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基本收入保障能改变我们痴迷工作的文化吗 – 译学馆
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基本收入保障能改变我们痴迷工作的文化吗

Can Universal Basic Income End Our Cultural Obsession With Work? | Philosopher Andrew Taggart

[音乐声]
“全面工作”是由约瑟夫·皮珀创造的词
‘Total work’ was a term coined by Josef Pieper,
二十世纪一位鲜为人知的德国哲学家
a lesser known German philosopher from the 20th century,
他担心二战结束
and he was concerned that after World War II
可能将会开启全面工作时代
there would be a time of total work.
我认为他想说得是
By that I take him to mean
工作将成为中心 而世界围着工作转
that work comes to be the center around which the world turns.
人类开始以工作者的视角审视自身
Human beings start to see themselves chiefly as workers,
而整个生活充斥着越来越多的工作
and the entirety of life becomes more and more work,
或工作相关要明白上述内容 我们从
or work like.To see this we can begin
研究一组 我姑且称之为紧张状况开始
to examine a number of what I might call tightening conditions.
那么 第一种状况应该就是工作之向心性
So the first condition would be the centrality of work.
我们细想一想工作实际上就是中心
We’ve come to think that work is actually the center
而其它的一切都开始围着工作转
and everything else begins to turn around it.
结合实际 就看得更加清楚了
To see this more clearly we can think about the fact
比如今天起床来上班
that we woke up to go to work today
或是今天下班要回家
or that we are going home from work today.
我们为工作做准备
That we are preparing for work.
我们为结束工作做准备
That we are preparing to leave work.
并持续不断在世界各地进行着
And this is happening all the way around the world.
同时 我们调整时间计划
Meanwhile we’re adjusting our schedules,
余生也在随之改变
the rest of our lives so that they are turning about it.
所以这将是第一种状况
So that would be the first condition.
第二种状况是从属
The second condition is subordination.
生活中其它一切似乎就像
That everything else in life comes to seem as if
从属或是服务于工作一样
it’s subordinate to, and to be put in the service of, work.
(比如)想到睡眠
We can think of sleeping:
之所以想要今天睡个好觉
the idea is that we wish to sleep well today
是为了精力集中和调整好状态去工作
in order to be focused and prepared for work.
当工作时 我们希望尽可能地高效
And that when we’re at work we wish to be as productive as possible.
所以睡眠就成了服务于生产力工具
So sleep becomes that which is an instrument in the service of productivity.
我们能举出无数不同的例子来玩这游戏
And we can play that game with all sorts of different instances.
第三种状况是雷同需索
The third condition is the resemblance claim.
仿佛生活里其它一切越来越像工作
It seems as if everything else in life comes to resemble work, more and more.
所以 你可以思考 (比如)哪天休息
So you can think of, on a day off
你想要尽可能地高效
you are wanting to be as productive as possible,
想着完成了多少
thinking about how much you got done.
你可以开始考虑各种办法
You can begin to think about all the ways
计划并安排好和孩子们在一起的时间
in which you plan and schedule time with children
措辞表达开始标注我们的生活
The terms that begin to mark out our lives
即使我们实际上并没在工作
even when we’re not actually working
听起来越来越类似工作
sound more and more work like.
而我认为这最后一个状况是最为强烈
And the last condition I think is the most intense
就是我想称之文化健忘
and that’s what I might call cultural forgetfulness.
我们几乎忘记了曾经一段时间里
We’ve come to almost forget that there was a time
工作并不是人类生活的中心
in which work was not the center of the world,
还有其他的生活方式并存于现代社会中
that there are other ways of life that proceed the modern world,
工作是生活的一部分 但不是生活的焦点
in which work was a part of life but was not the focus of life.
忘了今天仍适用于其他文化其他不同文化
We forget that that’s still true today with other cultures, some other cultures.
忘记实际可能持续一段时间
And we forget that there could actually be a time
工作不会那样 被其余的生活围绕
when work would not be that around which the rest of the world turns.
所以我并非陈述事实已经实现了全面工作
So what I’m not claiming is that we have actually achieved total work.
不如说我在讲我们正处于这样做的边缘
What I’m claiming rather is that we are on the verge of doing so.
事实上我们应该感激
And then indeed we should be grateful
那个只有工作的反乌托邦时代还没有到来
that we have yet to arrive at a time, a dystopian time, where work is total.
假设存在有可实现普遍性基本收入
Well suppose there were to come to pass Universal Basic Income.
为了便于讨论 假设
And suppose, for the sake of argument,
物质需求得到充分满足
that that were sufficient to meet our material needs—
也就是关心的那些 食物足量住房适量
that is, those concerned with having enough food, proper shelter,
足够温暖 足够寒冷
sufficient warmth, sufficient coldness,
等等之类的 涉及到的都得到满足
and the like, so that it was enough.
哈里•法兰克福 一位哲学家
As one philosopher, Harry Frankfurt,
称之为我们是讲求效率原则的
calls it we have doctrine of sufficiency
所以 假设基本收入满足所有需求
So suppose basic income allowed us all to have enough.
再一次 我认为我们需要思考自身要如何
Then once again I think we would need to think about what we would do with ourselves.
亚里士多德《政治学》中非常著名的话
Aristotle in ‘Politics’ says, really quite famously,
“我们闲不下来 目的就是为了能悠闲”
that we non-leisure in order to have leisure.
