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“本性难移”是真的吗? – 译学馆
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“本性难移”是真的吗?

Can You Really Change Your Personality?

[序乐]
[INTRO ♪]
根据很多网站的说法
According to hundreds of websites across the Internet,
人的性格是与生俱来的
your personality is 100 % something you’re born with.
所以不管人潮让你兴奋
So whether you get hyped up by huge crowds
还是让你厌倦
or people tire you out…
你都要面对这一切
well, you just have to deal with it.
除非 这个说法和网上的许多东西一样 并不可靠
Except, like many things online, that isn’t true.
研究表明人的性格是可以改变的
Research suggests that you can change your personality
只要你愿意为之努力
if you’re willing to work for it.
你只需要知道该怎么改变
You just have to know how.
如今 大多心理学家将性格定义为
Today, most psychologists define personality as the automatic pattern
人在给定的情境下自然表现出来的思维 情绪和行为模式
of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that come out in certain situations
并且这种模式会因人而异
and that change from person to person.
换句话说 如果你性格外向 又受到身边人的激励
In other words, if you’re an extravert and get energized by being around people,
你可能不大会在参加聚会时这样鼓励自己:
you probably don’t walk into a party and go,
“是时候表现得外向些了!加油呀!”[拍手]
“Time to act extraverted! Pa-pow!” [clap]
因为你自然而然就可以做到
You just do it automatically.
尤其是在心理学发展的早期
Especially in the early days of psychology,
很多科学家确实认为这些性格特征会伴随人的一生
many scientists did think these traits stayed the same throughout your lifetime.
这可能是因为 很多人都认为性格不过是由
That could be because plenty of people thought personality was only determined
人脑和神经系统中的小小区别决定的
by tiny differences in your brain and nervous system.
然而如今 多数研究者认为 这个说法还有待商榷
Today, though, most researchers agree there’s much more to the story.
最近的研究确实表明 人的性格与基因有关
Recent studies do suggest that some of your personality is related to your genetics,
但也和很多其他因素有关
but there are plenty of other factors, too.
这些研究很多都采用五因素模型或大五人格模型对人格进行分类
Many of these studies break down personality using the five-factor model, or the Big Five.
它将人的性格特质分成五大类:
It puts personality traits into five general categories:
外倾性 宜人性 认真性 经验开放性 和神经质
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and neuroticism.
神经质有时也被称为情绪稳定性
That last one is also sometimes called emotional stability.
通常来说 你所表现出来的
The degree to which each of these traits shows up
性格特质程度是非常稳定的
in your personality is pretty stable, for the most part.
不过在漫长的一生中也会发生变化
But it does change throughout your life.
例如 研究表明 随着年岁的增长
For example, as people age,
人们往往会变得更加小心谨慎
studies suggest that they tend to become more conscientious.
而且诸如结婚之类的人生大事也会提高人们的情绪稳定性
And life events like getting married have been shown to increase emotional stability.
所以 可以确定 人格是可以改变的
So, sure, your personality can change.
不过关键的问题是 你能否特意改变性格
But the real question is, can you change it on purpose,
而无需等待人生大事来改变它
without waiting for your life to change?
是啊 对有些人来说 这就是他们心理治疗的目标
Well,yeah! For some people, that’s actually the goal of therapy.
比如说 有些人可能会开始做心理咨询
Like, someone might start counseling
来帮助他们变得更善于社交 或更有条理更加专注
to help them become more social or more organized and on-task.
不过似乎也有其他方法可以做到这一点
But there also seems to be other ways to do it.
假如说你很想变得更加外向
Let’s say you want to become more extraverted,
因为你烦透了那种大型聚会导致的疲惫感
because you’re sick of being tired out by big parties.
那么现在有一个好消息:
Well, good news:
外倾性似乎是其中可塑性较强的一种特质
Extraversion seems to be one of the more malleable traits out there.
以2015年发表在《人格与社会心理学》
Take the results of a 2015 study published
期刊上的一项研究结果为例
in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
在这项研究中 研究者让151名本科生
In it, researchers had 151 undergraduates
选出他们想改变的具体性格特征
choose specific traits they wanted to change,
并为此树立具体的目标
make specific goals to accomplish that,
然后为这个目标坚持努力4个月
then work toward these goals over a period of four months.
在这段时间里
Throughout that time,
