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这还能吃吗? – 译学馆
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这还能吃吗?

Can I Still Eat This?

Did you know that as much as 40 percent of the food in America
你知道美国每年有将近40%的食物
gets sent to the landfill or dumped down the drain each year?
被送往垃圾场或被丢进下水道吗?
That’s 133 billion pounds.
算起来有1330亿磅重
Part of the reason why is we throw away a lot of food that’s actually still good to eat.
部分原因是我们扔了很多其实还能吃的食物
So it begs the question: can I still eat this?
那么问题来了 这还能吃吗?
Why do we throw away so much food?
我们为什么要扔掉这么多食物呢?
Well, it might have something to do with expiration dates.
这可能和保质期有关
First of all, the term “expiration date” is misleading.
首先 “保质期”这个词具有误导性
For many foods, these are just suggestions made by the manufacturer
对多数食品来说 保质期只是生产商建议的
for when the food is at its peak quality,
最佳食用期限
not when it’s unsafe to eat.
并不是说超过保质期就不能食用了
Except for infant formula, deli meats and a few others,
除了婴儿配方食品 熟食肉和少数食品外
expiration dates have nothing to do with food poisoning.
保质期和食物中毒没有任何关系
Stuff sealed in cans or other shelf-stable foods
罐装食品或者其它耐贮存食品
can stay safe for years.
可以安全保存好几年
But for the stuff that is perishable,
但对于那些易变质的食品
it’s easy to tell if something’s gone bad.
我们很容易发现质量问题
If it smells or tastes weird, don’t eat it.
如果它闻起来或尝起来怪怪的 别吃它
For other stuff,
对于其他食品
here’s what’s going on and how to handle it.
下面我们看看如何分辨及如何处理
Let’s start with the easy stuff.
我们先从简单的例子着手
These fruits might look a little gross,
这些水果看起来可能有点恶心
but they’re still probably good to eat.
但它们还是能吃的
Ok, maybe this one is best for some banana bread.
比如这个就很适合用来做香蕉面包
So why are they soft?
但为什么它这么软呢?
Because “enzymes”.
因为它含有酶
Enzymes are biochemical workhorses
酶是生化反应中的劳模
that make reactions possible by reducing the amount
它通过减少反应所需要的能量
of energy needed to, well, react.
使反应顺利进行
In this case,
在这个例子中
they speed up the reaction that breaks down the cell walls in this mushy pear
酶加速了破坏软梨细胞壁的反应
As fruit ripens,
随着水果成熟
enzymes turn part of the rigid plant cell walls into simple sugars
酶会把部分坚硬的植物细胞壁转化为单糖
like fructose.
比如果糖
Meanwhile, other enzymes break down starch inside those cells
与此同时 其它的酶会分解细胞中的淀粉
to make even more of those simple sugars.
产生更多的单糖
What I’m trying to say is, the riper the fruit, the sweeter it is.
也就是说 越成熟的水果越甜
So unless you see mold on it or it’s slimy.
所以除非它长霉或者黏糊糊的
Soft, ripe fruit is probably OK to eat.
否则软的 成熟的水果还是可以吃的
Okay, but why does it get brown?
那为什么它会变成棕色呢?
When the compounds in plants are exposed to the air,
当植物中的化合物暴露在空气中
like if you slice an apple
比如切苹果
or save half an avocado for later,
或把一半牛油果放着等会吃
oxidation reactions happen.
这时就会发生氧化反应
An enzyme called polyphenoloxidase
一种叫做多酚氧化酶的酶
starts oxidizing polyphenols in the fruit,
开始氧化水果中的多酚
which turns those colorless molecules into brown-colored ones.
使得这些无色的分子变成棕色
Other oxidation reactions are happening as well,
其他的氧化反应也在发生
breaking down flavor molecules.
像分解水果中的香味分子
So some overripe fruits and vegetables might not taste as good,
所以一些过熟的水果蔬菜可能没那么好吃
but that doesn’t mean they’re bad for you.
但不意味着它们有害健康
But, what about this guy though?
可如果是这玩意儿呢?
This guy, you don’t wanna eat.
这东西没人会想吃
That fuzzy stuff is mold, a type of fungus.
