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太空适宜酿酒吗 – 译学馆
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太空适宜酿酒吗

Can You Make Alcohol in Space?

在国际空间站工作可能是最酷的
The people who work on the International Space Station probably have one of the coolest jobs
工作之一了
out there.
从窗口向外看就是整个地球
I mean, the view from their office window is the entire planet.
有些人甚至能太空漫步
Some of them even get to do spacewalks.
但至少有一点宇航员是比不上我们的:
But working on Earth does have at least one perk that astronauts don’t:
漫长一天后 我们大多数人都可以回家喝上一杯冰爽的啤酒
After a long day, most people can come home to a nice cold brew.
而几十年来 NASA严禁所有的宇航员喝酒
But for decades, NASA has had a strict no-alcohol policy for all its astronauts.
这并没有阻挡我们研究如何在太空中酿酒
That hasn’t stopped us from doing research on how to make the stuff in space, though.
尽管太空轨道上恒温 失重 高辐射
Orbit — with its constant temperature, weightlessness, and higher radiation — is a very different
与地球环境大大不同
environment from anything you’d find on Earth.
并且这些因素都会影响酿酒过程
And all those factors affect the alcohol-making process.
啤酒 葡萄酒和烈酒中的酒精 源于一种叫酿酒酵母的
The alcohol in your beer, wine, and spirits comes from a tiny fungus called Saccharomyces
微小真菌
cerevisiae.
也就是你知道的酵母
Which you might also know as yeast.
通过发酵 酵母摄入植物中糖类 将其转化为能量并生成
Through fermentation, yeast ingests plant sugars, converts them to energy, and releases
二氧化碳和乙醇——就是你喝的酒精
carbon dioxide and ethanol — aka the kind of alcohol you can drink.
你喝什么酒由发酵原料的种类决定
What the yeast eats determines what kind of drink you end up with.
谷物发酵产生啤酒;葡萄发酵得到葡萄酒
If you ferment grains, you produce beer; if you ferment grapes, you get wine.
回到航空航天领域 NASA设计了一个酿造小批量
Back in the Space Shuttle area, NASA sent up an experiment designed to brew a tiny batch
空间啤酒的实验项目
of space beer.
不同于酿造啤酒的水壶和大桶
Instead of using the kettles and vats normally used for beer production, this space brew
太空啤酒在一个类似注射器的设备中发酵它有一个形象的名字
was fermented in a syringe-like device with a very descriptive name, called a Fluid Processing
叫流体处理装置
Apparatus.
与此同时 研究人员用完全相同的工艺在地球上酿造啤酒
Meanwhile, researchers made beer on Earth using the exact same process.
实验结束后 研究人员比较了太空啤酒和地球啤酒
Once the mission ended, they compared the beers and found that the beer brewed in space
发现太空啤酒中的活酵母细胞较少
contained fewer living yeast cells.
这出乎研究者意料 因为太空中酵母实际上与它的食物接触更充分
Now that was unexpected because the space yeast actually had better access to food.
因为在微重力条件下没有任何物质会沉降 酵母和谷物应该
Since nothing settles to the bottom in microgravity, the yeast and the grain should’ve been more
混合得更加均匀
evenly mixed.
而那些还活着的酵母细胞 其与压力相关的蛋白质水平更高
But the cells that were still alive also produced higher levels of a protein linked to stress
这表明微生物的太空之旅可能和我们一样艰辛
so spaceflight might be as rough on the tiny organisms as it is on us.
这也帮助解释了为什么这次太空之旅存活的细胞如此少
Which could help explain why so few cells survived the trip.
航天飞机的短途旅行对于酿造啤酒有意义 但熟化威士忌需要的时间
The Shuttle’s short trips made sense for brewing beer, but aging whiskey takes much
更长
longer.
所以在2011年 另一组研究人员把小批量的新鲜苏格兰威士忌
So in 2011, another group of researchers sent a small batch of fresh scotch whiskey to the
送到国际空间站进行了为期两年半熟化
International Space Station on a two and a half year trip.
和啤酒实验一样 他们在地球也保存了一个对照样品
Like with the beer experiment, they kept a sample here on Earth as well.
通常 威士忌储存在橡木桶中进行熟化 从橡木中
Usually, whiskey is stored in oak barrels during the ageing process and gets its flavors
汲取风味
from the wood.
但是一个桶太大了 难以送到并且保存在国际空间站 所以这两个批次威士忌都是密封保存在
But a barrel would be too big to send up and store on the ISS, so both batches were sealed
装有橡木颗粒的小瓶中
into small vials with some oak shavings.
太空苏格兰威士忌一回到地球 两个样品就通过化学方法和训练有素的
Once the space scotch got back to Earth, both samples were compared chemically and by trained
品酒师测试员进行对比
taste testers.
威士忌的香味通常来自于橡木中的化学浸出物
Normally, whiskey gets some of its flavor from the chemicals in wood leaching out, so
研究人员期望轨道上橡木与酒精更有效的混合能创造
researchers expected the more efficient mixing of oak and alcohol in orbit to create more
更浓郁的木质香味
intense woody flavors.
然而相反 微重力似乎减慢了分解过程 最终得到的威士忌
Instead, microgravity seemed to slow the breakdown process, and they ended up with a whiskey
与地球上的对照样本完全不同
that was very different from the control sample.
地球上的威士忌散发芳香的木材味 也带有雪松
The samples that were aged on Earth had a woody aroma, with hints of things like cedar,
香草和焦橙味
and vanilla, and burnt oranges.
另一方面 太空苏格兰威士忌的浓烈味道 引用形容如下
On the other hand, space scotch’s intense aroma was described as having, quote, “hints
“有防腐烟 橡胶 烟熏鱼的气味 带有奇特的芳香气味
of antiseptic smoke, rubber and smoked fish, along with a curious, perfumed note, like
另外有紫罗兰和黑醋栗的香味 木质气味浓厚 有一种肉味 ”
violet or cassis, and powerful woody tones, leading to a meaty aroma.”
这…听起来似乎不是很美味
Which … does not sound super appetizing.
所以 在我们找到更好的酿酒方法前 地球轨道不是个
So maybe Earth orbit isn’t the best place to make alcohol until we figure out a better
酿酒的好地方
way to do it.
感谢观看本期的科学秀太空频道
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space, and thanks especially to our patrons
特别感谢在Patreon上的赞助者 是你们让这个节目顺利进行
on Patreon who help make this show possible.
如果你想帮助我们保持节目的顺利进行 可以去patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help us keep making episodes like this, you can go to patreon.com/scishow
了解详情
to learn more.
不要忘记得去youtube.com/scishowspace订阅我们的频道哦!
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!

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视频概述

太空中可以酿酒吗?跟地球上酿出的酒有何不同?研究人员就太空中酿造的啤酒以及在熟化的威士忌与地球上的进行对比。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87-QWmynpyA

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