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你真的可以识破孩子的谎言么? – 译学馆
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你真的可以识破孩子的谎言么?

Can you really tell if a kid is lying? | Kang Lee

大家好
Hi.
我先问大家一个问题:
Let me ask the audience a question:
作为一个孩子的时候您撒过谎么?
Did you ever lie as a child?
如果有过 可以举手么?
If you did, could you please raise your hand?
天啊!这是我遇见过的最诚实的一群人
Wow! This is the most honest group of people I’ve ever met.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
在过去的二十年,
So for the last 20 years,
我一直在研究孩子们如何学会撒谎。
I’ve been studying how children learn to tell lies.
今天我将与给分享
And today, I’m going to share with you
我们的一些成果。
some of the discoveries we have made.
不过首先我想先讲一个 理查德·梅西纳先生的故事。
But to begin, I’m going to tell you a story from Mr. Richard Messina,
他是我的朋友 也是一名小学校长。
who is my friend and an elementary school principal.
一天他接到了一通电话
He got a phone call one day.
来电的人说,
The caller says,
“梅西纳先生,我的孩子乔尼 今天不去学校了
“Mr. Messina, my son Johnny will not come to school today
因为他生病了。“
because he’s sick.”
梅西纳先生问道
Mr. Messina asks,
”请问您是谁?“
“Who am I speaking to, please?”
来电的人说:
And the caller says,
”我是我爸爸。“
“I am my father.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以这个故事–
So this story —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
很好的总结了三个我们
sums up very nicely three common beliefs we have
对于孩子撒谎的常识。
about children and lying.
第一,孩子通常在上小学后
One, children only come to tell lies
开始撒谎。
after entering elementary school.
第二,孩子不会撒谎
Two, children are poor liars.
成人可以简单地识破他们。
We adults can easily detect their lies.
第三,如果孩子很早就开始撒谎
And three, if children lie at a very young age,
那么他们一定有一些人格缺陷,
there must be some character flaws with them,
并且一生都将是病态的撒谎者。
and they are going to become pathological liars for life.
然而结果是,
Well, it turns out
这三个认识都是错的
all of the three beliefs are wrong.
之前我们一直和全世界的
So,we have been playing guessing games
孩子们一起玩竞猜游戏。
with children all over the world.
这里有一个例子。
So,here is an example.
在这个游戏中, 我们请孩子们猜测卡片上的数字。
So in this game, we asked children to guess the numbers on the cards.
并告诉他们如果他们猜中了,
And we tell them if they win the game,
他们会得到丰厚的奖励。
they are going to get a big prize.
在游戏的中间,
But in the middle of the game,
我们会借故离开。
we make an excuse and leave the room.
离开前会告诉孩子们
And before we leave the room,
不要去偷偷看卡片。
we tell them not to peek at the cards.
当然了,
Of course,
隐藏的摄像头在房间
we have hidden cameras in the room
观察孩子们的一举一动。
to watch their every move.
因为孩子太想赢这个游戏,
Because the desire to win the game is so strong,
超过90%的孩子在我们离开后马上
more than 90 percent of children will peek
偷偷看了卡片。
as soon as we leave the room.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
关键的问题是:
The crucial question is:
当然们回来并且问孩子们
When we return and ask the children
他们是否偷看了卡片时,
whether or not they have peeked,
那些偷看了卡片的孩子
will the children who peeked confess
会承认他们违反了游戏规则么?
or lie about their transgression?
我们发现无论 性别 国籍 宗教信仰
We found that regardless of gender, country, religion,
30%的2岁孩子
at two years of age,
撒谎了。
30 percent lie,
70%承认了他们违反游戏规则。
70 percent tell the truth about their transgression.
三岁的孩子中,
At three years of age,
撒谎的人占了50%。
50 percent lie and 50 percent tell the truth.
四岁的孩子
At four years of age,
超过80%都在撒谎。
more than 80 percent lie.
大于四岁的孩子
And after four years of age,
绝大部分都在撒谎。
most children lie.
