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夜猫子还有救吗? – 译学馆
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夜猫子还有救吗?

Can You Become a Morning Person?

Check out UniverseUnboxed.com
了解《科学秀》的最新科学套装
to learn about SciShow Science kits
请访问universeunboxed.com
And stick around to the end of the episode to hear more
节目最后也会介绍这个最新产品
about this exciting new SciShow project!
不要走开 精彩马上就来
[INTRO ♪]
[片头曲]
It seems like there are two types of people in the world.
这世上的人大概可以分成两类
Some people who are fresh as a daisy first thing
一类人一睁眼就元气满满
in the morning and ready to get a jump on the day.
精神抖擞 精力充沛
Others are sluggish and bleary-eyed before 10 AM,
另一类人在十点前反应迟钝 睡眼惺忪
gripping their coffee like their life depends upon it.
咖啡是他们的续命灵丹
Basically, you’ve got your morning larks and your night owls
你可以叫他们“晨雀”和“夜猫子”
I’m a night owl
我就是个夜猫子
and scientifically, those are real terms.
这两个词是科学术语
They refer to a person’s chronotype:
指的是人的不同睡眠类型
the particular calibration of their internal clock
生物钟有独特的校准功能
that leads them to naturally sleep and wake at a certain time.
让人在特定时间 自然入睡 自然醒来
If your chronotype doesn’t line up with the people around you,
如果你的睡眠类型和身边的人不一样
like, for example, your two-year-old,
比如说你两岁的孩子
you might understandably want to change it.
你自然想调整的跟他一致
But it’s not clear whether that’s actually possible,
虽然还不清楚这种改变是否可以实现
and even if you could, you probably wouldn’t like it.
就算可以 你很可能也不喜欢
Like most human traits, chronotypes fall on a bell curve:
和大多人体特性一样 睡眠类型呈正态分布曲线
Though the numbers vary between studies
尽管不同研究的数据略有出入
roughly 10 to 20 percent of people are night owls or morning larks,
可以说大约有10%到20%的人属于夜猫子或晨雀
and the majority of people fall somewhere in the middle.
大多数人介于两者之间
And it’s not just a matter of habit or preference,
这不仅是个人习惯和个人偏好
there’s evidence that your chronotype is written in your genes.
有证据表明 睡眠类型是被写在基因里的
A 2016 study found 15 gene variants associated
比如 在2016年的一项研究中发现
with a morning chronotype, for example.
晨型睡眠类型与15个基因变体有关
Most of them appeared to play roles in the body’s
这些基因变体在人体对光线的反应
response to light and in regulating circadian rhythms,
和昼夜节律调节方面发挥作用
or the daily cycles that govern most of the body’s processes.
昼夜节律也叫日循环 掌管人体大部分机能
Your chronotype also seems to be heritable.
人的睡眠类型似乎是具有遗传性的
You’ve got a better chance of being a night owl
如果你的父亲或母亲是夜猫子
if one of your parents is, too.
你很有可能也是夜猫子
Scientists can even detect chronotypes in human cells
科学家甚至可以在培养皿的人体细胞中
when they’re grown in culture.
检测出睡眠类型
In fact, researchers are working on a way to
事实上 研究人员正在研究
test a person’s chronotype using their blood,
通过血液检测睡眠类型的方法
so they can time medical treatments to match the natural
这样就能制定出 跟患者身体规律
rhythms of a patient’s body.
相匹配的治疗方案
And that’s because your internal clock is super important.
因为生物钟是非常重要的
Nearly half of the genes in your genome follow a circadian rhythm
人体内近一半的基因组
of expression at least somewhere in your body.
在某种程度上都受昼夜节律支配
That rhythm governs not only when you sleep or wake,
生物钟不仅决定你何时入眠和苏醒
but your body temperature, eating habits, and hormone activity.
还影响你的体温 饮食习惯和荷尔蒙分泌
This internal clock is set by a tiny region
生物钟是由下丘脑内
in the brain’s hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
一个名为视交叉上核的部位控制的
Like, it decides when to dose you with melatonin to make you sleepy.
它会决定何时释放褪黑素让你感到困意
If you’re the type of person who doesn’t get tired until 2 a.m.
如果你凌晨两点前都不觉得困
that might just be because your
可能只是因为你的身体
body doesn’t start pumping out melatonin earlier.
没有在那之前释放褪黑素而已
But your chronotype isn’t just how sleepy you are
人的睡眠类型不只是表现在
for an 8 o’clock class.
你上早课时候会犯困
It also seems to correlate with personality.
它和人的性格好像也有关系
People high in agreeableness and conscientiousness
比如个性亲善极有责任心的人
seem to be morning people, for example.
好像大多会是晨型人
Studies also find that women are a little
更有研究表明 和男性相比
more likely to be morning people than men.
女性是晨型人的概率会高一点
But the strongest factor linked to your chronotype is age.
但是与睡眠类型最有关的因素是年龄
Children generally start out with a lark-ier chronotype,
儿童通常都是比较晨型的睡眠类型
then shift somewhat towards being a night owl in adolescence,
然后在青春期进入到夜猫子状态
and then, after that, most people become
随着年龄的增长
more morning-oriented the older they get.
大多数人会逐渐变得更加晨型
Whatever your age, though,
然而 不管你在什么年龄段
if your chronotype conflicts with your day-to-day obligations,
如果睡眠类型和日常活动有所冲突
it can cause problems.
就会给你带来困扰
And let’s be honest, those problems overwhelmingly affect night owls.
事实上 夜猫子受到的困扰最多
School and work tend to start early in the morning,
上学和上班都需要早起
and if your body clock doesn’t want you awake until 10,
