
in the absence of direct consideration of the world and the people in it.
在这种情况下 这种激动兴奋远远超出使用语言带来的
The excitement in this situation is that beyond using language and speech
只要它是由像emoji一样的东西组成
in so far as it is being made with things like emoji
就有机会使语言及其配件
the opportunity exists to make language and accessories to it
它如同使用的人群一样有趣和多样化
as interesting and varied as the communities of people who will be using it.
我希望我们继续抓住那些机会
And I hope that we continue to take those opportunities.
你们认为呢?
What do you all think?
与谈话人面对面交谈沟通相比 emoji怎么样呢?
How does emoji compare to the person-to-person performance of speech?
可以想到这样一个事实吗?它是具有设计标准的
And how does that relate to the fact that it is a managed standard
一些人为它提供了技术上可解释性的规范
that it is a technological affordance provided by other people?
请留言让我们了解
Let us know in the comments.
我会在下周的回复视频中对其中一些评论做出回应
And I will respond to some of them in next week’s comment response video.
在本周的评论回复视频中 我们讨论大家对于披萨的看法
In this week’s comment response video, we talk about your thoughts regarding pizza.
如果你想看的话 可以点击这里
If you want to watch that one, you can click right here
或者在doobly doo上寻找链接
or find a link in the doobly doo.
特别感谢格雷琴·麦卡洛克
Special thanks to Gretchen McCulloch
她对本周制作emoji的视频提供了巨大的帮助
who helped out tons with this week’s episode on emoji
实际上 她西南偏南的位置举行了非常有趣非常酷的emoji座谈会
She actually gave an emoji panel at South by Southwest that is super interesting and really cool
谈论了许多本集中触及的问题
talks about a lot of the stuff that we touched on in the episode.
所以如果你想听 或者想看她的幻灯片
So if you want to give that a listen or see her slides
我们也将在doobly doo放置链接
we’ll also put links to that in the doobly doo as well.
如果你对此感兴趣 我们强力推荐它
Highly recommend it if this is something that interests you.
我录制了最新一期的《精神牙线清单秀》
I was on a recent episode of the Mental Floss List Show.
所以如果你想听我谈论互联网 可以去看看
So if you want to watch me talk about Internet facts, that is a thing that exists.
公共广播公司数字工作室当前计划推出《Webby》节目
PBS Digital Studios is currently up for a Webby,
这真是一个超级今人兴奋的 有全网最好的科教节目
which is super exciting, for best science and education programming across the whole network.
如果你想观看 请给我们投票
So if you want to go and vote for us on that,
那将会超级棒
that would be super rad.
最后 本周末在北卡罗来纳州北卡罗来纳大学
And finally this weekend at UNC in North Carolina,
我将会和一群正在做公共媒体马拉松的人谈话
I’m going to be talking with a group of people who are doing a public media hackathon
试图就公共媒体目前面临的问题与挑战展开讨论
to try to sort of talk through some of the problems and challenges that are currently facing public media.
所以如果你在附近 而且想来看看 请过来吧
So if you’re around, and you want to come check it out, please come by.
我会把所有这些东西 包括黑客马拉松的链接放到doobly doo上
I will put a link to all of these things, including the hackathon, in the doobly doo.
这是来到北卡罗来纳 我真正希望谈论的事情之一
One of the things that I really hope to talk about when I’m in North Carolina
那就是讨论一下最近通过的非常令人失望的法律
is the current set of very disappointing laws that have just been passed.
所以 我们很有希望进行一场非常棒的讨论
So that will hopefully be something that we can have a really awesome discussion about.
此外 我们计划周五晚上举行一个小型办公创意频道会议
Also we’re planning on having a small Idea Channel office hours slash meet up on Friday night.
我们也会在doobly doo上放置与之相关的信息
So we’ll put some information about that in the doobly doo as well.
稍后会在晚上九点左右在达拉谟举行
It’s going to be in Durham later on Friday evening around 9:00 o’clock.
所以请留出一些时间
So clear your schedules.
来看看吧
Come hang out.
非常抱歉这么晚才通知你们
I’m also super sorry that it is last minute notice.
如果我早点发布视频 你们就会更快了解到这消息
If I had put it together earlier, I would have let you know sooner.
因此如果你错过了 或你太忙 我完全理解
So if you miss it, if you’re too busy, I totally understand.
这是 额 话题转的有点快
This is– yeah. It’s a little quick turnaround.
最后一条消息是 我们将休息两周
And last bit of news, we’re gonna be taking two weeks off.
所以下次你看到创意视频的时间不是下周 也不是下下周
So the next time you see an Idea Channel video will not be next week or the week after that
而是下下周的下一周
but the week after that.
所以不久之后再见
So we’ll see you in a little bit.
当然 没有这些“笑哭脸”的辛勤工作
And of course, this week’s episode would not have been possible or good
也就没有本周的节目了
without the very hard work of these crying while laughing faces.

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视频概述

emoji表情是什么?它是文字吗?或者它是语言吗?本视频分析了emoji表情的功能,以及我们应该如何看待它

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喋喋

审核员

审核团HY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vRNVf-1M7xQ

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