如您所见,
So as you can see,
撒谎确实是孩子成长过程中典型的一部分。
lying is really a typical part of development.
很多孩子在2岁的时候
And some children begin to tell lies
就已经学会了撒谎。
as young as two years of age.
现在我们仔细研究小孩子。
So now, let’s take a closer look at the younger children.
为什么不是所有的孩子都撒谎?
Why do some but not all young children lie?
在烹饪领域想做出好的食物
As in cooking, you need good ingredients
需要好的原料。
to cook good food.
一个好的谎言需要两个关键的原料。
And good lying requires two key ingredients.
第一个是心智理论,
The first key ingredient is theory of mind,
换言之读心的能力。
or the mind-reading ability.
读心能力是一种
Mind reading is the ability to know
知道相同情况下 不同的人知道不同的事情的能力,
that different people have different knowledge about the situation
是一种 可以区分我知道什么
and the ability to differentiate between what I know
和你知道什么的能力。
and what you know.
读心在撒谎时能力很重要
Mind reading is important for lying
因为撒谎从根本上说
because the basis of lying is that I know
就是我知道你不知道
you don’t know
我所知道的
what I know.
因此,我可以向你撒谎了。
Therefore, I can lie to you.
第二个撒谎的 关键因素是自我控制
The second key ingredient for good lying is self-control.
控制语言 控制面部表情
It is the ability to control your speech, your facial expression
控制身体动作。
and your body language,
这样的谎言才让人信服。
so that you can tell a convincing lie.
我们发现那些小孩子中
And we found that those young children
读心能力和自我控制能力更强的
who have more advanced mind-reading and self-control abilities
更早开始说谎
tell lies earlier
也成为了更老练的撒谎者。
and are more sophisticated liars.
事实证明,对我们来说,这两种能力
As it turns out, these two abilities are also essential for all of us
在社会中也是至关重要的。
to function well in our society.
并且读心能力和自我控制能力不足
In fact, deficits in mind-reading and self-control abilities
经常和一些严重的 发展问题 比如多动症和自闭症
are associated with serious developmental problems,
联系在一起。
such as ADHD and autism.
所以当你发现你二岁的孩子开始撒谎
So if you discover your two-year-old is telling his or her first lie,
不要惊慌
instead of being alarmed,
你应该庆幸
you should celebrate —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这意味着你的孩子进入了 典型发展的
because it signals that your child has arrived at a new milestone
新的里程碑。
of typical development.
那么 孩子不会撒谎么?
Now, are children poor liars?
你可以轻易的识破他们的谎言么?
Do you think you can easily detect their lies?
你愿意试试么?
Would you like to give it a try?
愿意?好的
Yes? OK.
我将要给各位看两段视频。
So I’m going to show you two videos.
视频中
In the videos,
孩子们将会回答研究者的问题
the children are going to respond to a researcher’s question,
“你偷看了卡片么?”
“Did you peek?”
试着告诉我
So try to tell me
哪一个孩子撒谎
which child is lying
那一个孩子说真话。
and which child is telling the truth.
这是第一个孩子。
So,here’s child number one.
准备好了么?
Are you ready?
(视频)-你撒谎了么?-没有。
(Video) Adult: Did you peek? Child: No.
这是第二个孩子
Kang Lee: And this is child number two.
(视频)-你撒谎了么?-没有。
(Video) Adult: Did you peek? Child: No.
认为第一个孩子撒谎的,
KL: OK, if you think child number one is lying,
请举手。
please raise your hand.
认为第二个孩子撒谎的, 请举手
And if you think child number two is lying, please raise your hand.
事实上,
OK, so as a matter of fact,
第一个孩子说的是真话
child number one is telling the truth,
第二个孩子在撒谎
child number two is lying.
看起来大家完全无法识破 孩子的谎言。
Looks like many of you are terrible detectors of children’s lies.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在我们给很多
Now, we have played similar kinds of games
从事各种行业的成年人
with many, many adults from all walks of life.
播放类似的视频。
And we show them many videos.
视频中一半的孩子撒谎了。
In half of the videos, the children lied.