他们会不定期做自我引导的性格测试来检查效果
they checked in by occasionally taking the same self-guided personality test.
最终 那些测试表明试验参与者都成功地
In the end, those tests showed that participants were successful
提高了他们的外倾性和情绪稳定性水平
at boosting their levels of extraversion and emotional stability.
2018年有一项研究也在相同时间范围内
A 2018 study with almost 400 participants
对约400名受试者做了类似的试验
did something similar over the same timeframe.
不过该研究没有让受试者设定自己的目标
But instead of letting participants make their own goals,
而是让他们每周报名一些“挑战”项目
they got to sign up for a few “challenges” every week
以帮助他们改变自己所选的性格特征
that helped them change their chosen traits.
例如 那些想变得更加外向的人
For example, someone who wanted to become more extraverted
可能会被要求去挑战和陌生人交谈
might be challenged to have a conversation with a stranger.
总之 大多数人完成挑战后
When it was all said and done, most people were able to increase
他们的外倾性 情绪稳定性和认真性都能得到提高
their extraversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousness if they completed the challenges,
但他们的开放性和宜人性没有显著改变
but not their openness or agreeableness.
当然 这并不是说你不能改善这些性格特质
Of course, that’s not to say youcan’t improve those traits.
2015年的一项研究发现了相似的复杂结果
The 2015 study saw similarly mixed results,
那些作者指出这可能是样本量太小的缘故
and those authors pointed out that they could be due to small sample sizes.
不过总的来说 这些作者的主要观点就是
Overall, though, the authors’takeaway was
如果你愿意 似乎是可以改变自身性格的
that you seem to be able to change your personality if you want to.
不过在你点击离开本视频 亲自试验这个方法前
But before you click away from this video and try this for yourself,
还要知道 有些改变性格的方法可能比其他方法好
know that some methods for doing this are likely better than others.
比如 在2018年的另一项研究中
Like, in a different 2018 study,
科学家并没有让受试者设定具体目标
scientists didn’t have people set specific goals.
只是要求一些既外向又内向的受试者
They just asked some participants—who were both introverts and extraverts—
在整整一周内表现出外向行为
to act extraverted for a full week.
然而并非所有人都觉得轻松愉快
And it wasn’t all sunshine and roses.
报告记录 那些天生内向的受试者
The participants who were naturally introverted reported feeling
比外向者更不开心 更加疲惫
less happy and more tired than the extraverted group.
直白点说 他们感觉自己没那么真实了
Maybe most understandably of all, they also said they felt less authentic.
这说明特意表现得不一样并不是
This suggests that just acting differently isn’t
一个改变性格的好方法
a great way to change your personality.
相反 关键可能在于要找到具体的
Instead, the key might be to find specific actions
能帮助你训练所选性格特质的行为
that can help you practice your chosen trait.
所以 如果你想变得更外向
So, if you want to be more extraverted,
就不要只想着放弃独处时间
don’t just throw your alone time out the window.
先从小事做起吧 比如立一个成功邀请同事喝咖啡的小目标
Start small—maybe by setting a goal to finally invite that coworker to coffee.
或者 如果你想要变得更加小心谨慎
Or if you want to be more conscientious,
你可以在工作中主动负责项目来训练这一性格
you could practice that by volunteering to take on a project at work.
最后 你很可能就改变了性格中的一些方面
Ultimately, you probably can change parts of your personality if you want to.
不过这似乎和其他目标一样:
But it seems to be just like any other goal:
你必须要让它具体化
You have to make it concrete,
然后一步一步向那个目标迈进
and you have to take specific steps to get there.
感谢Patreon赞助人对本期科学秀视频的支持
Thanks to our patrons on Patreon for supporting this episode of SciShow!
您捐赠的每一笔款项都会帮助我们研究得更深入细致
Every contribution you make helps us do more research, make more graphics,
从而产出更多如本期一样精彩的视频
and produce more episodes like this one.
总之 你们是最棒的
Basically, you’re the best.
若想加入我们Patreon社区 帮助我们做出更多视频
If you want to join our Patreon community and help us make more episodes,
可以前往patreon.com/scishow了解详情
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视频概述

本视频列举了多项研究的成果,试图论证“人可以改变性格”,但需要注意方法。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Estherrr

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHM3ItHd22I

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