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维生素C和锌能帮助治愈感冒吗? – 译学馆
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维生素C和锌能帮助治愈感冒吗?

Can Vitamin C and Zinc Help Cure Colds?

没有人喜欢感冒时的疼痛
Nobody enjoys the aches, cough,
咳嗽和鼻塞
and stuffy nose that comes with a cold, so it ’ s no
所以也不奇怪
surprise that we spend a ton of money
人们每年会花费大量金钱购买缓解症状的处方药
on over-the-counter symptom relief — $ 3 billion a year in the
仅仅在美国就有30亿美元
US alone.
你可能听过各种各样预防得病的小方子
And you’ve probably heard all sorts of tipsand tricks to keep from getting sick: Drink
喝橘汁获得维他命C或者往鼻子里喷锌
some OJ for the vitamin C. Or spray some zinc into your nose.
但结果证明这些流行的万能药都起不了什么作用
But it turns out that none of those popular cure-alls actually work.
比方说 服用维他命C
Take vitamin C, for example.
在1970年 诺贝尔化学奖获得者莱纳斯鲍林
It rose to fame as a cold-busting immuno-booster
出版了一本推广”大剂量”维他命C的书籍
in 1970 when Nobel Prize-winning chemist Linus
由此 维他命C成为了有名的增强免疫力的感冒药
Pauling published a book promoting what he called “ megadoses ” of vitamin C.
因为莱纳斯鲍林十分出名
Since he was so famous,
维他命C能治感冒的的消息便迅速传播
the idea that vitamin C could cure colds spread quickly, even though
即便这个说法并没有被科学和医学界支持
it wasn’t backed by solid science or themedical community.
不难看出为何他如此迷恋维他命C
It ’ s not hard to see why he was so enamored
很多生物过程 包括基因表现的调节
with vitamin C — it ’ s involved in a ton
都含有维他命C
of biological processes, including regulatinghow your genes are expressed.
重要的是 大多数的动物自己能合成维他命C
It ’ s so important that most animals synthesize it on their own;
而我们人类在这少数之中
we humans are in the minority,
我们没有这种能力
because we don ’ t have that ability
并且需要从饮食中获取维他命C
and have to get it from our diet.
维他命C的缺乏确实降低了人类对抗传染的能力
Now a vitamin C deficiency does decrease your
最严重的是
ability to fight off some infections, and
它可能导致坏血病 这是致命的
the most severe form, scurvy, can be fatal.
但是 如果你没有缺乏维他命C
But if you don ’ t have a deficiency,
那么额外的维他命C
the evidence for boosting your immunity with extra
能增强免疫力的证据就站不住脚了
vitamin C is pretty shaky.
2013年 在超过10000名参与者
A 2013 review pooled data from 29 studies
的29个研究的汇总数据回顾中发现
with more than 10,000 participants and found
对于感冒患者来说
that taking extra vitamin C had no effect
额外服用维他命C是没有效果的
on the number of colds a person got.
一些研究发现在感冒的时候
Some studies found that taking extra vitamin C
服用额外的维他命C只能稍微减少患病时间
during a cold could shorten it slightly,
进行同一个实验其结果也是一样的
but when other studies tested that, the effectwasn’t replicated. Overall,
总的来说 研究者并不建议服用维他命C
the reviewers didn’t recommendtaking vitamin C unless you’re undergoing
除非你感觉在经历极度的身体压力
extreme physical stress —
就像你是马拉松跑步运动员 或者在亚北极做军事训练
like if you ’ re a marathon runner or doing military training
所以
in the subarctic. So,
如果你计划像在霍斯一样寒冷冻原探险
if you ’ re planning on exploring the frigid tundra Hoth-style,
它可能有所帮助
it might be helpful.
否则 就别自寻烦恼了
But otherwise, don’t bother.
锌的情况也差不多
The evidence isn ’ t much better for zinc,
虽然还有更多关于锌的争议
although there ’ s a lot more controversy about it.
和维他命C一样 服用锌的理由
Like with vitamin C, the idea of taking zinc is based
也是基于人们对它的缺乏
on what happens to people with severe deficiencies.
锌是所有细胞进程的必要成分
Zinc is an essential component of all kinds
比如DNA复制
of cellular processes, like DNA replication
和细胞分裂
and cell division.
缺乏锌的人有严重的免疫功能紊乱 并且很多死于感染
People with zinc deficiencies have severe immune dysfunction, and many die from infections.
自从人们知道含锌量太少的后果会很糟糕
Since too little zinc is so devastating,
那么更多锌相当于更高免疫力的想法的
the idea that more zinc equals more immunity might