另一半的孩子讲了真话。
In the other half of the videos, the children told the truth.
让我们看看成人识破谎言的表现。
And let’s find out how these adults performed.
因为说真话和假话的孩子各一半,
Because there are as many liars as truth tellers,
如果你随机的猜,
if you guess randomly,
你的正确率差不多50%。
there’s a 50 percent chance you’re going to get it right.
所以如果你的准确率在50%左右,
So if your accuracy is around 50 percent,
说明你看不出孩子的谎言。
it means you are a terrible detector of children’s lies.
我们先从和小孩子的交集
So let’s start with undergrads and law school students,
有限的本科生和法学院学生开始。
who typically have limited experience with children.
不 他们看不出孩子撒谎了,
No, they cannot detect children’s lies.
他们只是随机的猜测。
Their performance is around chance.
那么每天和孩子打交道的
Now how about social workers and child-protection lawyers,
社会工作者和保护儿童的律师 做得如何呢?
who work with children on a daily basis?
他们可以分辨孩子的谎言么?
Can they detect children’s lies?
不他们不能。
No, they cannot.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
法官呢?
What about judges,
海关官员,
customs officers
或者警察呢?
and police officers,
他们每天都在面对谎言,
who deal with liars on a daily basis?
他们可以看出孩子撒谎么?
Can they detect children’s lies?
不他们不能。
No, they cannot.
父母呢?
What about parents?
父母可以看出别的孩子撒谎么?
Can parents detect other children’s lies?
不他们不能。
No, they cannot.
那么父母可以看出 自己的孩子撒谎么?
What about, can parents detect their own children’s lies?
不还是不能。
No, they cannot.
(笑声)(掌声)
(Laughter) (Applause)
现在你可能会问
So now you may ask
为什么孩子的谎言不容易被识破?
why children’s lies are so difficult to detect.
让我用我的儿子内森来说明。
Let me illustrate this with my own son, Nathan.
这是他撒谎时
This is his facial expression
的面部表情。
when he lies.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以孩子撒谎是
So when children lie,
他们的面部表情是很自然的。
their facial expression is typically neutral.
然而在自然的表情背后
However, behind this neutral expression,
孩子在体验一系列的感情
the child is actually experiencing a lot of emotions,
有害怕,内疚,羞耻
such as fear, guilt, shame
也许还有一点骗人的喜悦。
and maybe a little bit of liar’s delight.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
可是这些表情或一闪而过 或被隐藏的很好
Unfortunately, such emotions are either fleeting or hidden.
对于我们来说很难捕捉。
Therefore, it’s mostly invisible to us.
所以过去的五年中
So in the last five years,
我们一直在寻找 挖掘隐藏的表情的办法。
we have been trying to figure out a way to reveal these hidden emotions.
后来我们有了发现。
Then we made a discovery.
我们知道在脸的皮肤下面
We know that underneath our facial skin,
是丰富的血管网络。
there’s a rich network of blood vessels.
在我们经历不同的情感的时候,
When we experience different emotions,
我们面部血液流动也会稍微改变。
our facial blood flow changes subtly.
这些改变受自动系统的控制
And these changes are regulated by the autonomic system
人为无法刻意改变。
that is beyond our conscious control.
通过观察面部血液流动变化,
By looking at facial blood flow changes,
我们可以发现人们隐藏的表情。
we can reveal people’s hidden emotions.
不过这种情感相关的 血液流动
Unfortunately, such emotion-related facial blood flow changes
太过于微小以至于肉眼无法看到。
are too subtle to detect by our naked eye.
所以我们设计了新的图像技术
So to help us reveal people’s facial emotions,
来帮助我们捕捉人们的面部表情。
we have developed a new imaging technology
我们叫它“透皮光学成像”。
we call “transdermal optical imaging.”
我们用普通的镜头记录
To do so, we use a regular video camera to record people
正在经历着各种隐藏的感情的人
when they experience various hidden emotions.
然后使用图像处理技术
And then, using our image processing technology,
我们可以通过观察经皮视频,
we can extract transdermal images of facial blood flow changes.
