ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

由视觉错觉看文化对人的影响 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

由视觉错觉看文化对人的影响

Can you see these optical illusions?

这是世界上有名的视觉错觉中的一个
This is one of the world’s most famous optical illusions:
缪勒—莱尔错觉
the MULLER-LYER ILLUSION.
你可能已经知道
You probably already know
这里显示的两条线长度相同
that the the two lines shown here are exactly the same length.
尽管如此 你还是会不自觉的
Still, you can’t help but
认为上面的线长于下面的
perceive the top line has been longer than the bottom.
那么有没有不被这些错觉欺骗的方法呢?
But what if there’s a way to not fall for this illusion?
其实这取决于你的研究对象是谁
Well, that depends on who you talk to.
1996年时 当研究者把这一错觉图案展示给来自美国的抽样调查人群时
When researchers gave this illusion to a sample of Americans in 1966,
下方的线比上面的长了19%
the bottom line had to be 19% longer.
除了认为两条线长度相同的人
But for subjects perceived both lines as equal,
这个看起来是这样的
this would have looked like this.
但是 把视线放到工业化的国家之外
But, the moment you step outside of industrialized countries,
缪勒—莱尔错觉被极大的弱化了
the muller-lyer illusion becomes significantly weaker,
甚至消失了
and can even disappear.
举例来说
For example,
一个定居在喀拉哈里沙漠的非洲部落的人们
one African tribe, living in the Kalahari Desert,
根本不会有这种错觉出现
didn’t see this illusion at all,
他们很正确地回答说两条线一样长
correctly reporting that both lines were the same length.
因文化不同而发生变化的视觉错觉不止这一个
Now, that’s not the only optical trick that varies across culture.
再看一下这两条线
Take a look at these two lines,
它们长度相同
they’re exactly the same length.
现在看一下我在它周边画的平行四边形
Now watch as I draw this parallelogram around it.
突然间 直线A看起来比直线B长了 是不是
Suddenly line A looks much longer than line B, right?
当我把平行四边形移走时
And if I take it all away,
你又看到它们长度是一样的了
you go back to seeing them as the same length.
这就是 桑德错觉
This is called SANDER‘S PARALLELOGRAM.
生活在小规模社会的人们比起来
Once again, people living in industrialized societies
生活在工业化社会的人们
are more susceptible to this illusion
仍然属于比较易受这种错觉影响的群体
than those living in small-scale societies.
甚至基本的事物 比如说颜色也可以被区别看待
Even fundamental things like color can be seen differently.
比如说 新几内亚的丹尼部落的人们
For example, the Dani tribe in western New Guinea
只用两个词语来描述所有的颜色
only used two terms to describe all colors.
“米利”代表着阴冷的色调
MILI, represents cool dark shades,
像黑色 绿色 蓝色等
such as black, green and blue.
但是“莫拉”代表着温暖的色调
Whereas MOLA represents warm light shades,
像红色 黄色 白色这些
such as red, yellow and white.
这样的描述多样化的缺乏
This lack of descriptive variety
也使他们比讲英语的人
consequently made them worse at remembering colors,
更难记住颜色
when compared to English speakers.
现在这些不同只存在视觉的基础水平
Now these differences are only at the basic level of vision.
想象一下当你观察心理进程的更高层次时会发生什么
Imagine what happens when you look at the higher level of psychological processing.
心理学家特别关注
In particular, psychologists have focused
西方和非西方国家的差异
on the differences between western and non-western countries.
可能最笃定的不同就是
Perhaps the most well-established difference is
西方人倾向于个人主义
that Westerners tend to be more individualistic.
意思他们强调个人的权利
This means they emphasize the rights of the individual
重视像独立 自由选择权这样的事情
and value things like independence and freedom of choice.
另一方面来说 非西方的人们更倾向集体主义
On the other hand, non-Westerners are more collectivist.
意思是他们强调团队的目标
This means they emphasize the goals of the group,
重视相互依赖 团结合作这样的事情
and value things like interdependence and corporation.
那么 实际上这种不同给了我们一个机会
Now, these differences actually give us an opportunity
去站在局外人的角度来评估我们的社会
to evaluate our society from an outsider perspective.
比如说 在西方
For example, in the West,
我们很多的文化信息都是明显的个人主义
a lot of our cultural messages are clearly individualistic.
你听到过多少次这样的话语:做你自己
How many times have you heard phrases like: be yourself,
或者这样的话:不用担心其他人在想什么
or don’t worry about what other’s thinking.
但是按照集体主义者的心态
But from a collectivist mindset,
这看起来就有些自私了
this can seem sort of selfish.
在很多情况下 听从这样的建议
In many cases, following such advice
可能意味着忽视你的行为对他人的影响
would mean ignoring the consequences of your actions on others.
相反的 集体主义者的文化可能更像是
Instead, collectivist cultures would be more likely
牺牲小我
to sacrifice the needs of the individual
成就大我
in order to satisfy the needs of the group.
但是呢 站在个人主义者的角度来看
But then again, from an individualistic perspective,
这简直就是有损尊严的
this could easily be seen as demeaning.
因此 文化影响了我们对个体的看重程度
Hence cultures influence how much importance we place on the individual.
事实上 你会发现当日本人
In fact, you’ll find that as Japanese people
接触更多的西方文化时
get more exposure to Western culture,
他们的自尊心变强了
their self-esteem rises.
但是可能最出乎意料的不同
But perhaps the most unexpected difference
是和精神分裂症相关联的
relates to schizophrenia.
精神分裂症最主要的症状是幻听
One of the key symptoms of schizophrenia is hearing voices.
大家都知道 这些幻听是很折磨人的
These voices are known for being torturous.
病人们常说这些幻听在说他们无能
Patients often report their voices calling them worthless,
让他们去伤害别人
telling them to harm others,
甚至让他们去自杀
and even telling them to commit suicide.
但是幻听也有积极的一面
While there were some positive aspects,
没有人会说所有的经历都是积极的
not one person would label the overall experience as positive.
但出人意料的是 当斯坦福大学的教授塔尼娅•莱蒙
But surprisingly, when Stanford professor Tanya lemon
在印度和加纳研究精神病分裂症的患者时
studied schizophrenics in India and Ghana,
近半数的患者说他们的幻听
about half of them reported their voices
是种大部分时候都很积极的感受
as being a predominantly positive experience.
一个患者说他的幻听给予他帮助和关切的建议
One patient said the voices gave him helpful and protective advice,
其他人甚至和幻听发展了紧密的关系
others even developed a close relationship to the voices,
说幻听到的声音幽默又令人愉快
describing them as playful and entertaining.
目前来说 幻听也会有不好的体验
Now, there definitely were negative experiences, too.
但是整体来说 在这些非西方国家 精神分裂症要无害的多
But in general, schizophrenia was better in these non-western countries.
由此可得
So as you can see,
从视觉欺骗一直到心理疾病
from visual tricks all the way to mental illness,
文化深刻地影响了我们看待世界的角度
culture plays a huge role in how we come to view the world.
那么 你的文化是如何塑造你的呢?
So how does your culture shape you?

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

从不同社会的人们对视觉错觉图案的不同感受 到精神分裂症患者对幻听的不同感受 体验一下文化对人的影响吧!

听录译者

洛洛

翻译译者

来吧!尉英俊

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBRBvVRZWm0

相关推荐