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无条件基本收入(UBI)是否对社会有益? – 译学馆
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无条件基本收入(UBI)是否对社会有益?

Can free-cash handouts help society? | The Economist

想象一下付钱时没有携带现金的情况
Imagine paying peopleno-strings-attached cash
不管他们有没有工作
whether they have a job or not.
这时都需要一种新的安全的网络系统
There’s the need for anew kind of safety net.
有一种理想情况
It’s a utopian idea that some think
可以实现
could be the solution to a potentially
不需要工作的乌托邦式未来
jobless dystopian future.
这种自动化的模式正在实现
This way of automation iscoming and it hasn’t crashed
它并没让社会运作出现问题
over society yet but it’s going to.
在加利福尼亚有两个实验
In California, two experiments
正在实践一种完全不同的未来工作模式
are being planned that could point to a radically different future of work.
斯托克顿市
Stockton California.
早在五年之前就宣告破产
Just five years ago, thecity was declared bankrupt.
今日免费理发
Free haircuts today.
失业率几乎是
Today, unemployment is almost double than
国内平均值的两倍
the national average and many people
大部分人都是月光族
live paycheck to paycheck.
你最近过的如何?
Hello, how are you?
很高兴看到你
Good to see you.
但是市长 迈克尔·塔布斯有一项计划
But the city’s mayor,Michael Tubbs has a plan
用以对抗不平等 不安全的工作市场
to combat an increasinglyunequal and insecure jobs market.
从今年开始 一百位居民每月将收到
Starting this year, a hundredresidents will receive
500美元的低收入保障
a guaranteed income of $500 per month.
不管他们工作与否
Whether they work or not.
市长的计划是受到无条件基本收入
The mayor’s plan isinspired by the radical idea
或UBI这一疯狂想法的启发
of a Universal Basic Income, or UBI.
这是给所有市民的一份无条件现金款项
An unconditional cashpayment for all citizens.
这个实验将会测量这些款项
The experiment will measurethe impact of these payments
对参与者产生的影响
on the recipients’ lives.
市长塔布斯相信它对于
Mayor Tubbs believes itcould be the key to helping
穷忙族简直是雪中送炭
the working poor.
(穷忙族)那些有工作却难以维持生计的人
Those who have jobs but find it hard to make ends meet.
如果无条件基本收入能在斯托克顿发挥作用
If Universal Basic Incomeworks out in Stockton
你将会看到贫困程度的减少
you will see the poverty levels decrease.
我确实想过肯定会有更多
I do think there’ll be morediscussions about things
关于社会安全网络和基本收入的讨论
like social safety net andbasic income, for sure.
但事实是两个美国人中就有一个
The truth is, one in two of every American
支付不起五百美元的紧急费用
can’t afford one $500 emergency.
这说明这个国家大部分地区都表现不佳
Which means the majority of the country’s not doing that well.
我首先要说的是
I’m the first to say that
经过了三年的工作
for three years worth of work,
我最后大概挣了50万美金
I ended up with nearlyhalf a billion dollars.
这不是经济本该运作的方式
That is not how the economyis supposed to work.
Chris Hughes是赞助Mayor Tubb实验中
Chris Hughes is one of the people paying
众多赞助者中的一个
for Mayor Tubb’s experiment.
他靠成为脸书的合伙人来挣钱
He made his money as aco-founder of Facebook.
但是他从中获利的在线运作方式对今后的工作者可能
But the online revolutionhe’s profited from could
意味着风险性的上升
mean rising insecurity forthe workers of tomorrow. Now,
他致力于寻找一种新的方式来实现
he spends his timelooking for new ways to deliver
一个更合理稳定的社会
a fairer society.
我们可以发现在临时经济中兼职工作和
We’re seeing massive growth in the number
临时工作者数量上的巨大增长
of part-time jobs, contingentworkers, in the gig economy,
这些不稳定性需要一个
and with that instability comes a need
新的安全网络模式
for a new kind of safety net.
在每个月都有500美元
$500 a month in thebackground every single month
对于需要的人来说这个月会变得更好
