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压力真的会致死吗? – 译学馆
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压力真的会致死吗?

Can Stress Actually Kill You?

在这个繁忙的世界中,随着无休止的工作和堆起的责任
In a busy world, with unending work and responsibilities piling up,
压力可以给我们最好的
stress can get to the best of us.
但是你真的觉得很糟糕吗?压力能杀死你吗?
But how bad is it for you really? Can stress actually kill you?
从生物学角度看,压力更能讲的通
From a biological perspective, stress makes perfect sense.
如果你将要被一个熊咬死,你的压力荷尔蒙会让你更加地进入状态。
If you’re about to get chomped on by a bear, your stress hormones better kick your but into gear.
但事实证明,你的抵押贷款,失业和即将到来地考试,
But it turns out that your mortgage, unemployment, and looming exam
都触发了你身体里相同的应激反应。
all trigger the same stress response in your body.
并且,和大多数动物不一样,
and, unlike most animals,
这些精力是荷尔蒙减少的主要原因,
which experience a major decrease in these hormones,
人类似乎不能找到“开关”!
humans cant seem to find the “off switch”!
尽管他不是生或死
Even though it’s not life and death,
我们心理上受到的冲击,一贯的让我们的身体被这些荷尔蒙所沐浴,
our psychological blows consistently bathe our bodies in these hormones,
让我们的心跳加快,肌肉拉紧,胃部痉挛。
making our heart pound, muscles tense, and stomach turn.
在日本有“过劳死”一词,字面意思译为“因过度工作而死”
In Japan, they have the term Karoshi, which literally translates to “death from overwork”.
现在被认为成是一种过度工作的传染病,
What is now deemed an overworking epidemic,
这些人在他们的全盛时期看起来很健康,然后突然就死了。
these individuals who are seemingly healthy and in their prime, suddenly die.
在日本被正式确认和记录之后,
After being officially recognized and documented in Japan,
这些突发的心脏病和迅速中风都与压力有着关联。
these sudden heart attacks and strokes were quickly linked to stress.
但是,压力是如何导致这些的?
But, how does stress cause this?
皮质醇是应激激素里一种主要物质,它能够帮助身体把能量转移到你需要的地方
Cortisol is one of the main stress hormones which helps divert energy to where you need it
远离非身体必需的功能。
and away from non essentials functions of the body.
但是长期的压力暴露出了正在逐渐严重的问题。
But with chronic stress exposure, problems arise.
免疫系统关闭,抑制炎症开始反应,白细胞减少,
The immune system shuts down, inflammation is inhibited, white blood cells are reduced,
疾病的易感染性增加。
and susceptibility to disease increases.
一些证据表明,长期的压力可能涉及到了癌症的发展。
Some evidence also suggests that prolong stress may be involved in the development of cancer.
当观察猕猴的动脉时,那些在巨大压力下的猕猴拥有更多的动脉阻塞。
When looking at the arteries of macaque monkeys, those under significant stress have more clogged arteries.
在压力下,这阻止了血液快速到达你的心脏,
This prevents blood from getting to the heart quickly
最终会导致心脏病发作。
during stress and can ultimately lead to heart attacks.
大脑也要同样地付出代价,当观察在压力下的老鼠的时候,
The brain also takes a toll, when looking at mice exposed to stress,
我们显著性地发现,这些老鼠比正常老鼠的脑细胞和大脑分支的张力会少很多,
we see dramatically smaller brain cells with fewer branch extensions than normal mice.
这些缺少的部分恰恰与我们的记忆和学习有着特别普遍的关联,
This is particularly prevalent in the areas associated with memory and learning.
也就是说,它们也许会激起你整夜学习对话的一些美妙记忆,
Which may stir up some memories for you of those wonderful all night study sessions;
严重的压力和睡眠质量的下降,会导致我们越来越难以记住我们想记住的东西
the acute stress and sleep depravation can make it increasingly difficult to remember the things we want to.
或许最有说服力的证据是在我们的DNA里
Perhaps the most telling story is in our DNA.
在我们的染色体的后部包含着一种叫染色体终端的东西,
We contain something called telomeres at the end of our chromosomes,
会随着我们的年龄而尺寸逐渐减小。在我们“老化”的这个视频里,解释了这个过程。
which decrease in size with our age. Our video on “Aging”, here, explains this process.
最终,染色体终端会耗尽,在某一时刻,细胞会停止复制然后死亡。
Eventually, the telomeres run out, at which point the cell stops duplicating and dies.
所以,染色体终端与我们的衰老和寿命有着直接的联系。
So, telomeres are directly related to aging and length of life.
结果是,压力实际上会导致这些染色体终端加速减少,
And it turns out, stress may actually accelerate the shortening of these telomeres.
但长久在压力下的人也不是完全没有希望了
But not all hope is lost for the perpetually stressed.
另一个荷尔蒙,催产素表明可以降低这种压力反应。
Another hormone, oxytocin, has been shown to reduce this stress response.
它帮助我们的血管放松,甚至能够使受到压力伤害的心脏再生
It helps our blood vessels relax and even regenerates the heart from stress related damage.
所以,我们如何才能获得更多的催生素呢?它有时被称作“拥抱激素”,
So, how do we get more oxytocin? It’s sometimes dubbed the cuddle hormone,
因为它在进行积极的对话和在意别人的时候,会被释放
because it’s released during positive social interactions and while caring for others.
那些花更多时间与他人待在一起的人,创建了一个对压力的缓冲和恢复力。
People who spend more time with others, create a buffer or resilience to stress.
所以当生命把你变成最好的自己时,记住,你不用时时刻刻都独自一人
So when life gets the best of you, just remember, you dont have to go it alone.
把更多的时间花在陪伴你爱的人身上,这也许会挽救你的生命。
Spend some time with those you love – it may just save your life.
有一个急待解决的问题需要回答吗?在评论区,脸书或推特上提问吧。
Got a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments or on Facebook and Twitter.
如果你想要了解内幕消息和即将发布的视频,还有台前幕后的消息,
And if you want the inside scoop on upcoming episode ideas and behind the scenes,
你可以去关注我们的Instagram和推特。每周订阅更多的科学视频!
Check out our personal Instagram and Twitter handles. And subscribe for more weekly science videos!

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