这就是它本该翻译的方法
And that was the way that it would be translated:
“我们闲不下来 目的就是为了能悠闲”
we non-leisure in order to have leisure
问题是我们要如何沉湎于我们的闲暇?
The question is how are we going to dwell on our leisure?
我认为受过教育的我们在一定程度上
And I think we’ve been educated to a point
真的不知道如何回答这个问题
at which we really don’t know how to answer that question.
我认为 非常之困境困住了人们
People, I think, are struck by a very difficult condition,
被称为怠惰的中世纪状况
which is a medieval condition, called acedia.
怠惰很难翻译 是指躁动不安的精神
Acedia is hard to translate but it means that there’s a restlessness of spirit,
本质上无法静止或安静
an inability to be still or quiet in being.
反而当你观察这类人你会发现
Instead when you watch people you see,
一次又一次 他们实际上相当焦躁不安
time and time again, that they’re actually quite restless.
他们不会细想他们在做什么
They can’t dwell with what they’re doing.
他们不那么容易集中注意力
They can’t so easily pay attention.
我不认为这是科技的后果
I don’t think that’s the result of technology
但我认为科技加剧了此种情形
but I think technology has exacerbated that condition
故大量与普遍性基本收入关联的政策条款问题
So the trouble with a lot of policy statements associated with Universal Basic Income
不是细节详情不是某项特定政策条款本身
is not the particulars, not the particular policy statements themselves,
而更象是哲学问题:
it’s rather the philosophical question:
我们如何真正地属于我们自己
how are we going to actually occupy ourselves?
我们要如何独自生活于社会群体中?
how are we going to live individually in a community
如果没有了主宰每一天的工作
if we don’t have work as that which is governing each of our days,
更别说是我们生活的全部了
let alone the totality of our lives.
针对论据 常见三种反对意见
There are three common objections that are made to the argument
论证我们已经处于全面工作边缘时代
that we have entered a time that is on the verge of total work.
第一条反对意见是说 尽管当然
The first objection is to say that well certainly
不得不满足基本需要
we have to meet our basic needs
而且只能通过工作来实现
and it is through work that we do so.
我承认这种陈述
And I would grant that claim.
也就是说 实际上我并不是反对这个观点
That is, I’m not actually arguing against the idea
工作在生活中会起到一定作用的想法
that work would play some role in our lives,
一些作用于我们的清醒时间里
some role during our waking hours,
一些在延申至工作之外的生活中
some role during the unfolding of our life.
我反对的是这样的观念
what I’m objecting to is the idea
工作成为了一切 成为终极目的
that it becomes everything the be-all and end-all so
所以一旦超越了满足我们物质需要
So once we go past the point of meeting our own material needs,
超越自我生存的能力
our own ability to survive,
我坚持认为我们己经陷入麻烦
then we’ve gotten into trouble, I’m arguing.
第二个错误观念是人们普遍认为
The second misconception is that people commonly think that
我的观点是赞同工作与生活平衡
what I’m arguing for is work-life balance,
但事实上我并不支持这种说法
and I’m not actually arguing for that.
也就是说 我讲的工作与生活平衡是指
That is, I think the idea of work-life balance is actually something,
全面工作占据并且乐在其中
that total work takes up and enjoys operating with
意谓着 事实上你将工作放在一边
meaning if you actually put work on one side
而余下的生活放另一边
and the rest of life on the other
声称工作和爱同样重要 和愉悦
and claim that work is as important as love and joy
和宗教崇拜
and religious worship and
和哲学研究 和宇宙调查同样重要
philosophical investigations and an investigation of the cosmos.
如果你真地认为生活中的一切
If you really think that everything in life
与工作一样有价值
is as valuable as work
那么我就认为还有一件事需重新考虑
then I think that’s also a matter to reconsider.
进一步说 事实上其他那些更重要
It’s rather these other matters are actually more important
相对于我们所斌予工作的价值而言
than the value we accord to work.
第三个错误想法是我只反对过度工作
And the third misconception is that I’m just arguing against overwork,
我不认为这该是我负责的
and I don’t think that’s really what I’m up to.
实际上我认为过劳是全面工作的局部表现
I think that overwork actually is a local manifestation of total work.
相反我认为 反而证明了
Instead I think it’s the case that
我们当然不太可能会如此工作
surely we wouldn’t probably work
如果对工作没那么上心
as much if we care less about work.
这当然是真的
That is certainly true.
但是我认为过度工作只是红鲱鱼
But I think that overwork is simply a red herring,
一种转移注意力的方法
a way of trying to deflect attention from the ways in which,
面对每天平凡的生活
in our ordinary everyday lives,
工作对我们影响太深远了
work has come to matter to us so deeply.
我们认为只有很少一部分人
We think that there are simply a few people out there
工作太多过度了 我们把他们归于病态
who are working far too much and we pathologize them pathologize
称他们工作狂 他们过于在乎了
saying that they are just workaholics; they care too much.
事实上我们还没调查
But we’ve yet to actually investigate
对我们而言也是如此
the ways in which that’s true for us as well.
[音乐声]

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视频概述

我们能够生活在一个没有了工作的世界吗?我们是人类还是生产力工具?对工作的强烈关注会使我们变得病态吗?空闲时间越来越像工作怎么办?听实践哲学家安德鲁·塔格特( Andrew Taggart )娓娓道来,思辨全面工作的是是非非。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWistojFP3w

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