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我们可以阻止地震吗 – 译学馆
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我们可以阻止地震吗

Can We Stop An Earthquake? -- Extreme Science #3

1906年 旧金山发生了7.8级的地震 造成了巨大的损坏
In 1906 a 7.8 magnitude Earthquake hit San Francisco, causing immense damage. Fires burned
大火烧了四天 摧毁了25000座建筑 大约3000人失踪
for 4 days, 25,000 buildings were destroyed and an estimated 3000 lives were lost. The
2000万年前 这个遭受地震的地方 有两个板块撞在一起
stage for that disaster was set 20 million years ago two tectonic plates came together
在加利福尼亚形成了一个800英里的断层–圣安德烈亚斯断层
and formed the San Andreas fault, an 800 mile long system of earthquake causing cracks in
我们现在就在这 但问题是我们什么时候还会
California. In fact we are in one right now. But the question is…when are we due for
再面临一次大地震 我是Jake 这里是Extreme science
the next big one? I’m Jake and this is Extreme Science.
让我们想象地球表面是一个鸡蛋壳 实际上 它更像
Let’s imagine that the surface of the Earth is an egg shell, actually, it’s more like
一个表面都是碎块的鸡蛋壳 构造板块
a broken egg shell where all of these little pieces are the surface, the tectonic plates.
总在不断的移动中 约每一千年移动34米
And they are always shifting and moving – about 34 meters every thousand years. When they
当它们停止移动时 张力就出现了 就好像拉一根橡皮筋直到拉断
stop moving, tension builds up, like stretching a rubber band, until it finally snaps. All
所有的能量都被释放到了地球上 引发了地震
of that energy being released moves through the Earth, creating an earthquake.
每年地球各地约发生12000到14000起地震 几乎35天一起地震
It is estimated that 12,000 to 14,000 earthquakes happen every year, about 35 a day. A little
任何一小起地震都足以引发对地球结构的损坏
over a thousand are ever large enough to cause any structural damage.
现在我们在断层上 这个板块被冲撞 准确的说 是被推出地平面
Where we are now on the fault line the plates have collided…literally pushing the earth out of the ground.
在北美洲 我们想了解加利福尼亚和地震的关系 一个叫圣安地列斯的电影
In North America we tend to associate California with earthquakes, a movie called San Andreas
讲了关于一个九级的地震摧毁了这个地区的大部分
came out all about a magnitude 9 Earthquake destroying a large portion of the state, but
在这儿其实我们已经经历过一次 这里据记载在美国历史上
we’ve actually experienced one on that scale before in a place where 9 out of 10 of the
发生过最高9到10级的地震 就在离这约3500米的地方
largest quakes ever recorded in US history happened, over 3500 miles away from where
我们现在的位置是加利福尼亚阿拉斯加
we are now in California…Alaska.
在美国历史中记载的最大的地震是在1964年的阿拉斯加 最严重地区
The 1964 Alaska earthquake was the biggest in recorded US history coming in at 9.2 on
震幅9.2 有些地方被抬高了30英尺 还有些地方下沉了8英尺
the richter scale. Some areas were raised 30 feet, others dropped 8ft into the ground.
海啸甚至到了夏威夷和日本 德克萨斯都感觉到了震感
Tsunamis went as far as Hawaii and Japan and effects from the quake were felt in Texas.
让我们进入透视的角度去看9级的地震有多强大
Now to put into perspective just how powerful a magnitude 9 would be let’s go down the
2级地震我们很难察觉 6级相当于12000万磅的TNT
logarithmic scale to a 2, which we would hardly feel. At 6 it would be equal to 120 million
相当的有威力 8级 就是我们知道的旧金山地震
pounds of TNT – pretty powerful, at 8 we get to the 1906 San Francisco quake – it’s energy
相当于圣海伦火山爆发的能量 9级 阿拉斯加地震
equivalent is close to the volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens. At 9, the Alaska Earthquake,
