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你能解开时间旅行谜题吗?

Can you solve the time travel riddle? - Dan Finkel

解开本期谜题后 留下来猜道附加题
你在拉姆西教授的物理实验室实习的经历一直很棒
Your internship in Professor Ramsey’sphysics lab has been amazing.
直到有一天 教授不小心踏入了一个时间传送门
Until, that is, the professor accidentallystepped through a time portal.
在传送门关闭 把他困在历史中之前
You’ve got just a minute to jump through the portal to save him before it closes
你只有一分钟的时间跳进去救他
and leaves him stranded in history.
一旦你通过了入口 它就会关闭
Once you’re through it, the portal will close,
你唯一能回来的方法
and your only way back will
就是用你们实验室的延迟时间节点
be to create a new one
创造一个新的传送门
using the chrono-nodules from your lab.
通过红或蓝色的超光速粒子纠缠
Activated nodules connect to each other
启动的节点会彼此连接
via red or blue tachyon entanglement.
启动更多节点 它们就会和该区域其他节点相连
Activate more nodules and they’ll connect to all other nodules in the area.
一旦以节点为顶点形成红色或蓝色的三角形时
As soon as a red or blue triangle is created with a nodule at each point,
就会打开一扇穿越时空的门 带你回到现在
it opens a doorway through time that will take you back to the present.
但每一段连线呈现的颜色是随机的
But the color of each individualconnection manifests at random,
不可能选择或改变它的颜色
and there’s no way to chooseor change its color.
还有一个问题:
And there’s one more problem:
每个节点都会出现暂时的不稳定
each individual nodule creates a temporal instability
增加你在通过时 入口关掉的可能性
that raises the chances the portal might collapse as you go through it.
所以 带的节点越少越好
So the fewer you bring, the better.
入口就要关闭了
The portal’s about to close.
你最少要带多少节点 才能确保创造出
What’s the minimum number of nodulesyou need to bring
红色或蓝色的三角形 回到现在呢
to be certain you’ll create a red or blue triangle and get back to the present?
如果想要自己解解看 请在这里暂停!
Pause here if you want to figure it out for yourself!
答案即将公布:3
Answer in: 3
答案即将公布:2
Answer in: 2
答案即将公布:1
Answer in: 1
这个问题非常深奥 有一整个
This question is so rich that an entirebranch of mathematics
叫做拉姆西理论的分支 从它发展而来
known as Ramsey Theory developed from it.
拉姆西理论是许多著名难题的源头
Ramsey Theory is home to somefamously difficult problems.
这道题并不简单 但如果你系统性的来处理
This one isn’t easy, but it can be handled
是能够解决的
if you approach it systematically.
想像你只带了三个节点
Imagine you brought just three nodules.
那样够吗?
Would that be enough?
不够——比如 你可能会有两条蓝线和一条红线
No – for example,you might have two blue and one red connection,
那你就会永远被困在过去了
and be stuck in the past forever.
带四个节点够吗?
Would four nodules be enough?
不够——这里有许多种排法
No – there are many arrangements here
并不会出现蓝色或红色的三角形
that don’t give a blue or red triangle.
那五个呢?
What about five?
结果发现 有一种连接的排法
It turns out there is an arrangement ofconnections
并不会产生蓝色或红色的三角形
that avoids creatinga blue or red triangle.
这些小的三角形不算数
These smaller triangles don’t count
因为它们的顶点并不是节点
because they don’t have a nodule at each corner.
然而 六个节点总能出现蓝色或红色的三角形
However,six nodules will always create a blue triangle or a red triangle.
这儿就是 不用排出所有情况就足以论证的方法
Here’s how we can prove that without sorting through every possible case.
想像一下 启动第六个节点
Imagine activating the sixth nodule,
并想想它与其他五个节点连接的可能方式
and consider how it might connectto the other five.
可能的连接方式是这六种之一:
It could do so in one of six ways:
用五条红色连线 五条蓝色连线
with five red connections, five blue connections,
或蓝线和红线混合
or some mix of red and blue.
不论是哪种可能性
Notice that every possibility has
都会有至少三条同色的线 从这个节点连出来
at least three connections of the same color coming from this nodule.
咱们看看这三条同色线另一端的节点
Let’s look at just the noduleson the other end of those same three color connections.
如果这三条线是蓝线
If the connections were blue,
在这三个节点中 只要再有一条蓝线 就会出现蓝色三角形
then any additional blue connection between those three would give us a blue triangle.
那么 唯一可能出错的状况
So the only way we could get in trouble is
是它们之间所有连线都是红线
if all the connections between them were red.
但那三条红线 就会产生一个红色的三角形
But those three red connectionswould give us a red triangle.
不论发生哪种情况
No matter what happens,
都会得到红色或蓝色的三角形
we’ll get a red or a blue triangle,
打开我们的时空之门
and open our doorway.
另一方面
On the other hand,
如果原本的三条连线都是红线而非蓝色
if the original three connections were all red instead of blue,
同样的论点仍然适用 只是颜色対调而已
the same argument still works,with all the colors flipped.
换言之 不论这些连线是什么颜色
In other words, no matter how theconnections are colored,
只要有六个节点 就一定会出现红色或蓝色三角形 开启回家的门
six nodules will always create a red or blue triangle and a doorway leading home.
所以 你抓了六个节点便跳进入口
So you grab six nodules and jump through the portal.
你希望这个经历能带给你可贵的人生体验
You were hoping your internship wouldgive you valuable life experience.
结果 没过多少时间就成真了
Turns out, that didn’t take much time.
连接三点得到的三角形只能在关闭前
传送一个人
那么六个点时 能传送两个人吗?
或者其中一个会留在历史里
这个附加谜题的答案在“BRILLIANT”上揭晓
刚开始的问题建立了你的直觉
它是关于拼图的
这个可以帮你解开谜底
它们一开始会超出你的控制范围
帮你培养批判性思考的能力
上BRILLIANT.ORG/TEDED
前832名点击这个链接的人
将获得年度会员购买的8折优惠

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视频概述

你在一个物理实验室里实习,但是教授不小心掉入了一个时间入口,你需要带正确的数目的红蓝线才能成功救出教授。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ukUPojrPFPA

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