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你能解开这个困局吗? – 译学馆
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你能解开这个困局吗?

Can You Solve This Dilemma?

这是一个思想实验
This is a thought experiment.
你需要迅速做出决定
You ’ re going to have to make some quick decisions,
所以请认真听
so listen carefully.
想象你站在一座桥上 俯瞰下面的铁轨
Imagine you’re on a bridge that overlooks some train tracks.
铁轨分成两条
The tracks split in two and you notice there ’s
你注意到一条铁轨上绑着一个人
one person tied to one of the tracks,
另一条上绑着五个人
and five people tied to the other.
一辆有轨电车正朝着
And there ’ s a runaway trolley that’s
那五个人开过去
coming right for the five people.
桥上有个开关
On the bridge there ’ s a switch
触动开关可以改变电车轨道
– you can hit it to change the course of the trolley
让它只撞死一个人而不是五个
from killing five people to killing one person.
你会怎么做?
What do you do?
现在事情变得有趣了
Okay, now things get interesting –
有趣到我觉得我们应该加点料
so interesting I think we need to add a little Vsauce.
我是Jake
Vsauce, I’m Jake
现在 你需要做另一个选择
and you are going to have to make another choice.
你在同样的桥上看着同样的铁轨
You’re back on the same bridge overlookingthe same train tracks.
桥上除了你还有一个人
There ’ s another guy on the bridge with you,
一个真的很壮的人
who ’ s really, well, rather large.
这次 有五个人被绑在铁轨上
And this time there’s five people tied tothe tracks.
突然 一辆有轨电车朝他们开过去
All of a sudden there ’ s a runaway trolley – coming right for them.
如果你把那个胖子推下桥
If you pushed the large man off the bridge,
他会掉在电车前面 让车停下
you know he would land in front of the trolley and stop it.
他会死 但铁轨上的五个人会得救
He would die, but it would save the five people on the tracks.
你会怎么做?严肃点
What would you do? No, seriously,
快点在评论中给出你对两个情景的答案
quickly write in the comments what you would do for each scenario.
给你一秒的时间
I’ll give you a second.
噢 快跑!
Oh, gotta go!
这就是“电车难题”
This is “ The Trolley Problem ”,
由哲学家菲利帕·福特和朱迪思·汤姆森提出的
a classic thought experiment in ethics, posed by philosophers
一个经典道德思想实验
Philippa Foot and Judith Thomson.
在第一种情况下
In the first scenario,
90%的人选择触动开关
90 % of those asked say they would pull the switch
牺牲一个人拯救五个人 看起来很合逻辑
– sacrificing one person to save five seems logical.
但在第二种情况中
But in the second scenario,
90%的人说他们不会推下那个胖子
90 % of those asked say they wouldn ’ t push the man.
不管是男性还是女性 不管受教育程度如何
And this response is consistent for men,
大家都给出了一致的回答
women and people with different levels of education.
这个古老的哲学辩题——电车难题 再次被提起
The Trolley Problem brings up this old debate in philosophy,
道德理性主义认为
where moral rationalism says
我们做的决定应纯粹基于理性
our decisions should be based on pure reason.
而道德感理论或感情主义则认为
On the other hand,
我们应该让情感引导我们的道德决定
moral sense theory or sentimentalism says our emotions should guide our moral decisions.
理性主义者认为电车难题的这两种情境很相似
Rationalists would say that these two scenarios in the Trolley Problem are pretty similar.
那为什么我们的答案如此不同呢?
So why are our answers so universally different?
2001年 神经系统科学家乔舒亚·格林
In 2001, neuroscientist Joshua Greene
给实验参与者提出一些道德困境
posed some moral dilemmas to participants while
同时用功能磁共振成像仪扫描他们的大脑
their brains were being scanned by an fMRImachine.
有一些客观的问题 如
These dilemmas were labelled impersonal;
如果你要迟到了 你应该乘公交还是火车
like, should you travel by bus or train if you ’ re running late?
客观并且和道德有关
Impersonal and moral;
你捡到钱包应该把钱还给失主吗
so, should you keep money you found in a lost wallet?
亲身并且和道德有关
And personal and moral;
一个健康的人落水了
like, should you throw a sick person off a lifeboat
你会为救他而把一个病人扔下救生艇吗?
to save a healthy person in the water?
研究人员发现亲身和客观难题激活的大脑区域不同
The researchers found different brain areas responded to impersonal and personal dilemmas.
思考客观难题时前额皮质比较活跃
The prefrontal cortex was more active in theimpersonal dilemmas.
即我们的理性思考中心
It ’ s our centre of reasoning,
它负责权衡利弊
where we weigh up the costs and benefits of,
留下捡到的钱包
say, keeping a lost wallet.
思考亲身遇到的难题时 杏仁核则更活跃
In the personal dilemmas, the amygdala wasmore active.
这是我们的情感中心当想到杀人时 我们会感到同情
