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全民基本收入大思考 – 译学馆
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全民基本收入大思考

Can Universal Basic Income / Social Democracy Fix America’s Inequality? | Jeffrey Sachs

有一个叫做全民基本收入的提案引起了大家的兴趣
There’s a proposal around that’s got a lot of interest called universal basic income
这项提案保证了每个人的最低收入水平
where everybody is guaranteed at least a certain level of income in the society.
一些自由市场的经济学家像米尔顿·弗里德曼就提及了负所得税
Some free market economists like Milton Friedman talked about a negative income tax which in
它实际上和保证每个人的收入在特定水平
effect had the same features of guaranteeing a certain level of income for everybody as
有相同特征
a base.
从人权和道德标准来看 我认为全民基本收入有很大的意义
I think from a human rights and decency standard there’s a lot of sense to the idea that
每一个人的基本需求都应该得到满足
everybody in a society should be able to meet their basic needs.
另一方面 保证全民基本收入可能会
There’s on the other hand this sense if you give someone a check whether they’re
削弱他们的工作积极性
trying, not trying, working, not working.
如果不需要任何付出 也没有任何制约性涉及其中 那就可能造成
If there’s no effort, no conditionality involved at all maybe we’re going to get
很多什么也不干的人压榨那些真正
a lot of people that are absolutely doing nothing on the backs of those who are really
在工作的人
working.
因此确实存在激励问题 虽然敏感性和体面性问题也存在
So the incentive issues are real even if the sensitivity and decency issues are also real.
我认为解决这个问题的方法应当更全面一点 而不是
I think that one way to handle this is a little bit more rounded rather than seeing a universal
视全民基本收入为一张支票和只是一种作为收入的无条件的支票
basic income as a check and kind of an unconditional check that’s just handed out as income.
我喜欢社会民主的观点 因为它应用于欧洲一些国家 如荷兰
I like the idea of social democracy as it’s applied in real countries in Europe, the Netherlands
丹麦 挪威 瑞典和德国
and Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany.
这个观点就是人人都可以享受公费医疗服务
The idea is everybody has access to publicly financed healthcare.
人人都可以享受公费教育包括大学学费
Everybody has access to quality publicly financed education including college tuitions.
并非几万亿美元的学生债务 而是免除学费
Not a trillion dollars of crushing student debt, but tuitions paid for.
人人都可以享受 不只是法定节假日 还有带薪休假
Everybody has access to not only guaranteed vacation, but paid vacation.
人人都可以享受托儿服务 这样一来妈妈们就可以放心去上班
Everybody has access to quality childcare so that moms can go to work knowing that their
因为他们知道孩子生长在健康被呵护的环境中
kids are in a healthy, nurturing environment.
人人都可以享受产假和陪产假 父亲和母亲就
Everybody has access to maternity leave so that moms and also paternity leave, dads can
可以几个月在家陪他们的孩子
stay home with their kids for several months.
当你说我们拥有这样绝妙的技术和财富 的确很有面子
It’s kind of decent where you say we have all this wonderful technology, this wealth.
我们为什么不活的体面些 快乐些
Why don’t we live decently, not miserably.
如果人们想得到高于本身应得工资的市场收入 他们就得努力工作
If people want a market income beyond that they’ve got to go work for it.
当然 如果他们身体残疾或出于某种原因不能去工作
If, of course, they’re disabled or for some reason can’t then there’s added social
他们就会得到额外的社会救助 但不是提供资金
support but it’s not cash in people’s pockets.
而是尊重
It’s decency.
是公共服务
It’s public service.
是基本需求得到满足
It’s basic needs met.
我认为这就是正派社会里基本体面的生活
I see it as basically living decent lives in decent societies.
他们有非常不同的精神
They have a very different spirit to them.
那里没有很多相当富裕而不愿与人来往的华尔街避险基金投资人——
There aren’t a lot of super rich Wall Street hedge fund misanthropes – and I’ll use
我会谨慎的用这个形容词 因为我发现华尔街有很多
the term advisably because I find a lot of people on Wall Street don’t give a damn
除了钱根本就不在乎别人的人
about anybody else except they care about their money.
我发现这真的很奇怪
And I find that really weird.
但是在北欧就不会出现这种情况 因为
But you don’t find that kind of idea in northern Europe because it’s really looked
这真的很不受待见
down upon.
人们不喜欢贪财的人
And people don’t like it when people are money grubbing.
他们会有点排斥
They’re kind of shunned.
所以社会的理念是不尽相同的
So the social ethos is different.
我记得 我曾经飞奔到奥斯陆的机场 坐的是商务舱 然后
I remember once I was running to the airport in Oslo and I fly business class and I’m
我在路上不断地走来走去
constantly moving around on trips relentlessly around the world.
然后我跑上去问 哪里是商务舱的登机队伍
And I ran up and said, “Where’s the business class line to board?”
然后那个人像看疯子一样看着我 说 不好意思 我们正在登机去往
And the guy looked at me like I was crazy and he said, “Excuse me, we’re boarding
斯堪的纳维亚的路途
the Scandinavian way.
回到你的队伍中
Get back in line.”
我当时就想 好吧 可是真的很酷
And I just thought okay, that’s pretty cool actually, you know.
每个人都在排队 然后让所有人一一登上飞机
Everybody’s in line and let’s all get on the plane.
这是一个社会精神
It’s a social spirit.
这就是我们所喜欢的主张 顺便一提 并非人们情愿撕掉他们的衣服
It’s the idea that we like – well by the way this is not people tearing their clothes
过着苦行僧的日子 也不享受生活
and living in hair shirts and not enjoying themselves.
相反 他们喜欢他们的假期
They like their vacations.
他们喜欢斯德哥尔摩群岛的小船
They like their boats in the Stockholm archipelago.
他们喜欢岛上度过的六周
They like six weeks on their island.
他们生活地有滋有味
So they live beautifully.
但他们并不奢求太多
But they don’t want gazillions.
他们不想以他人的代价来换取这些
They don’t want to do it at the expense of others.
而是想把它作为一个社会来对待
They want to do it as a society.
天呐 如果美国可以紧随其后一点点 而不是让一个相信
God, if America could just get a little of that back rather than a president who believes
刽子手和失败者的总统坐在上面
in killers and losers.
虽然病态 但这就是我们 这就是美国社会退化
Sick, but that’s what we got and that is what’s degrading American society.
不仅仅是技术问题
Not just the technical issues.
不仅仅是日益严重的不平等 而是这种”你是一个胜者或是一个失败者”的价值观
Not just the rising inequality but this spirit that you’re a winner or you’re a loser.
如果你是一个失败者 那就出局
And if you’re a loser get out of the way.
那是艾因·兰德的观点
That’s Ayn Rand talking.
这很丑恶 而我们也已经受够了
It’s ugly and we’ve had enough of it.

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对比其他国家 深剖美国的全民基本收入提议

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4W5RXPXsko

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