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你真的能看出别人是否在对你撒谎吗? – 译学馆
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你真的能看出别人是否在对你撒谎吗?

Can You Really Tell if Someone is Lying to You?

你可能听说过各种各样可以用来判断某人是否在说谎的方法
You’ve probably heard of all kinds of tricks you can use to tell if someone’s lying.
比如六年前 从我这听说的
Like from me, six years ago,
说谎者经常用一些比较正式的语言去否认他们曾经做过的事情
liars often use more formal language to deny something that they’ve actually done.
哦天哪
Oh my god![laughs]
但是分辨谎言和事实并不像学习所有那些技巧一样简单
But separating lies from the truth isn’t as simple as learning all those techniques,
因为它们大部分都是基于一个设想
because most of them are based on the assumption
那就是说谎和说实话之间有内在的心理差异
that there’s an inherent psychological difference between lying and telling the truth.
但情况并非总是如此
And that is not always the case.
因为测谎仪也不是完全正确的
Which means a foolproof lie detector is unlikely, if not impossible.
比如说有人让他的狗在你的草坪上大便
Let’s say someone is letting their dog poop on your lawn
但你的邻居们没人承认是自己干的
but none of your neighbors are copping to it.
如果你是那种
If you’re the type of person
忠实观看每一集《别对我说谎》或《法律与秩序》的人
who faithfully watches every episode of lie to me or law and order.
你可能会认为你知道一两个关于察觉谎言的技巧
You might think you know a thing or two about detecting deception.
但是即使你使用了这些方法
But even if you tried those techniques
你可能也抓不住撒谎的人
you might not be able to catch the liar
或者更糟 你最后可能会指控错人
or worse, you might end up accusing the wrong person.
其中大部分技巧包括寻找比较强烈的情绪信号
Most of these things involve looking for signals of stronger emotions,
特别是害怕被发现的情绪
especially the fear of being caught.
例如 测谎仪
Polygraph machines, for example,
是根据与焦虑有关的一系列身体变化来检测谎言
are designed to detect lies based on changes to things associated with anxiety,
比如心跳加快或流汗
like an increased heart rate or sweating.
但是这些明显不可靠
And they’re notoriously unreliable.
还有一种根据细微的面部动作即微表情
There’s also the idea that minute facial movements, also known as microexpressions,
来揭示某人内心想法的方法
can reveal someone’s innermost thoughts.
但是微表情几乎没有任何实用性
But microexpressions actually have very little empirical basis,
尤其是你在实时观察别人表情的时候
especially if you’re talking about reading people in real time.
但是在此基础上发展计算机测谎方法还是有可能的
Well, there is some potential for developing computerized methods of lie detection based on it.
但这不是一种你随时随地都能
It’s not really a skill you can pick up and then use
掏出来用的技能
when you go confront your neighbor about that new mystery lawn turd.
实际上 微表情训练反而会让你分辨谎言的能力更弱
In fact, microexpression training can make you worse at detecting certain kinds of lies,
测谎仪不一定好用也是同一个道理
For the same reason, polygraphs don’t work.
情绪不是一个好的辨别谎言的方式
Emotions just aren’t a good way to tell if someone’s lying.
如果你在一间没有窗子的狭小房间里
Like it’s not that weird to think that you might be super anxious,
身上连着一台奇怪的机器 还得回答一个接一个的问题
if you’re in a tiny windowless room being intensely interviewed
不管你有没有说实话
while hooked up to a weird machine.
光这些让你感到超级焦虑也没什么奇怪的
whether or not you’re telling the truth.
另一方面
On the flip side,
一个超级自信的说谎者可能根本不会感到焦虑
a super confident liar might not feel anxious at all.
就算你在说谎时有更强烈的情绪波动
And even if you do feel stronger emotions when you lie,
它们可以根据你说谎的动机
they can vary based on your motivation for lying,
以及谎言被发现后的损失而有所差别
and what’s at stake if you’re found out.
因此最近对测谎的研究已经不再关注情绪信号
So more recent research into lie detection has stepped away from looking at emotional signals
而是更多地关注说谎会增加
and focused more on the idea that
心理学家所说的认知负荷这一观点
lying increases what psychologists call cognitive load.
如果你认为你的大脑就像一台计算机 当然你可能不会这么认为
If you think of your brain like a computer which you mostly shouldn’t,
那么认知负荷就像你的内存占用率
then cognitive load is like how much of your RAM is in use.
这一观点的意思是 当你说谎时 其实就是在编造事实
The idea is that when you lie you’re inventing things
玩弄真实和虚假
juggling the real and the fake
小心地将已被发现的线索加入到谎言中
carefully watching for hints that you’ve been found out
这将用掉相比你说实话时
and generally using more working memory
更多的内存
than you would be if you just told the truth
这一个观点同时也被大脑扫描研究支持
And that’s supported by brain scanning studies.
因为你只有这么多内存可以使用
Since you only have so much RAM to work with,
认知测谎依赖于挑战被测谎人的大脑
cognitive lie detection relies on challenging the suspected liar’s brain
并衡量他们处理额外工作的能力
and gauging how well they handle the additional work.