for people who need it sothat in the great months
你也知道这会让你更加轻松
you know that you’re gonna be good.
在你的工作不是相当稳定的时候
And in the months whenwork isn’t quite as stable,
至少你需要挣到房租
you know you’re at leasthalfway to making rent.
怀疑者反对无条件基本收入
Skeptics argue no-strings-attached
提出这会使人们对工作丧失动力
handouts could discouragepeople from working.
克里斯·休斯说迄今为止的研究表明
But Chris Hughes saysresearch to date suggests
这些补助有积极作用
that top ups have beneficial effects.
当人们获得些许数额的现金时
When people get modest amounts of cash,
他们会使用这些钱去改善自己和家庭的生活
they use it to improve their lives and the lives of their family.
他们投资了自己
They invest it in themselves.
更重要的是 人们并不会一起罢工
Most importantly, people don’tdrop out of work en masse.
我们这一代人必须要处理被自动化替代的
Our generation is gonna haveto deal with tens of millions
数以万计的岗位 比如自动驾驶的汽车和卡车
of jobs replaced by automation like self-driving cars and trucks.
硅谷似乎充满着热切的亿万富豪
Silicon Valley seemedawash with billionaires
去消除未来工作不确定性所带来的恐惧
eager to allay fears aboutan uncertain future of work.
这些恐惧症正是由 使他们成为
Fears stoked by the very innovations
亿万富翁的创新引起的
that have made them their billions.
无条件基本收入就是经过了
Universal Basic Incomeis one of these ideas
大量的讨论 争吵的方法之一
that’s been talkedabout and debated a lot.
我们认为这个方法很棒 鉴于得到一些数据后
So we thought it’d be reallygood, given what we think
我们所预想的世界将发生的改变
is gonna happen in the world if we could get some data.
萨姆·阿特曼是硅谷大学刚成立时的校长
Sam Altman is presidentof a Silicon Valley
他即将在美国开展
school for startups and heis about to launch the most
最严谨的
rigorous experiment in basic income
基本收入实验
ever carried out in America.
3000人每月将收到
3,000 people will receiveeither $50 or $1,000
50到1000美元的金额在后续几年里
with no-strings-attached everymonth for the next few years.
大部分经济学家都反对基本收入
Most economists argue abasic income would be just
原因是它们对于政府来说支出过大
too expensive forgovernments to provide today.
但是萨姆·阿特曼宣称
But Sam Altman claimsthe rise of the robots
这随着机器人的增加会有一个答案
could ultimately have an answer for that.
如果人工智能被运用
If the AI comes,
好消息是物品的成本
the good news is the cost of goods
和服务费用都会大幅降低
and services come downdramatically because computers
因为自动化是非常省钱的
can do them so inexpensively.
如你所知道的一样
In a world like that, you know,
根据购买力的猛涨
we’d see effected GDP growth
我们将看到GDP的增长
in terms of purchasing power skyrocket.
在世界哪里有人工智能
In the world where theAI really does arrive,
哪里就有大量的钱财
there’ll be plenty of money.
无条件基本收入的支持者们甚至相信
Supporters of a basic income even believe
它可以改变人们对于工作本身的看法
it can change people’sattitudes towards work itself.
我们明确必须要重新定义
We’ll definitely have to redefine
我们所认为的工作
what we think of this work.
但在这之前必须需要大量的实践
But we’ve had to dothat many times before.
从硅谷我们可以学习到一件事
One of the things that welearned in Silicon Valley
一些人有多大的潜力
is just how much potentialsome people have.
如果你能揭示这个问题
And if you can unlock that,
如果你可以让他们免于仅为了生存
if you can free them from having to work a job that they hate
而被迫从事自己讨厌的工作
just to be able to survive,
那么我们将为世界创造出更大的价值
we’ll create hugely more value for the world.

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视频概述

如今机械自动化技术的普及,工作岗位日益减少,无条件基本收入开始进入人们的视野,那么人们的未来该有怎样的走向呢?

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hz4NW0TKP0g

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