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完美的音调你能学会吗? – 译学馆
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完美的音调你能学会吗?

Can You Learn Perfect Pitch?

如果你听到任意的一些音符 你能分辨出它们是什么音吗?
If you heard some random music notes, would you be able to figure out what they were?
比如 你能听得出这是D音吗?
Like, could you just tell that this … is a D,
而这个音—-很明显是一个降A
and this—absolutely an A-flat?
也许你只是很会猜 或者你拥有一个罕见的能力叫做“绝对音高”
Maybe you’re just great at guessing, or you could have a rare ability called perfect pitch,
那么你和莫扎特一样
which puts you in the same club as Mozart.
绝对音高 或者说绝对音感
Perfect pitch, also called absolute pitch,
能让你在不连续的音乐中 仍辨别得出音高
allows you to identify musical notes without context,
如果你是个音乐人 这点对你很有帮助
which is especially helpful if you are a musician.
很多研究似乎都告诉你这个技能要从小学起
Most research seems to say you have to learn it as a kid.
但通过勤加练习 成人也可能会获得一定的绝对音感
But with lots of practice, it might be possible to develop sort-of perfect pitch as an adult.
许多研究表明 想要拥有绝对音感
Many studies suggest that to have perfect pitch,
你需要在6岁左右就开始音乐训练 并持续一段时间的严格训练来培养
you need to start musical training around six years old, during a critical period of development.
在此期间 你的大脑会区分哪些神经通路对辨别音高是有用的
During this time, your brain is figuring out which neural pathways will be useful,
哪些是需要摒弃的
and which ones it should just get rid of.
音调是赋予声音意义的 比如这个音……是C音
The key is giving sound meaning, like that this sound … is a C.
就好比知道那蜷缩在你身旁 毛茸茸的流着口水的动物 叫做小狗
Just like learning that the fluffy, slobbery thing that cuddles up next to you is called a dog.
同样 如果你说的语言声调对词意影响很大 好比汉语
Also, if you speak a tonal language where pitch affects the meaning of words, like Mandarin,
你就更有可能掌握绝对音感
you could be more likely to develop perfect pitch,
因为你的大脑从一开始就将不同的音调和其对应的意思联系了起来
since your brain has been associating different pitches with meaning from the start.
但如果你还没有主动地学过音符
But if you’re not actively learning musical notes,
你的大脑会忽略那些与辨音有关的结构 这样大脑工作地会更有效率些
your brain will get rid of those extra sound-identifying connections so it can become more efficient.
大多数研究都是相关性研究 这意味着科学家们并没有巧妙地处理多个相关变量
Most of this research is correlational, meaning that scientists didn’t manipulate any variables
比如说 把一些语言和音符组合起来教婴儿
and, like, teach babies certain combinations of language and musical notes.
但是知道大脑如何开发 还是很有意义的
But it still makes sense with what we know about how the brain develops.
如果你错过了形成绝对音感的关键期
If you missed that critical period of development,
研究者也无法肯定你是否能形成绝对音感
researchers aren’t sure if you would ever be able to develop true perfect pitch.
但是一些研究发现成人通过训练可以更好地辨别音高
But some studies have found that adults can be trained to better identify notes,
这种训练可能长达数月
which can last for months.
2015年杂志《认知》上有一篇论文说
In a 2015 paper from the journal Cognition,
研究者们调查了17位有着不同的音乐背景 但是没有绝对音感的大学生
researchers tested 17 university students with various musical backgrounds, but no perfect pitch,
然后得到了 他们对识别刚听过的不同音符并再复现 能做到多好的最低限
and got a baseline for how well they could name different notes and recreate notes that they just heard.
之后 参与者们接受了一场听180个钢琴音符的训练
Then, the participants went through training where they listened to 180 piano notes,
训练中 他们需要认出音符 并纠正错误
were asked to name them, and got corrected when they were wrong.
在这之后 参与者们再次进行辨音水平测试 结果得分提高了至少8%
After all that, the participants did the baseline tests again and scored at least 8% better,
在大约半年之后的测试中 其中六人的分数仍然很高
and their scores were still higher for 6 of them when they were retested around half a year later.
像这样的研究范围很小
This study and others like it are pretty small,
而且许多参与者并没有那么精确的音感
and the participants aren’t all that close to the accurate
和那些从小就接受音感训练的人相比
lifelong perfect pitch you might develop as a kid.
但是只要你愿意花功夫去学
But as long as you’re willing to put in the work to learn
沿着获得绝对音感的正确方向 你至少成功一半了
it’s at least a half-step in the right direction!
感谢大家的提问 感谢众筹网站的赞助商对节目的大力支持
Thanks for asking, and thanks to our patrons on Patreon for making this episode possible!
如果你想支持我们节目 请登录屏幕下方的网站
If you would like to support SciShow, head on over to patreon.com/scishow—
大家据己所能 可以通过里面提供的多种方式资助我们的节目 我们感激不尽
there’s lots of ways to give various amounts, depending on what you can, and that’s great.
如果你每天都想在你的订阅栏里看到类似的内容
and if you’d just like see more like this, every single day in your subscription box,
你可以进入youtube.com/scishow关注我们
you can go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

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视频概述

视频通过一系列调查研究大致阐述了什么是完美音感

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Seline

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瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bcr0El64UsA

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