那些毛茸茸的东西是霉 是一种真菌
Now, not all molds are bad.
但并不是所有霉菌都是有害的
The molds in these cheeses are there on purpose.
这些奶酪里的霉菌是特意让它长出来的
But generally, if your fruit or vegetables or bread are growing mold,
但一般情况 如果你的水果蔬菜或面包长霉了
get rid of them.
扔掉吧
And we’re talking about that entire loaf here, not that one slice with mold on it.
扔掉整一袋 而不仅是长霉的那一片
The same thing goes for any cooked leftovers with mold.
同样的处理方法适用于发霉的剩菜
In hard cheeses, it’s okay to cut the mold out,
但如果是硬奶酪的话 切掉发霉部分
along with at least 1 inch chunk of the food around it.
和周围至少1英寸的部分就可以了
The reason you want to throw away moldy food is
你得把发霉食物扔掉的原因是
because the thread-like molds can penetrate deep into your food, like tree roots.
线状的霉菌能像树根一样深入你的食物
Especially in moist foods such as bread or fruits,
尤其像水果面包这类含水食物
these strands can extend deep within.
这些霉菌能延伸到它们的内部
The problem with molds
霉菌的麻烦在于
is some make chemicals called mycotoxins,
某些霉菌会产生一种化学物质——真菌毒素
compounds made by fungi that can harm us.
由真菌组成的对人体有害的化合物
Mycotoxins are behind the irritation from athlete’s foot.
讨厌的足癣就是由真菌毒素引起的
More serious ones can attack the nervous system and other organs,
更严重的真菌毒素会攻击神经系统或者其他器官
or even cause cancer years down the road.
甚至会在数年后引发癌症
While mycotoxins only come from certain molds under certain conditions,
虽然真菌毒素只在特定情况下由特定霉菌产生
it’s better to be safe than sorry.
但安全总比后悔好
Now when milk goes bad, that’s because of bacteria.
如果牛奶变质 那是因为细菌
Some feed on the sugar lactose in milk,
有些细菌以牛奶中的乳糖为食
producing lactic acid as a byproduct.
产生出副产品乳酸
Acids have a sour taste,
由于乳酸有酸味
which is why your milk tastes sour now.
所以变质牛奶尝起会有点酸
Other bacterias break down fats and proteins
其他细菌将脂肪和蛋白质
into gross tasting waste products.
分解成恶心的代谢物
These bacteria are mostly harmless,
这些细菌大多都是无害的
and with pasteurization
经过巴氏杀菌
there’s little chance that anything bad
超市购买的牛奶
is going to grow in store-bought milk.
几乎不会产生任何有害物质
But it tastes pretty gross at this point.
如果有 那味道会相当恶心
So it’s best to check the sour milk,
所以最好检查一下发酸的牛奶
so follow safe cooking and storage guidelines, especially for meats.
要遵循安全烹饪和储存指南 尤其是肉类
And if something looks or smells weird, don’t eat it!
如果有些东西看或闻起来很奇怪 不要吃!
Just don’t worry too much if that banana’s getting brown.
如果香蕉由黄变棕 就不用太担心了
What about other food?
那其他食物呢?
We can’t cover everything in this video,
这则视频无法涵盖所有食物
so we left some helpful links in the dooblidoo below,
所以我们在下方文字栏中留了一些相关链接
including a neat app from scientists
包括一款由康耐尔大学和美国农业局的
at Cornell and the USDA called FoodKeeper.
科学家们开发的叫FoodKeeper的软件
It can tell you important stuff
它可以告诉你一些重要的事
like whether that slice of pizza is still edible.
比如那块披萨还能不能吃
Which, by the way, it’s not.
顺便说一下 不能
It’s been in your fridge for two weeks, dude.
它在你冰箱里待两周了 伙计
Get your life together.
让生活正常起来吧
who doesn’t eat leftover pizza.
毕竟大家都有吃剩披萨的习惯
Anyway,be sure to tune in next week
总而言之 下周一定要收看
for some really cool food tricks,and hey, thanks for watching!
非常酷的美食节目 嘿 谢谢收看!

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视频概述

变色了 变软了 发霉了 变质了 到底是什么导致了这些?过保质期的食物还能吃吗?由Reaction为你解答

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFKVKshX5tQ

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