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宠物会对人类过敏吗? – 译学馆
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Can Pets Be Allergic to People?

This episode of Scishow is brought to you by Blinkist
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如果你对猫或狗过敏 生活可能会很艰难
If you’re allergic to cats or dogs, life can be tough.
有时候 你想抱着小狗
Sometimes, all you wanna do is snuggle with a puppy
但你却突然开始打喷嚏 咳嗽 一点都不好
then suddenly you’re sneezing and wheezing not fine.
过敏反应是由于你的免疫系统对这类东西反应过度 比如宠物皮屑
An allergic reaction comes from your immune system overreacting to things like pet dander,
死皮 脱落的头发 或者它们的唾液
the microscopic flakes of dead skin and hair they shed, or their saliva.
But pets can get allergies, too.
虽然这很罕见 但狗和猫甚至可能对彼此过敏 或是对我们过敏
And while it’s rare, dogs and cats can even be allergic to each other, or to us
more specifically, to human dander.
No matter who’s sneezing at whom
the basic science behind allergies in pets is the same as in people.
Basically, the immune system confuses a harmless allergen like cat dander
for a dangerous invader and attacks.
它会释放抗体 这些抗体是检测和结合过敏原的蛋白质
It releases antibodies, which are proteins that detect and bind to the allergen, then
向其它免疫细胞发出一个信号 释放像组胺这样的炎性分子
sends a signal to other immune cells to release inflammatory molecules like histamine.
Inflammation irritates the sensitive tissues that line
就像你鼻子里的呼吸系统 眼睛或者皮肤
the insides of your nose respiratory system, eyes, and skin.
那会让你打喷嚏 发痒 眼睛发红
And that makes you all sneezy and itchy and eye-watery.
就像我们一样 我们的宠物也会对很多东西过敏
Just like us, our pets can be allergic to a variety of things
就像花粉 草地 霉菌或者食物
like pollen, grasses,mold, and food.
2014年的一个研究 调查了100条狗
One study from 2014 looked at about a hundred dogs
that were having an allergic reaction to something and found that
about half of them were sensitive to house dust and dust mites
a little critters that eat dead skin.
But that’s not because dust is mostly made of human skin.
如果你之前听过这种说法 这是一个常见的误解
If you’ve heard that before, it’s a common misconception.
家庭里的尘土大多来自 开着的门窗里飞进来的
House dust is mostly made of dirt that comes in through open doors or windows
or on the bottom of your shoes.
But you do shed some dead skin
and some experts think there are rare instances of pets
that are specifically allergic to human dander.
当一只狗对某个东西过敏 无论是因为你还是尘螨
When a dog is allergic to something, whether it’s you or dust mites
they often develop a condition called atopic dermatitis
或者皮肤发痒 发红 肿胀
or itchy, red, swollen skin.
猫也经常会皮肤瘙痒 掉毛
Cats can also get itchy skin or can lose patches of fur.
Their allergies are also likely to cause inflammation in their respiratory tracts
会使它们打喷嚏 咳嗽
which makes them sneeze and cough.
这十分正常 猫科动物发生哮喘的概率占总数的1%
It’s common enough that feline asthma affects about 1% of the cat population.
幸运的是 兽医们很擅长诊断和治疗过敏
Luckily, vets are great at diagnosing and treating allergies
so there’s no need to say goodbye to your furry friend.
为了测试是否过敏 兽医可以通过验血测量血液中的抗体数
To test for allergies, vets can do blood tests that measure the amount of antibodies in the blood
或者皮肤测试 这个更敏感而且更快出结果
or a skin test, which is more sensitive and has quicker results.
一个皮肤测试 兽医会刮一点过组织或注射过敏原
For a skin test, the vet scrapes or injects a small amount of allergen on or in the skin
to see if it causes a reaction.
如果有 他们就会进行注射治疗或内服治疗
If it does, they can treat the allergy with shots or oral medication.
就像人一样 治疗会让动物暴露在小数量过敏原下
Just like in humans, these treatments expose animals to small amounts of allergen
让它们慢慢的积累浓缩一段时间 这样它们的免疫系统就
slowly increasing the concentration over time so their immune systems
can build up a tolerance and stop freaking out.
如果你注意到你的宠物在你拥抱它们之后 飞快地逃脱或者打喷嚏
So if you notice your pet breaking out in a rash or sneezing after you cuddle them,
they may be allergic to you
但是更多可能是对别的过敏 像花粉或灰尘这种
but it’s most likely some other allergenlike pollen or dust.
甚至对你的宠物来说 过敏有一点麻烦
Because even for our furry friends, allergies can be a little… ruff.
如果你对宠物过敏 为了预防过敏你会远离蜷着睡的可爱猫狗
If you have allergies that prevent you from cuddling up to a cute dog or cat
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