Hey, thoughty2 you are here.
Some of you may wake up in the morning and think;
“我想法很棒 我非常聪明 我不需要上学”
“ Me think nice, me big smart, me no need school”
And perhaps you are right.
But many of us,
no matter what qualifications we have or what work we do,
often wonder，is my brain achieving all it could achieve?
Maybe it’s as simple as doing a bit more exercise,eating more fish
and not drinking like the world’s going to end 2 nights a week.
But are there other factors that affect
how well your brain does its job?
Does knowledge itself make you smarter
or it’s just data that you spit out randomly?
What about puzzles and games,
do these help at all after childhood
or are they just simply an escape？
And how about surgeries or drugs
that could give you some kind of edge on the competition？
所以 小心点 史蒂芬·霍金
So watch out Steven Hawking,
I’m going to climb that IQ ladder and kick you off the top
once I find out: Can I Get Smarter?
First off let’s all discuss the idea of intelligence,
the way it’s defined and the way it’s measured
On a physical level,
we know relatively little about what makes one brain intelligent compared to another
There’s no one bit of structure or biochemistry
that we can point to and go
“ ah ha, there’s the smart bit”
Here’s what we do know;
the brain is made up of hundreds of billions of cells
and different sections are responsible for different functions
比如语言 运动和…… 嗯…… 记忆
such as language, movement and… um… memory.
Information is passed around the brain by neurons and synapses,
where neurons are electrically excitable cells
and synapses are the connectionsbetween them.
When you are developing, these grow at an astonishing rate;
you create 1,300 neurons and 700,000 synapses every second.
This is your DNA, rapidly coding that giantcomputer brain.
Scientists actually dissected Einstein’s brain,
after he died obviously, a bit awkward otherwise
One of the structural differences they found was that
he had a noticeably higher ratio of glia to neurons,
with glia being a different kind of brain cell.
This indicates that there may be some quantifiable difference in the brains of smart people,
but we still don’t know for sure.
So for now, we focus much more on ability tests,
rather than the brain’s physical structure to measure intelligence.
Francis Galton was an English statistician
He was the first person to attempt to develop some kind of standardised test
for gauging a person’s intelligence.
He expected to find a correlation
between intellect and other factors such as reflexes,
muscle grip, and head size.
If this were true,
我想LL Cool J 可能是世界上最聪明的人
I think LL Cool J would probably be the world’s smartest man as
he’s basically a watermelon with bear paws.
In the 1940s, psychologist Raymond Cattell laid out the idea
of two main types of intelligence; fluid and crystalized.
Fluid was the ability to react to new situations and solve novel problems.
Crystalized intelligence involves using skillsand knowledge that you already have.
It’s not the same as memory but it will rely on long-term memory,
especially for things like vocabulary and general knowledge.
In the following years,
John L. Horn and John B. Carroll added further elements to Cattell’s ideas
and the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory is the basis of most current IQ testing.
The average IQ is 100,
with the huge majority of people sitting between 70 and 130.
A score above 130 is considered gifted and above 144 is genius level.
William James Sidis was supposed to have had the highest IQ of all time
with a possible number of 300.
He entered Harvard for mathematics in 1910, at just 11 years old.
Now,where does smartness come from?
This is the big Nature versus Nurture question.
If you take the child of two knuckle dragging morons
and give it to some fancy pants, genius academics
will the child grow into a specky little brainbox
or a crayon-chewing bonehead?
We used to think that the balance was more even between the two factors
but as more evidence appears,
we see that genetics is by far the most important factor
in how smart a child can become.
Robert Plomin, working at King’s College London,
ran the Colorado Adoption Project,
which began back in 1975.
For over 30 years they tracked adopted children,
their adoptive parents and their biological parents
to see where the most influence came from in terms of intelligence
They also used control families,
where the kids were raised normally by their biological parents.
In the control groups,
they found a strong correlation between the parent’s and children’s IQs,
这可能是由基因 成长环境 或是两者共同决定的
so this could happen all nature all nurture or a balance of the two.
But with the adopted children
there is exactly the same correlation to their biological parents
and ZERO correlation of their intelligence to their adoptive parents,
the people who actually raised them.
So smart adoptive parents are not able to raise a smart adopted child
if the biological parents of that child aren’t smart to begin with,
no matter what the adoptive parents do.
You can’t teach an old dog new tricks,
or a stupid kid how to play the piano.
What’s more, it seems that most of your personality is also genetic
so things like being introverted and extroverted come from your DNA
not from your home environment.
So is nurture completely irrelevant?
No,our environment still has a big influence on us,
especially in terms of behavior，
but psychologist Judith Rich Harris believes
that we have been focusing on the wrong part of it.
The purpose of childhood is to prepare you to be an adult,
and being an adult does not require you to get on with your parents.
so please don’t finish this video
and go shout”I don’t need you anymore!” while your mother is making dinner,
because you won’t get any.
It’s your peers that influence your behavior the most.
That’s why the children of immigrants
will speak like the local population, not like Mum and Dad.
Habits like smoking and drinking are normally picked up from peers
but a disposition to addiction is passed down genetically,
which is why parents who smoke often have children who smoke too.
They are not copying their parents,
they usually start smoking with their peers
and then the genes kick in that makes them hopelessly addicted.
If you want to try and give your brain a boost,
you can’t mess with your genetics,
so I’m sorry to say, you’re kind of limited to what you were given,
but you can improve your crystalized intelligence and a thing called your working memory,
which helps your fluid intelligence to function as well as possible.
Much like the gym, the more effort you put in,
the better results you get out; so slip
your brain into some spandex and make sure you work it out every day.
You should challenge yourself as often
as you can and try to do things the hard way,
like working out your own route on a map,
rather than just following that blue arrow
on your satnav like it’s your guardian angel.
Although, please don’t write me an angry comment
from a car park 3 miles away because you got lost trying to buy milk.
It’s not my fault you have no sense of direction.
Novelty is an important factor too.
If you always watch the same show,
坐同一把椅子 吃同样的晚餐 那么
sit in the same chair and eat the same dinner, then
not only do you really need to clean your sofa
but your brain is not getting the new inputs it needs to learn more.
Try taking a different route to school or work,
try and learn a new skill like origami
or knitting or… whatever the hell this is.
The easiest way to get novelty is by networking,
either in the real world or online.
Other people’s ideas may often be weird,
terrifying and confusing
but they will enable you to build new ones of your own.
It’s no coincidence that over the centuries,
major jumps in science and technology occur
as we improve communication.
All ideas are built
off other ideas
so try to steal as many as possible from other people
and become the super villain you were destined to be.
Finally, for those of you who find learning a struggle,
there is light at the end of the tunnel,
but that maybe
because they just turned up the voltage too high
and you’re being electrocuted.
a study from 2013 found that stimulating the brain with a mild electric current,
could lead to people learning five times faster
than normal, and with good retention
six months later, not just in the immediate aftermath.
If any of you are thinking of licking the car battery
before doing your homework, don’t.
If you really think it’s a good idea to go out of your way to
electrocute your brain,
then passing that maths test is the least of your worries,
you should probably sit in the corner
and stay away from sharp objects.
I’m sorry to tell you, butyour parents were not intelligent.
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