激增似乎是明智的
seem like a sensible leap.
但是同样在2013出版的可行性研究
But a review of the available research,
让这个想法降了降火
also published in 2013, was lukewarm.
并没有证据显示锌能避免感冒
There was no evidence that zinc prevented colds,
看上去它唯一的效果就是
and the only thing it seemed to do
在第一次出现症状的24小时内服用
was make colds shorter,
能缩短感冒时间
as long as you took it within 24 hours of the first symptoms.
然而 对于这个发现 我们要持谨慎的态度
But there are a bunch of reasons to be cautious about that finding.
首先 很难用科学的方法
For one thing, it ’ s really hard to compare the studies
对比研究中锌的量
on zinc in a scientific way, because
因为没有标准的剂量或分子式
there’s no standard formula or dosage.
之前研究的版本于2007年出版
The earlier version of the review, published in 2007,
已被撤销 并于2015年进行更新
was withdrawn, and so was the 2015 update.
迄今为止 要从研究中得出结论
That ’ s how hard it is to draw conclusions
都十分困难
from the research that ’ s been done so far.
即使是有效果的 其副作用也十分糟糕
And even if it does work, the side effects can be pretty awful.
很多研究认为 每天服用超过75毫克的锌
Many studies suggest taking more than 75 milligrams
治疗效果会很有效
of zinc every day for effective treatment,
但是美国医学学会称人每天
but the Institute of Medicine says the tolerable
最多服用40毫克锌
upper limit is only 40 milligrams a day.
即使是这个剂量
Even at that dose,
很多人会觉得味道不好并且感到恶心想吐
a lot of people notice a bad taste and get nauseous.
并且鼻用喷雾和100多起
And the nasal sprays have been linked to more
嗅觉缺失症有关
than 100 cases of anosmia — the loss of
这个病症会使人丧失嗅觉
the ability to smell.
至于承诺抵抗和治愈感冒的
As for the almost unlimited number of herbal supplements, tonics,
草本补品
and teas that promise
补养药和茶
to help you dodge or cure colds…
只有少量做过广泛的研究
very few of them have been studied extensively.
即便是紫锥菊
Not even echinacea,
一种深受喜爱的治愈感冒和流感的中药
a long-time favorite in the herbal cold and flu arsenal, has science
其能力也没有科学之处
on its side:
2014年 研究发现 假设补品中真的含有广告中的成分
a 2014 review found no benefit from anything with echinacea in it.
紫锥菊中也没有任何针对感冒的有效成分
And that’s assuming these supplements actuallycontain the advertised ingredients.
纽约州总检察长办公室
An investigation of herbal supplements
关于草本补品
by the New York State Attorney General ’ s office
的调查研究发现
found that four out
5个产品中有4个不包含它们在包装上列有的成分
of five products didn ’ t contain any of what they listed on the box.
这时 你可能疑惑是否
At this point, you ’ re probably wondering
能够预防感冒
if there ’ s anything you can do to prevent
或是更快摆脱感冒的方法
colds or get rid of them more quickly once you have them.
不幸的是 没有
Unfortunately … no.
也不见得
Not really.
鼻减充血剂 非处方药和抗组织胺剂
Nasal decongestants, over-the-counter coughmedicine, and antihistamines all show little
在缩短感冒时间或降低严重程度方面效果微乎甚微
to no benefit when it comes to decreasing cold duration or severity.
这就意味着
That said, they can still make you feel better
这些药能帮助你缓解症状
by helping with the symptoms.
休息 保持水分
It ’ s also probably good advice to rest,
不要把病毒传染给朋友或是工作伙伴
stay hydrated, and try not to spread your
都是不错的建议
germs to all your friends and coworkers.
所幸当你休息时
And while you ’ re resting,
学者还在研究感冒的
take comfort in the knowledge that there are researchers out
抗病毒药物和疫苗
there working on antiviral drugs and vaccinesfor the common cold.
虽然并没有太多发现 但他们还在尝试
They haven’t found much yet, but they aretrying.
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视频概述

事实上维生素c,锌等广为人知的感冒药并不能完全治愈感冒,只能稍微缓解感冒症状。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

春日tgh

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrNB74Dzn3I

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