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为何人类对温度的感知会有偏差? – 译学馆
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为何人类对温度的感知会有偏差?

Can Humans Really Feel Temperature?

我们常说的温度 其实就是衡量
The temperature of regular stuff is basically just a measurement of jiggliness of the atoms
构成物体的原子及分子 运动的剧烈程度
and molecules that make that stuff up.
运动幅度越大 温度越高
More jiggling, higher temperature.
运动幅度越少 温度越低
Less jiggling, lower temperature.
当然 物体温度高时 让人感觉热
Of course, when something’s at a high temperature, it feels hot, and when something’s at a low
温度低时 就让人感觉冷
temperature, it feels cold.
对吧?
Right?
其实也不尽然
Mehhh……not exactly
触摸同在冰箱里的金属块和书籍
If you touch a piece of metal and a book that have been sitting in your fridge, the metal
你会感觉金属比书冷 德雷克在Veritasium频道解释过这一现象
will feel much colder than the book – Derek of Veritasium did a great video on this, but
但除非自己试一下 否则你不会相信
you really have to try it for yourself to believe it!
温度计显示 金属和书的温度其实相同
The metal and the book are honestly at the same temperature as measured by a thermometer,
但我们会感觉金属冷一些
but the metal FEELS colder.
这并不是大脑的错觉 我们会觉得金属比书凉
This isn’t just a trick of the mind, though – we experience the metal as “colder” than
是因为金属是导体 而纸是绝缘体
the book for a very physical reason: metal is a conductor, and paper is an insulator,
因此我们手上的能量 或者说分子的运动
so the ENERGY, or jiggliness of the molecules in our hands, is absorbed more quickly by
能被金属更快的吸收
the metal than by the book.
尽管书和金属温度相同
Even though the book and the metal are at the same temperature, the metal causes the
金属使手上的温度快速流失 从而感觉金属更凉
temperature of our hands to go down faster, and thus, we experience the metal as being
因为我们感觉到的 其实是手的温度
colder – because the temperature of our hands is what we really feel.
就像水银温度计测量的只是其本身的温度一样
It’s like how, technically, a mercury thermometer really only measures its own temperature and
人们只能将其他物品与温度计接触
you can only indirectly measure temperatures of other things by putting them in thermal
从而间接测量物体温度
contact with it.
同样 皮肤上感知温度的神经只能
Similarly, the thermoreceptive nerves in our skin can only directly measure the temperature
直接测量皮肤本身的温度
of the skin itself and not of anything else.
因此当人们触摸物体时 感觉到的不是物体的温度
So when we touch something, we don’t feel its temperature, but rather, we feel its effect
而是物体对皮肤的影响 即传导热能的多少和快慢
on our skin: that is, how much and how quickly it transfers thermal energy – that’s the jiggling
传导的过程也就是分子运动的过程
of molecules – to or from us.
这种热能的传导也能解释
The capacity to transfer thermal energy is also why a blast of steam from your stovetop
为何锅里的水蒸汽要比炉灶上方干热空气烫
can feel so much hotter than a blast of hot dry air from your oven, even though the oven
尽管炉灶的温度更高 水蒸气却将更多分子
has a higher temperature: water vapor transfers more molecular jiggling to your skin than
传导在你手上运动
air by itself.
其实 “冷热”和“高低温”的概念并不相同
In fact, it’s tempting to say that “hot” and “cold” are fundamentally different concepts
尽管我们经常交替着使用
from “high temperature” and “low temperature”, even though we usually use the words interchangeably.
“热”意味着物体散发大量能量
“Hot” really means “it gives off a lot of energy” while high temperature means “it has
而“高温”则是物体拥有大量能量 如果你曾参与过募捐就会明白
a lot of energy” – and as anyone who’s tried fundraising knows, just because somebody has
某人拥有很多东西 并不代表他们会赠予很多
a lot of something, doesn’t necessarily mean they give a lot of it away.

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视频概述

我们常用的表示物体温度高低的“冷”与“热”,其实并不能代表物体的真实温度。因为我们所感知到的并非物体的实际温度,而是自己皮肤的温度。

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翻译译者

Hermes赫斯

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXT012us9ng

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