ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

你的聪明是天生的吗? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

你的聪明是天生的吗?

Can You Get Smarter?

欢迎收看thoughty2
Hey, thoughty2 you are here.
你们有些人早上醒来可能会想
Some of you may wake up in the morning and think;
“我想法很棒 我非常聪明 我不需要上学”
“ Me think nice, me big smart, me no need school”
也许你的想法是对的
And perhaps you are right.
但我们中许多人
But many of us,
无论他们拥有什么资格证或从事什么工作
no matter what qualifications we have or what work we do,
总在想 “我的大脑利用到了极限了吗?”
often wonder,is my brain achieving all it could achieve?
“也许我应该多做一点运动 多吃点鱼
Maybe it’s as simple as doing a bit more exercise,eating more fish
每周两天不像世界将要终结一样疯狂喝酒”
and not drinking like the world’s going to end 2 nights a week.
但是否会有其它因素
But are there other factors that affect
影响你大脑的功能呢?
how well your brain does its job?
拥有知识可以让你变得更聪明吗?
Does knowledge itself make you smarter
还是它仅仅是一串串信息?
or it’s just data that you spit out randomly?
那么童年时的谜题和游戏呢?
What about puzzles and games,
它们能让我们成年后更聪明吗?
do these help at all after childhood
还是玩过了以后就被遗忘了?
or are they just simply an escape?
如果我动手术或者吃药呢?
And how about surgeries or drugs
它们能在竞争中使我得利吗?
that could give you some kind of edge on the competition?
所以 小心点 史蒂芬·霍金
So watch out Steven Hawking,
只要我弄清自己能否变得更聪明
I’m going to climb that IQ ladder and kick you off the top
我就能攀登智商的高峰 取代你的位置
once I find out: Can I Get Smarter?
首先让我们来谈谈智力
First off let’s all discuss the idea of intelligence,
是如何被定义和测量的
the way it’s defined and the way it’s measured
从身体层面来说
On a physical level,
我们并不清楚大脑如何产生智力
we know relatively little about what makes one brain intelligent compared to another
没有任何结构或者生物化学过程
There’s no one bit of structure or biochemistry
可以让我们指着然后说
that we can point to and go
“啊哈 这就是智慧产生的地方”
“ ah ha, there’s the smart bit”
我们所知道的是
Here’s what we do know;
大脑由数千亿的细胞所组成
the brain is made up of hundreds of billions of cells
并且不同的部分负责不同的功能
and different sections are responsible for different functions
比如语言 运动和…… 嗯…… 记忆
such as language, movement and… um… memory.
信息通过围绕大脑的神经元和触突传递
Information is passed around the brain by neurons and synapses,
神经元是传导兴奋的细胞
where neurons are electrically excitable cells
而突触则连接着这些神经元
and synapses are the connectionsbetween them.
在你发育时 这些组织也以惊人的速度生长着
When you are developing, these grow at an astonishing rate;
你每秒将创造1300个神经元和700000个突触
you create 1,300 neurons and 700,000 synapses every second.
这是DNA在为我们庞大如计算机般的大脑快速编码
This is your DNA, rapidly coding that giantcomputer brain.
事实上科学家们解剖过爱因斯坦的大脑
Scientists actually dissected Einstein’s brain,
显然是在他死后 否则(活体解剖)太残忍啦!
after he died obviously, a bit awkward otherwise
他们发现爱因斯坦的大脑结构与常人不同的是
One of the structural differences they found was that
他有相对更多的神经胶质细胞
he had a noticeably higher ratio of glia to neurons,
神经胶质细胞是脑细胞的一种
with glia being a different kind of brain cell.
这表明聪明人的大脑结构可能和平常人有些不同
This indicates that there may be some quantifiable difference in the brains of smart people,
但是我们也不能很确定这一点
but we still don’t know for sure.
所以现在 我们更加专注于能力测试上
So for now, we focus much more on ability tests,
而不是用大脑的物理结构去测量智力
rather than the brain’s physical structure to measure intelligence.
弗朗西斯·高尔顿是英国统计员
Francis Galton was an English statistician
他曾是第一个尝试通过某种标准测验
He was the first person to attempt to develop some kind of standardised test
来测量人的智力的人
for gauging a person’s intelligence.
他期望找到智力和其他因素之间
He expected to find a correlation
的一些关联 比如反应能力
between intellect and other factors such as reflexes,
肌肉控制能力和头部大小等因素
muscle grip, and head size.
如果这是真的
If this were true,
我想LL Cool J 可能是世界上最聪明的人
I think LL Cool J would probably be the world’s smartest man as
因为他头大如瓜并且力大如熊
he’s basically a watermelon with bear paws.
在20世纪40年代 心理学家瑞蒙卡特尔
In the 1940s, psychologist Raymond Cattell laid out the idea
提出两种主要智力类型的观点:适应智力和应用智力
of two main types of intelligence; fluid and crystalized.
适应智力指应对新的情况以及解决新问题的能力
Fluid was the ability to react to new situations and solve novel problems.
而应用智力指利用你拥有的技能和知识解决问题