提取面部血液流动的经皮图像。
By looking at transdermal video images,
现在我们可以清楚地看到
now we can easily see
由于各种隐藏的表情 造成的血液流动。
facial blood flow changes associated with the various hidden emotions.
使用这个技术
And using this technology,
我们可以判断 与撒谎相关的隐藏表情
we can now reveal the hidden emotions associated with lying,
进而识破人们的谎言。
and therefore detect people’s lies.
我们可以在 不侵害被试者的情况下
We can do so noninvasively,
远程地 廉价地进行操作
remotely, inexpensively,
并且有85%的准确率,
with an accuracy at about 85 percent,
比随机要好得多。
which is far better than chance level.
此外我们发现了匹诺曹现象。
And in addition, we discovered a Pinocchio effect.
不不不不是这个现象。
No, not this Pinocchio effect.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是真的匹诺曹现象。
This is the real Pinocchio effect.
当人们撒谎时,
When people lie,
脸颊的面部血液流动减少
the facial blood flow on the cheeks decreases,
鼻子的血液流动增加。
and the facial blood flow on the nose increases.
当然撒谎并不是
Of course, lying is not the only situation
激发隐藏表情的唯一情况。
that will evoke our hidden emotions.
所以我们思考,
So then we asked ourselves,
除了测试谎言之外,
in addition to detecting lies,
这项技术还可以用来做什么?
how can our technology be used?
在教育领域可以应用这门技术。
One application is in education.
比如使用这项技术可以帮助 这位数学老师
For example, using this technology, we can help this mathematics teacher
发现那些教室里对于他讲的内容
to identify the student in his classroom
深感焦虑的学生。
who may experience high anxiety about the topic he’s teaching
这可以很好地帮助老师。
so that he can help him.
这门技术同时可以用在健康护理上。
And also we can use this in health care.
比如 每天我和离我几千公里
For example, every day I Skype my parents,
的父母Skype,
who live thousands of miles away.
使用这门技术,
And using this technology,
我不仅可以知道他们那里发生了什么
I can not only find out what’s going on in their lives
同时我可以监测他们的心率 紧张程度
but also simultaneously monitor their heart rate, their stress level,
他们的情绪或者是否处于痛苦之中。
their mood and whether or not they are experiencing pain.
也许将来
And perhaps in the future,
心脏病和高血压的风险 也可以被检测出来
their risks for heart attack or hypertension.
也许你会问:
And you may ask:
我们可以识破政客的表情么?
Can we use this also to reveal politicians’ emotions?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
比如在辩论中的表情
For example, during a debate.
是的我们可以。
Well, the answer is yes.
使用电视新闻片段,
Using TV footage,
我们可以检测政客的心率,
we could detect the politicians’ heart rate,
情绪紧张程度,
mood and stress,
也许将来也可以判断他们是否在说谎。
and perhaps in the future, whether or not they are lying to us.
这项技术也可以用于市场调查,
We can also use this in marketing research,
比如去探究
for example, to find out
人们喜不喜欢特定的消费产品。
whether or not people like certain consumer products.
我们甚至可以用在约会上。
We can even use it in dating.
比如,
So for example,
如果你的约会对象对你笑,
if your date is smiling at you,
这门技术可以帮助你判断
this technology can help you to determine
她是真的喜欢你
whether she actually likes you
还是只是努力对你友善一些。
or she is just trying to be nice to you.
在这个照片中,
And in this case,
她只是想对他友善一点。
she is just trying to be nice to you.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以透皮光学成像技术
So transdermal optical imaging technology
仅仅处于起步阶段。
is at a very early stage of development.
将来会有更多 意想不到的新应用出现。
Many new applications will come about that we don’t know today.
然而我坚信
However, one thing I know for sure
研究谎言的未来 将会因此变得不同。
is that lying will never be the same again.
谢谢大家
Thank you very much.
谢谢
Xiè xie.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

你真的能识破孩子的谎言么?那有什么科技能帮我们识别呢

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6diqpGKOvic

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