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运动可以治疗抑郁症吗 – 译学馆
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运动可以治疗抑郁症吗

Can Exercise Treat Depression?

[介绍音]
[♪ INTRO ]
促使我们运动的原因有很多
There are lots of good reasons to exercise,
如 练出发达的二头肌
like toning those biceps,
享受流汗的快感
the satisfaction of breaking a sweat,
或仅仅是为了不浪费
or just actually using that gym membership
你之前下决心办的会员卡
you got when you made that resolution.
不仅如此 锻炼对健康保健都大有裨益
And exercising is good for your general healthand wellness.
它能使你更快乐
It can also make you happier.
这是因为锻炼不仅会
That ’ s because working out doesn ’
影响你的体脂率
t just affect your body-fat percentage — it can
它也能通过
also change the way you feel
产生让大脑快乐的物质并缓解应激反应
by boosting happy brain chemicals and buffering your response
来缓解压力
to stress.
这种作用是如此的巨大
And the effects can be so dramatic
以至于许多心理学家认为定期锻炼能
that many psychologists think regular exercise can help
治疗焦虑和抑郁
treat disorders like anxiety and depression.
在过去的几十年里
Lots of research studies
大量研究阐明了锻炼与乐观情绪的
over the past decades have drawn a clear link between exercise and
明确联系
positive feelings.
有些研究认为 一组运动带来
And the mood-boosting effects of a single bout
的情绪刺激效果能维持
of exercise can stick around for up to
24个小时
24 hours, according to some studies.
听起来有点违反常理 从某些角度来说
Part of why you feel so good after exercise,
你之所以在锻炼后感觉良好
counterintuitive as it might seem, is because
是因为锻炼是紧张的
exercise is stressful.
专业点说 锻炼是一种身体上的压力
Technically speaking, exercise is a physical stress on the body,
这意味着它会激活
which means it activates
下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺或HPA轴
the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal or HPAaxis–
它是神经系统的一部分
the part of your nervous system that
参与并控制应激反应
controls your body’s stress response.
它的一个作用就是产生信号分子-压力荷尔蒙皮质醇
One of the things it does is signal production of the stress hormone cortisol.
皮质醇能帮助产生与压力或运动相关的
Cortisol helps produce the physical changes you associate
生理变化
with stress or exercise, like
如加速心跳
elevated heart rate.
但它也会产生负反馈环路
But it also contributes to a negative feedback
这会导致HPA轴的最终关闭
loop that eventually shuts down the HPA axis.
血液中皮质醇水平首先会在你感到压力时升高
Levels of cortisol in your blood rise initially when you ’ re stressed,
但一旦他们达到一个特定的水平
but once they reach a certain level,
就会向HPA轴发出休息的信号
they signal the HPA axisto relax.
而你的身体需要时间来回复状态
And it takes your body some time to reset everything
以便下一次的皮质醇水平的提高
before cortisol levels can rise again after that happens.
这意味着锻炼能应对
That means exercise can act as a buffer to other stresses
不久之后的压力
that come shortly after, even
即使它们是心理方面而非生理上的
if they’re psychological rather than physical.
举个例子 2015年发表在
For example, a 2015 study
《心理神经内分泌学》杂志上的一项研究
in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology
找来40个年轻男性做
had 40 young men do what ’ s called the Montreal
所谓的“蒙特利尔成像应激任务” 它的基本内容是
Imaging Stress Task. Basically,
你在做数学题时
you do math problems
指示器会在一个大屏幕上显示你的预期表现
while a ticker shows your expected performance on a big screen,
这并不是一种真正的放松
which is not exactly relaxing.
研究人员发现 当受试者提前半小时
The researchers found that when subjects ran on a treadmill
在跑步机上跑步时
for half an hour beforehand,
他们在测试期间的皮质醇水平较低
they had lower cortisol levels during thetest.
但与锻炼相关的快乐情绪
But the happy feelings associated
并不仅仅来源于你对其他压力更好的处理能力
with exercise don ’ t just come from handling other stresses better.
锻炼可以提高你的内源性大麻素水平
Working out increases your levels of endocannabinoids,
内源性大麻素是与所谓的“跑步者愉悦感”
the neurotransmitters linked to the so-called
有关的神经递质
‘runner’s high.’
它们通过与大脑中的大麻素受体结合
They decrease anxiety by binding to cannabinoid receptors
来减少焦虑-是的 大麻素
in the brain—yes, cannabinoid
很像大麻
like cannabis,
因为它们和大麻中影响精神的物质是相同的
because they ’ re same receptors the psychoactive compounds in marijuana interact with.
内源性大麻素也有助于抑制过度活跃的HPA轴
Endocannabinoids also help rein in an overactive HPA axis,
这是锻炼让你在其他类型的压力中
so that ’ s another way exercise
更容易复原的另一种方式
can make you more resilient to other typesof stress.
锻炼也能提高你的血清素水平
Working out also ups your levels of serotonin,
这是一种调节情绪的
a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation
神经递质
of mood and emotion.