Crystalized intelligence involves using skillsand knowledge that you already have.
它和单纯的记忆不一样 但是它需要调动长期记忆
It’s not the same as memory but it will rely on long-term memory,
尤其是词汇和常识这样的长期记忆
especially for things like vocabulary and general knowledge.
在之后的几年里
In the following years,
霍恩和卡若将更多的元素加入到卡特尔的理论中
John L. Horn and John B. Carroll added further elements to Cattell’s ideas
卡特尔-霍恩-卡若理论也成了现今多数智力测试的理论基础
and the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory is the basis of most current IQ testing.
人们的平均智商是100
The average IQ is 100,
大多数人的智商值处在70到130之间
with the huge majority of people sitting between 70 and 130.
分数超过130的称作有天赋 超过144是天才级别
A score above 130 is considered gifted and above 144 is genius level.
威廉詹姆士可能是有史以来智商最高的人
William James Sidis was supposed to have had the highest IQ of all time
可能拥有300的智商数值
with a possible number of 300.
1910年 年仅11岁的他就被哈佛数学系录取
He entered Harvard for mathematics in 1910, at just 11 years old.
所以 聪明到底从何而来呢?
Now,where does smartness come from?
这是一个关于环境与天赋的议题
This is the big Nature versus Nurture question.
如果你把天资愚钝的孩子
If you take the child of two knuckle dragging morons
交给一些衣着光鲜的天才学者
and give it to some fancy pants, genius academics
这个小孩是会成长为一个聪明绝顶的人
will the child grow into a specky little brainbox
还是仍旧是一个笨蛋呢?
or a crayon-chewing bonehead?
我们曾以为这两种因素对孩子智力的影响是一样的
We used to think that the balance was more even between the two factors
但是当更多证据出现
but as more evidence appears,
我们发现 在孩子是否聪明这件事上
we see that genetics is by far the most important factor
基因才是最重要的因素
in how smart a child can become.
伦敦国王学院的Robert Plomin
Robert Plomin, working at King’s College London,
展开了科罗拉多州领养项目
ran the Colorado Adoption Project,
此项目开始于1975年
which began back in 1975.
他们试图通过对被领养的孩子以及
For over 30 years they tracked adopted children,
他们养父母和亲生父母的长达30年的跟踪调查
their adoptive parents and their biological parents
来弄明白智力最重要的影响因素
to see where the most influence came from in terms of intelligence
他们也设置了一些对照组家庭
They also used control families,
这些家庭的孩子主要由他们的亲生父母抚养
where the kids were raised normally by their biological parents.
在对照组里面
In the control groups,
他们发现孩子的智商与父母有强烈相关性
they found a strong correlation between the parent’s and children’s IQs,
这可能是由基因 成长环境 或是两者共同决定的
so this could happen all nature all nurture or a balance of the two.
但是对于那些被领养的孩子
But with the adopted children
他们的智商还是和亲生父母高度相关
there is exactly the same correlation to their biological parents
并且他们的智商与那些真正抚养他们的人
and ZERO correlation of their intelligence to their adoptive parents,
即他们的养父母 相关性为零
the people who actually raised them.
所以如果亲生父母不聪明
So smart adoptive parents are not able to raise a smart adopted child
即使养父母再聪明 再努力
if the biological parents of that child aren’t smart to begin with,
也培养不出聪明的孩子
no matter what the adoptive parents do.
就像你无法教老狗新把戏
You can’t teach an old dog new tricks,
也无法教会白痴孩子弹钢琴
or a stupid kid how to play the piano.
除此之外 似乎你的性格也大致是由基因决定的
What’s more, it seems that most of your personality is also genetic
内向或外向的性格由你的DNA
so things like being introverted and extroverted come from your DNA
而不是你的家庭环境决定
not from your home environment.
难道生长的环境就完全不相关吗?
So is nurture completely irrelevant?
不是的 生长环境仍然对我们有很大影响
No,our environment still has a big influence on us,
特别是在行为上
especially in terms of behavior,
但是心理学家朱迪思•哈里斯认为
but psychologist Judith Rich Harris believes
我们对儿童教育的侧重点一直是错误的
that we have been focusing on the wrong part of it.
童年教育的作用是让你为长大成人做好准备
The purpose of childhood is to prepare you to be an adult,
而并不是要你变成你父母那样的聪明人
and being an adult does not require you to get on with your parents.
显然这是人们更能接受的观点
Obviously,it’s preferable,
因此 请不要关掉这个视频
so please don’t finish this video
并在你妈妈做晚饭时对她喊 “我不再需要你了!”
and go shout”I don’t need you anymore!” while your mother is making dinner,
因为这样你会没晚饭吃
because you won’t get any.
你的同龄人对你的行为影响最大
It’s your peers that influence your behavior the most.
这就是为什么移民的孩子
That’s why the children of immigrants
说话会像本地人而不是父母
will speak like the local population, not like Mum and Dad.
