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人们真的会因为年龄太大而死去吗?

Can You Really Die of Old Age?

在某些观点中 你很有可能已经听说过
At some point, you ’ ve probably heard
在通常情况下 一个人一般被认为是“因年老而死”
of someone who supposedly “ died of old age. ” Usually,
这就是说他们的死亡与变老有关
that just means they died of complications related to getting older,
或者由于某些情况
or from something
一个更年轻的人有可能从疾病幸存 比如肺炎
a younger person might have survived, likepneumonia. Because,
因为即使年龄能够加速一些人的死亡速度
even though age can contribute to someone ’ s death,
事实几乎上完全不是这样
it almost definitely won ’ t
年龄不是直接原因
be the direct cause.
我们身体内的细胞的确有固定的使用寿命
The cells in our bodies do have a set lifespan —
或者一种现象表明它们不再分裂
or a point at which they quit dividing
但是你永远不会看见这被写在一张死亡证明上
— but you’ll never find that written ona death certificate.
这叫做细胞衰老
It ’ s called cellular senescence,
科学家们认为这极有可能是因为一些小构造
and scientists think it ’ s mostly because of little structures
存在于你的染色体的末尾的染色体终端
on the end of your chromosomes called telomeres.
染色体终端是重复的脱氧核苷酸的扩张部分 也是组成DNA的混合物
Telomeres are stretches of repeating nucleotides, the compounds that make up DNA.
它们像帽子一样覆盖基因原料的顶端去保护它们
And they act as caps to protect the genetic material
在你的染色体移动 复制的时候
in your chromosomes during cellular reproduction.
每次细胞分裂时
Each time a cell divides,
这些染色体终端就会变短一点 多亏了那种特殊结构
those telomeres get a little shorter, thanks to the mechanics
当染色体复制的时候
of how chromosomes are copied.
当它们变得足够短时 细胞衰老就开始了
And when they get short enough, senescence sets in,
这些衰老的细胞再也不能复制了
and the cell can ’ t duplicate itself anymore.
但是其它因素也可以加速细胞老化
But other factors also contribute to cellaging.
一种就是氧化反应
One is oxidative stress,
或者由于剧烈的化学反应对你的DNA造成的伤害
or damage done to your DNA by highly reactive molecules that
包括氧化反应
contain oxygen.
另一种就是糖化
Another is glycation,
就是当糖分子附着在你细胞的主要部分上
which is when sugar molecules bind to key parts of your cells
然后糖分子就会阻止这些细胞的功能 不幸的是
and prevent them from functioning. Unfortunately,
所有的这些随着时间的流逝都是无可避免的
all of these things are prettymuch inevitable over time.
你可以采取一些措施去抵抗他们 比如
You can take some actions to combat them — like,
你可能听说过抗氧化剂
you might ’ ve heard how antioxidants in certain
食物可以抵抗氧化的影响
foods can fight the effects of oxidation —
但是你不能完全停止它们
but you can ’ t stop them completely.
在你的细胞完全不能复制之前
Scientists aren ’ t sure how old you ’ d have to be
科学家们不知道你究竟能活多少岁
before your cells just couldn ’ t duplicate anymore,
而这是
but that ’ s
因为年龄性的疾病和损伤往往会
because age-related diseases and injuries will catch up with someone
远早于细胞衰老直接导致的死亡
long before they can die directly of cellularsenescence.
当一个人变得越来越老 所有这些来源引起的损伤堆积在一起
As someone gets older and damage from all these sources pile up,
他们的细胞更有
their cells are more
可能在一些问题发生时 在正常工作和自我修复方面出现问题
likely to have problems working correctly and fixing themselves when something goes wrong.
就是说他们的免疫系统变得更不堪一击了
That means their immune system gets weaker,
他们变得更容易被这些情况影响然后患上
and they become more susceptible to all kinds
所有种类的损伤和疾病 例如心脏病和高血压
of injuries and diseases, like heart and blood pressure problems,
还有阿兹海默症
and Alzheimer ’ s.
当这些疾病出现时
When these diseases appear,
它们能够影响人们自由行动和自理的能力
they can affect someone ’ s ability to get around and take
同样它们也可以导致一些器官类的疾病
care of themselves, and can also cause problems in their organ systems.
即使年龄可能是一个促进因素
And those will be the direct causes of death,
但是那些才是直接导致死亡的原因
even though age may be a contributing factor.
感谢Patreon的赞助人Tommy Boyer的技术支持
Thanks to Patreon patron Tommy Boyer for asking,
感谢所有的投票支持者
and thanks to all of our patrons who voted
帮助我们票选出这个问题进行解答
on our poll to help us choose this question to be answered.
如果你想要提出你的问题 帮助西客秀继续存在下去
If you ’ d like to submit your questions and help SciShow keep existing,
访问以下网址 “patron.com/scishow”
go to patron.com/scishow.

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视频概述

一个科普短视频,介绍有关人类死亡的真相

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

碎瑶

审核员

审核员 SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsrJk8M5XYw

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