It ’ s our centre of emotions and we feel empathy when we think about killing someone,
即使被杀的人是占据救生艇空间的病人
even if they’re sick and taking up spacein a lifeboat.
格林提出 做道德决定是一个双重过程
Greene suggested that moral decision making is a dual process
现在被称为双重过程理论
– now known as dual process theory.
在理性思考过程中
We have emotion-based and rationally-based
基于理性和基于感性的神经系统会 斗争
neural systems that compete in the reasoning process.
我们做决定时会用到这两个系统
We use both of them when we make a decision
但只有一个会赢
– one just wins out.
如果你触动开关
Basically, if you did hit the switch
或推下那个胖子 你的理性系统就赢了
or pushed the man your rational system won.
你的前额皮质比较了数字――牺牲一个
Your prefrontal cortex added up the numbers
拯救五个是对的 对吧?
– saving 5 lives over 1 life is good, right?
如果你既没触动开关也没有推下那个胖子
And if you didn ’ t do either of those things,
你的感性系统赢了
your emotional system won.
它对亲手杀掉别人大声抗议
It shouted a big “no!” to personally killingsomeone.
但是你的决定会刚好体现出你的道德水平吗?
But does your decision tell us if you’remorally just?
你那样做是英雄 还是坏人?
Were you being a hero, or a villain?
思想实验的目的是帮助测试
The purpose of thought experiments is to help test
你真正相信的是什么
what you really believe about something.
假设的情况迫使你做出决定
A hypothetical situation forces you to make a judgement,
这个决定通常会跟你认为和相信的不同
which is often different from what you think you believe.
在《人格病态的智慧》一书中
In his book, The Wisdom of Psychopaths,
心理学家凯文·达顿说
psychologist Kevin Dutton writes that psychopaths easily
精神病患者会很轻松的选择推下那个胖子
push the very large man off the bridge.
在第一种客观难题和第二种主观难题中
The brain activity of psychopaths is the same in the first,
精神病患者的大脑活动是一样的
impersonal dilemma and the second, personal dilemma.
他们仅使用理性思考系统
They purely use their rational neural system,
而不会使用感性思考系统
the emotional system doesn ’ t respond.
我们通常认为精神病患者是坏人
We tend to believe psychopaths are villains,
但这次他们的冷漠和算计 拯救了更多的人
but in this case, their cold and calculated actions save more lives.
那么 他们算是英雄吗?
So, are they be heroes here?
在电车难题中 你可能会为你的答案找到合理解释
You will probably find a way to justify your response in the Trolley Problem,
所以你认为 你是对的
so you think that you’re right,
但有些人会认为你是错的
but someone else will think that you’re wrong.
在这个问题中很难说
Really there’s no way to say
哪种做法是对的或错的
what is right and what is wrong in the Trolley Problem.
也正因此它被称为道德困境
That’s why it’s a moral dilemma.
回想之前那个哲学辩题
When you think back to that philosophical debate,
理性主义和感性主义都没有赢
neither rationalism nor sentimentalism wins.
你的答案完全取决于你大脑的构造
It all depends on your brain.
电车难题其自身也有问题
And the Trolley Problem has it’s own problems.
为什么老是有五个人被绑在铁轨上?
Why are there always five people stuck on the tracks?
为什么你老是待在这个桥上?
Why do you keep frequenting this bridge?
真有人体型大到能挡住电车吗?
Is one person really big enough to stop a trolley?
到底是谁用的电车这个词?
And who uses the word trolley anyway?
其实 电车难题只是个游戏
Really, the Trolley Problem is just a game.
让我们回到第一种情景中
Let’s go back to the first scenario.
想象绑在铁轨上的那个人是马里奥
And imagine the person tied up is Mario,
另外五个是乌龟
and the other five are Koopa Troopas.
你还会触动开关吗?
Do you still hit the switch?
牺牲马里奥来救五只乌龟值得吗?
Is sacrificing Mario worth the lives of five KoopaTroopas?
在玩类似超级马里奥的游戏时
Your actions in a game like Super Mario Bros. are
你的行为就是哲学家所说的“结果论者”的表现
what philosophy would call “ consequentialist ”
用尽一切手段到达下一关
– where you do everything possible to reachthe next level.
即使要杀掉一些可爱的小乌龟
Even if it means killing some of adorable little turtles.
然后你 或者你扮演的角色马里奥
And then you, or the character you play,
会因为这些行为而被当成英雄
Mario, is considered a hero because of the consequences of their actions,
你们拯救了一个人 公主
like saving one person, the princess.
但是 你真的是英雄吗?
But, are you really a hero?
或者你其实是个坏人?
Or are you a villain?
跟我去看Vsauce3吧
Follow me over to Vsauce3,
Jake在里面提出 马里奥是否邪恶?
where Jake asks, Is Mario Evil?
下周四再见
And see you next Thursday.
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视频概述

电车难题,要不要牺牲一个无辜的人去救五个人?要不要杀死那个胖子?

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