你锻炼得越多 产生的血清素就越多
The harder you work, the more serotonin youproduce.
有趣的是
That ’ s especially interesting,
低血清素与抑郁和焦虑等
because low serotonin is linked to disorders like depression
疾病有关
and anxiety.
事实上 许多抗抑郁药物就是通过
In fact, many antidepressant medications work
直接或间接增加你大脑中的血清素水平
by directly or indirectly increasing levels
来发挥作用的
of serotonin in your brain.
另一种叫做脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)
And another chemical, called brain-derived neurotrophic factor,
的化学物质也在运动过程中有所增加
or BDNF, also goes up during exercise.
BDNF就像是你的大脑肥料
BDNF is like fertilizer for your brain.
它能帮助神经元生长并与其他神经元形成连接
It helps neurons grow and form connections
通常能改善大脑健康
with other neurons, and generally improves brain health.
研究还没有发现BDNF和情绪之间的确切联系
Researches haven ’ t yet figured the exact link between BDNF and mood,
但通过增强神经可塑性
but it might help
BDNF可能会对情绪产生有利影响
by enhancing your neuroplasticity,
神经可塑性即你在学习或经历某事时
the flexibility that allows your brain to reorganize when
大脑重构功能的灵活性
you learn or experience something.
抑郁症患者的神经可塑性被破坏
In depression, neuroplasticity is disrupted,
这使得大脑很难在
which makes it difficult for the brain to
重要的神经回路受损时进行修复
compensate if important neural circuits becomeimpaired.
因此 提升BDNF水平可能有助于扭转或防止此类情况
So elevating BDNF might help reverse or preventthat. And,
另外 抗抑郁药也会增加BDNF的水平
maybe unsurprisingly, antidepressantsalso tend to increase BDNF levels.
尽管如此
All that said,
运动和抗抑郁药的相似之处
the similarities between exercise and antidepressants
并不意味着它们是相同的
don ’ t mean they ’ re the same.
这些着眼于
The studies that look at the effects of exercise
运动在分子水平上的影响的研究
on a molecular level are usually only measuring
通常只测量短期内
things in the short-term —
比如你跳下跑步机后的指标
right after you hop off the treadmill.
这并不能告诉我们刺激的持续时间
Which doesn’t tell you much about how longthe boost lasts.
但研究也逐渐显示出定期锻炼的远期收益
But the research is increasingly showing the long-term benefits of regular exercise, too.
2017年的一项研究
One study, published in 2017,
通过对近3万4千名挪威人的心理健康
examined the mental health and exercise habits of almost
和锻炼习惯进行了十多年的调查
34,000 Norwegians for more than a decade.
研究人员发现
And the researchers found
那些不锻炼的人与那些每周锻炼1到2个小时的人相比
that people who didn ’ t exercise had a 44 % greater chance
患抑郁症的几率要高44%
of developing depression compared to those who exercised 1-2 hours a week.
其他研究已发现
Other research has found that —
至少对患轻度和中度抑郁的人来说
at least for mild to moderate depression — exercise
锻炼可以和其他治疗方案一样有益
can be just as beneficial as other treatmentoptions.
例如 2011年《身心医学》杂志发表了一项
For example, a 2011 study in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine
对超过200名患有抑郁症的成年人的研究
of over 200 adults diagnosed with
结果发现 在四个月的周期里
depression found that exercise was just as effective
运动和抗抑郁药一样有效
as an antidepressant over a four
现在
month period. Now,
在你去把帕罗西汀换成普拉提课程之前
before you go out and swap your Paxil
你要注意这项研究
for pilates, it ’ s worth noting that there
存在的一些偏见
were some biases in this study.
首先
For one thing,
受试者是对运动能治疗抑郁症研究的观念
the subjects were people who responded to an ad about research on treating
有认同感的人
depression with exercise,
所以很多人一开始就很赞成运动
so a lot of them were very pro-exercise in the first place.
研究人员还注意到 一些人似乎把不用药物作为一种治疗了
The researchers also noticed that some people seemed anti-medication as a treatment.
这些因素都会影响结果
All of which would have affected the results.
但无论运动与其他治疗方案相比如何
But no matter how exercise compares to other treatment options,
研究都已明确证实
research has made it pretty
锻炼对你的身心
clear that working out has all kinds of benefits
的各种好处
for both your mind and body.
所以 如果你觉得自己有点抑郁
So if you think you might be depressed,
那你一定要去看医生
definitely see a doctor.
但是如果你对一个项目感到压力
But if you ’ re stressed about a project,
或者只是心情沮丧
or just feeling down in the dumps, getting
做一点儿运动可能会有帮助
a little bit of exercise might help.
感谢您收看本期的心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych!
如果你想了解更多锻炼中的好处
If you want to learn more about that buzz you get
可以在我们
from working out, you can learn more
关于“为什么你会得到跑步者愉悦感”的节目中了解到更多内容
about that in our episode on why you get that runner ’ s high.
[结束音]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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