而你的生物钟不想让你在十点以前醒来
you’re gonna have a bad time.
你就会很难受
This is what’s known as social jet lag.
这就是所谓的社会时差
It’s a misalignment between biological timing and society’s timing
社会时差是生物钟与社会作息错位
that leaves a person sleep deprived.
导致的睡眠失调
Social jet lag isn’t just unpleasant—it’s unhealthy.
社会时差不仅令人不快 还会影响健康
It’s associated with a higher risk of obesity,
首先 社交时差会提高
insulin resistance, and depression, for starters.
罹患肥胖症 糖尿病 抑郁症的风险
And that might be why other studies find
这也是为什么有些研究发现
that night owls are less happy than morning larks overall.
夜猫子比晨雀缺乏幸福感
They also suffer from more depressive symptoms,
夜猫子更易出现抑郁症状
they drink and smoke more, and they report more
和早起鸟相比 夜猫子烟酒上瘾
binge eating behaviors than their early-to-rise counterparts.
暴饮暴食的情况更普遍
So can you change your chronotype?
人到底能不能改变自己的睡眠类型呢?
Yes and no.
可以 也不可以
For people with severe circadian rhythm disorders,
对于那些昼夜节律严重失调
whose internal clocks are offset dramatically
生物钟和正常情况相比
from what’s considered normal,
相差太大的人来说
there are a few standard treatments professionals turn to.
确实有些专业治疗方案可以考虑
They usually involve some combination of light therapy,
治疗方案通常包括光疗法
melatonin supplementation, and chronotherapy,
补充褪黑激素 和生物钟疗法
where you go to bed a few hours later every night
通过每天晚睡几小时
to reset your internal clock.
来调整你的生物钟
But it’s really hard to reset
但是重设生物钟 不仅做起来难
your clock and keep it that way.
还不能一劳永逸
For it to work, you have to
想维持生物钟
get up and go to sleep at the same time
你必须保证作息每天都一样
every day, even on weekends.
周末也不能例外
One late night has the potential to reverse everything.
一次晚睡就有可能毁掉所有的努力
Because, ultimately, you’re fighting your DNA.
毕竟你是在跟自己的基因做抗争
This is why it’s helpful to have a person in your home
家里要是有人能每天6:30吼你起床
who starts screaming every morning at 6:30, no matter what.
风雨无阻的吼你 你还不得不起
You’re gonna wake up.
那你就能改过来了
The healthiest thing anyone can do,
不论你是什么睡眠类型
regardless of chronotype, is get enough sleep.
只要保证充足睡眠就能保证健康
So if social jet lag makes people sleep deprived,
如果说社会时差导致睡眠失调
and changing chronotypes is next to impossible,
而且改变睡眠类型又几乎不可能的话
there’s only one real option.
那么只有一个解决方法了
Society has to change.
社会需要改变
Schools and workplaces have to accept the fact
学校和工作单位需要明白
that different people have different internal clocks,
人与人的生物钟确实不同
and what’s a perfect hour for one person
适合一类人的作息
could spell disaster for someone else.
可能让另一类人痛苦
And the good news is that things are changing—slowly.
好消息是 情况正在逐渐改观
In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics officially recommended that
比如在2014年 美国儿科学会官方建议
schools start no earlier than 8:30, for example.
学校上课时间不能早于八点半
And the number of workplaces that offer flexible
采取灵活工作时间
schedules and remote work is steadily increasing.
和远程工作的公司也逐渐增多
But until there’s more public understanding and accommodation for
但是在社会对个人独特的睡眠类型
individual chronotypes, there’s going to be a sizeable
有更多了解和接纳之前
portion of the population that just really needs their coffee.
还会有很多人需要靠咖啡度日的
We’ve got an exciting announcement!
激动人心的消息来了!
We just launched Universe Unboxed
我们最新发行了《揭秘宇宙》
science experiment kits from all of us here at SciShow!
《科学秀》全员制作的科学实验套装!
Universe Unboxed kits are packed with experiments designed
《揭秘宇宙》套装设计了不同的科学实验
for kids elementary school-aged or older.
适合小学生和大点的孩子
Like, you know, in their late 30s.
三十来岁的大孩子也能玩
Each kit teaches specific science concepts,
每个系列都有详细的科学理论知识
but we didn’t stop there.
不止如此
In each, we also explain how scientists use those concepts
还介绍了科学家如何运用这个理论
and how they matter in the real world.
以及在实际运用中的重要性
Like in the Brain Teaser kit,
比如在Brain Teaser套装中
you can learn about how gravity works,
你会学习到重力的原理
and how you can use it to make a
以及运用重力原理
seemingly impossible stack of nails.
堆砌匪夷所思的钉子模型
And while that might seem like a silly game,
这游戏也许听上去有点幼稚
it’s the kind of thinking engineers have to do
但建筑设计师正是用这类原理
when they design structures to be topple-resistant.
来避免建筑物倒塌的
I’ve done all the experiments myself and made video demonstrations,
我体验了所有实验并制作了视频示范
so you can see how they’re done.
帮助你了解细节
And they were really fun and weird and surprising!
这些实验非常有趣 会让你意外的
If you want to try them out, too,
如果你也想试一试
you can find Universe Unboxed kits at a
套装在附近的实体店或者官网
store near you, or at UniverseUnboxed.com.
UniverseUnboxed.com都可以买到
[OUTRO ♪]
[片尾曲]

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视频概述

本视频讲解了睡眠类型 社交时差等因个人体内生物钟不同而产生的睡眠和其他问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

綝飛

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBz7MBQydGU

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