他们运用策略 像聊天的时候倒叙他们的故事
They use tactics like having people tell their stories in reverse,
重建当时的场景
draw diagrams of the scene,
做些体力活
or perform some other physical task while they’re talking.
然后他们寻找描述之间的不一致性
then they look for inconsistencies between accounts
或者语言和非语言线索的变化 比如停顿或肢体语言
or changes to verbal and nonverbal cues like pauses or body language
这种方法的成功率大概在2/3到3/4之间
This method works somewhere between 2/3 and 3/4 of the time
比掷硬币要靠谱一点
which is better than flipping a coin,
但是还不够完美
but still not great.
和强烈的情绪一样
And like stronger emotions,
高认知负荷并不是说谎者独有的
having a high cognitive load isn’t unique to liars.
一些人可能会因为完全不相关的事情导致大脑超负荷运行
Someone can have a lot going on in their head for completely unrelated reasons.
有一些近期的研究利用脑波扫描仪
There’s some newer research using brain scanners and
和其它高科技仪器来寻找对说谎有特殊用途的
other high-tech machines to look for specific brain pathways or
大脑通路或激活模式
activation patterns that are unique to lying.
但是至今他们还没有发现任何有用的信息
But so far, they have not found any magic bullets,
而且也不确定他们以后能不能发现
and it’s unclear if they ever will.
所以谎言和真相的区别并不如你想象的那么大
So there’s not as much distinguishing a lie and the truth as you might think.
一部分原因是当人们说谎的时候
Part of the reason might be that when people lie,
他们不会全部编造 而是把谎言嵌入事实
they don’t usually make everything up—they often tell embedded lies,
他们说的大部分都是真话
where most of what they’re saying is true.
比如 你问别人那条狗上次出现的地方
Like, if you asked that person about that dog ’s last walk
他们可能会告诉你
they might tell you about another day
他们没有经过你房子的那天
where they didn’t stroll past your house,
然后说:“我从不在你家附近遛狗!
and be like, “ I never walk past your house!
那天我在完全不同的街区”
That day I was in a completely different neighborhood.”
所以 他们的确在撒谎
So, they are lying,
但是他们的确也讲述了他们真实经历过的事
but they’re also giving a totally true account of a walk they really took.
撒谎是我们心理活动的重要成分
And lying is an essential part of our psychology—
我们出于各种理由撒谎
we lie for all kinds of reasons,
而且我们不仅对别人撒谎
and we don’t just lie to others,
我们还对自己撒谎
we lie to ourselves,
如此之多 以至于
so much so that what
我们看到的真相不断变化
we see as the truth is constantly shifting.
这些研究将对司法制度
While all of these studies are super important for things
和我们如何训练执法人员非常重要
like our justice system and how we train law enforcement,
但你不能用它们来判断你的邻居是不是在隐瞒
they aren’t really things that you can use to figure out if your neighbor is hiding the truth
狗狗在你的草地上大便的真相
about their dog pooping on your lawn.
他们一定这么做了 一定
Which they are. They definitely are.
运气好的话让他们坐下来接受一些泛泛的 一对一的录音采访
Like, good luck getting them to sit down for some extensive, taped one-on-one interviews
你可以试着分析他们的说话模式
so you can try to analyze their speech patterns
或者让他们重复他们遛狗的故事十六次
or check details while you’re getting them to retell
来发现他们故事中的漏洞
the story of their dog walk for the sixteenth time.
此外 成为一个好的测谎者往往会发生意外
Besides, trying to become a better lie detector often backfires.
仅仅试着辨认谎言或者你认为你有辨认谎言的能力
Simply trying to detect a lie or thinking you have the skills to do so
就会让你更有可能认为他们在撒谎
can make you more likely to think that a lie is being told—
心理学上称之为“说谎偏倚”
a phenomenon known as lie bias,
如果我们玩过“狼人杀”的话就会非常熟悉
which we’re all familiar with if we play the game “ Werewolf. ”
当接受考验时 那些把测谎作为自己工作的人例如警察
When put to the test, professionals who detect lies as a part of their jobs like cops,
也不能很好地分辨真实和虚构
don’t generally do a better job of telling fact from fiction
尽管他们对自己的判断很有信心
even though they’ re more confident in their assessments.
研究还发现接受测谎训练的人实际上
Studies have also found that people who undergo lie
比不接受测谎训练的人更难辨别出谎言
detection training can actually be worse at sniffing out liars than those who don’t.
不管怎样 我猜测你的邻居不那么热衷于被审问
Either way, I’d hazard a guess that your neighbors aren’t so keen on being interrogated.
因此设置一个摄像头捕捉狗的行为可能是一个更安全的方法
So setting up a camera to catch that dog in the act might be a safer bet.
感谢收看本期心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
如果你想要了解更多关于真相如何随时间改变
If you want to learn more about how the truth can change over time,
你可能会喜欢我们一期关于记忆如何被欺骗的节目
you might like our episode on how your memory can be tricked.
如果你想继续学习大脑科学
And if you want to keep learning more about your brain and how it works,
一定要点击订阅按钮哦
be sure to click on that subscribe button!
[片尾曲]
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