威力大约为4万亿磅的TNT 人类有史以来经历的最大的一次地震
about 4 trillion pounds of TNT. The most powerful one we’ve ever experienced was in Chile
是1960年的9.5级地震 发生在
in 1960 coming at 9.5.
2004年 科学家在圣安德烈亚斯断层向下钻了两英里 发现了
In 2004, scientists drilled 2 miles below the San Andreas fault line and discovered
一些稀奇古怪的东西 比如他们带到地面上的第一件样品
some curious things. For example, the first samples they brought up to the surface were
是炽热的 同时他们观察到最小的地震也都有记录
literally boiling hot. They also observed the tiniest earthquakes ever recorded…so
它们小到甚至有负级数
small that they had negative magnitudes.
在里氏震级建立的时候0被认定是最小的地震级
When the Richter scale was created, 0 was assigned to the smallest earthquakes measurable…at
但如今 如果我们说-0.2级的地震能量相当于点着的30根火柴
the time. If we go to say -0.2 the energy equivalent would be that of 30 matches being
它们太小以至于我们都感受不到 但是科学家可以测量到它
lit. Pretty tiny comparatively and we wouldn’t even feel it, but scientists have now been
最终证实 我们可以在地震还没有到来的时候就
able to measure it. As it turns out, we can measure earthquakes that don’t even happen
计算出来
on Earth.
在60和70年代 阿波罗号太空人在月球上放了测震仪 它可以提前十分钟显示
In the 60s and 70s, Apollo astronauts put seismometers on the moon, which revealed quakes
5.5级以上的地震 在地球上
of up to 5.5 on the Richter scale that lasted for 10 minutes. On Earth, quakes generally
地震消退的很快
dissipate much more quickly.
因为地球不像其他的卫星 地球有水 可以吸收震动
That’s because unlike our natural satellite, the Earth has water. It helps absorb the vibrations,
减弱震动 正如你看到的 这里看起来很茂盛因为
deadening them. And as you can see around me, it looks pretty lush and that’s because along the fault line
沿着断层线形成了剪断带 水流到地面上来形成了绿洲
shear zones are created and through them water reaches the surface. Creating an oasis.
断层线并不是穿过的沙漠而是这样的城市和小镇
The fault line just doesn’t run through the desert. It runs through cities and towns like this one.
一旦损坏形成 将是灾难性的
And the damage it would cause would be catastrophic.
南加州地震中心做了一个8级地震发生在圣安德烈亚斯断层的模型
The Southern California Earthquake Center made a simulation of what an M8 earthquake would
美国地质研究院制作了一个短片模拟了7.8级地震的影响
look like on the San Andreas fault. The US Geological Survey created a video of a realistic
15000座建筑倒塌 53000人受伤 损失
look at the effects of a 7.8 magnitude quake…collapsing 15,000 buildings, injuring 53,000 and costing
213亿美元
around 213 billion dollars.
我们要怎么做才能让地震停下 它真是太可怕了 我们做不到
So what do we do to stop it? Well, that’s what is so scary about Earthquakes, you can’t
事实上我们甚至不知道什么时候能发生 上一次大地震
stop them. We don’t even really know when they are going to happen. The last big one
是1857年的加利福尼亚大地震 根据科学家所说 大地震150年一次
in California happened in 1857, and according to scientists one happens every 150 years…but
但是现在已经过去了158年 人们都说未雨绸膜 南加州地震中心
it’s already been 158. What everyone says is to be prepared. The Southern California
已经开始采取措施指导人们应对地震
Earthquake Center started the Shake Out! program, which instructs you to Drop, Cover and Hold
我们脚下的这片土地一直在运动着变化着
On. The ground beneath us is constantly moving, constantly changing, creeping and locking.
我们能做的就是随着他一起运动继续生活 我是Jake
All we can do is move along with it and try to hold on. I’m Jake and this is Extreme
这里是Extreme Science
Science.

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