像抽烟和喝酒的习惯养成通常来自同龄人
Habits like smoking and drinking are normally picked up from peers
但是成瘾的倾向却是由基因遗传的
but a disposition to addiction is passed down genetically,
这就是为什么父母抽烟孩子通常也会抽烟
which is why parents who smoke often have children who smoke too.
他们不是在学父母
They are not copying their parents,
他们通常是从同伴那里学会抽烟
they usually start smoking with their peers
然后基因使他们无可救药地上瘾
and then the genes kick in that makes them hopelessly addicted.
即便你想要提高你的智力
If you want to try and give your brain a boost,
你也控制不了你的基因
you can’t mess with your genetics,
因此我遗憾的说 你的智力是存在限制的
so I’m sorry to say, you’re kind of limited to what you were given,
但是你能提高你的应用智力和工作记忆
but you can improve your crystalized intelligence and a thing called your working memory,
这也有助于适应智力得到尽可能的发挥
which helps your fluid intelligence to function as well as possible.
就像健身房 你投入努力越多
Much like the gym, the more effort you put in,
你收获的结果就越好 所以
the better results you get out; so slip
给你的大脑穿上运动服 确保每天都锻炼它
your brain into some spandex and make sure you work it out every day.
你应该经常挑战自己的极限
You should challenge yourself as often
尝试去做些困难的事
as you can and try to do things the hard way,
比如靠你自己在地图上找路
like working out your own route on a map,
而不是只是跟着蓝色箭头走
rather than just following that blue arrow
就像它是你在导航上的守护天使一样
on your satnav like it’s your guardian angel.
不过 请不要从3英里外的停车场
Although, please don’t write me an angry comment
因为买牛奶迷路了而写评论来骂我
from a car park 3 miles away because you got lost trying to buy milk.
你没有方向感可不是我的错
It’s not my fault you have no sense of direction.
新事物也是提高智力的一个重要因素
Novelty is an important factor too.
如果你总看同样的节目
If you always watch the same show,
坐同一把椅子 吃同样的晚餐 那么
sit in the same chair and eat the same dinner, then
不仅你的椅子需要好好清洗
not only do you really need to clean your sofa
而且你的大脑也接受不到足够的资讯 去学习更多的东西
but your brain is not getting the new inputs it needs to learn more.
试着选一条不同的路上学或上班
Try taking a different route to school or work,
试着学习一项新技能 如折纸
try and learn a new skill like origami
或织毛衣或者是……无论是什么鬼东西
or knitting or… whatever the hell this is.
接触新鲜事物最简单的方法就是交流
The easiest way to get novelty is by networking,
无论是在现实生活中还是在网上
either in the real world or online.
其他人的想法可能常常会很奇怪
Other people’s ideas may often be weird,
或者使人感到疑惑
terrifying and confusing
但是他们可以帮助你塑造新的自我
but they will enable you to build new ones of your own.
无数个世纪以来
It’s no coincidence that over the centuries,
科学和技术上的重大突破都毫无意外地发生在
major jumps in science and technology occur
我们改进沟通方式之后
as we improve communication.
所有创新的想法都是建立在
All ideas are built
在其他想法之上的
off other ideas
所以尽可能向他人学习
so try to steal as many as possible from other people
变成你命中注定要成为的狠角色
and become the super villain you were destined to be.
最后 如果你觉得学习很痛苦
Finally, for those of you who find learning a struggle,
隧道的尽头总会有光
there is light at the end of the tunnel,
不过那也可能
but that maybe
是因为他们把电压调得太高
because they just turned up the voltage too high
把你电死了
and you’re being electrocuted.
是的
That’s right,
2013年一项研究发现 轻微的电流刺激大脑
a study from 2013 found that stimulating the brain with a mild electric current,
可以使人们的学习速度比平时快5倍
could lead to people learning five times faster
不仅是瞬时效果
than normal, and with good retention
而且在6个月后还保持得很好
six months later, not just in the immediate aftermath.
你们不要想着做家庭作业前
If any of you are thinking of licking the car battery
去舔汽车电池
before doing your homework, don’t.
如果你真的想方设法
If you really think it’s a good idea to go out of your way to
要去电击自己的大脑
electrocute your brain,
那就先别考虑通过数学考试了
then passing that maths test is the least of your worries,
你可能更应该在角落里乖乖坐好
you should probably sit in the corner
远离那些危险的尖锐物品
and stay away from sharp objects.
并且我很遗憾地告诉你 你的父母都不聪明
I’m sorry to tell you, butyour parents were not intelligent.
谢谢观看 订阅后查看更多
thanks for the view, subscribe for more thoughty2.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

先天基因和后天培养,哪一个起决定性作用呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一千九

审核员

审核员_DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_y_-Cz_gjE

相关推荐