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小狗能认出它们的妈妈吗?

Can Dogs recognize their Moms? | #aumsum

It’s AumSum Time.
这里是《奥萨小课堂》
Can puppies recognize their mothers?
小狗能认出它们的妈妈吗?
I miss my mommy.
我想念我的妈妈
Alright.
好吧
Stop Crying.
停止哭泣
Whether a puppy recognizes its mother after a long gap or not.
小狗是否能在分离很长一段时间后认出它的妈妈
Depends on how much time the puppy spent with its mother.
取决于分离前小狗和它的妈妈一起度过的时间
The period between the first 2 to 16 weeks is a very critical period of a puppy’s life.
出生后2至16周是小狗生命中很关键的时期
During this period, the puppy imprints on its mother.
在此期间 小狗会在妈妈身上留下印记
This means, it builds a strong bond with its mother, based on sight and smell.
这意味着 它通过视觉和嗅觉与妈妈建立牢固的联系
If this happens properly,
如果这种情况正常发生
then the puppy recognizes its mother even after separation.
那么即使分开后小狗也能认出它的妈妈
However, the puppy won’t remember the specific relation.
然而 小狗不会记住具体的关系
It will just recognize her as a familiar dog, because of the imprint.
它只会将狗妈妈视为家人 因为印记
Since father dogs are usually unavailable during a puppy’s critical period.
因为狗爸爸通常在小狗的关键时期不出现
The puppy cannot recognize its father, due to lack of imprinting.
由于缺乏印记 小狗无法认出它的爸爸
Why do we crave sugar?
为什么我们想吃糖?
Because sugar contains all the essential nutrients.
因为糖包含所有基本营养成分
No.

Sugar is found in many food items like chocolates, cakes, ice creams, etc.
许多食物中含糖 比如巧克力 蛋糕 冰淇淋等
They are really tempting.
伙计 它们真的很诱人
Indeed.
真的
But, when we eat such sugary foods.
但是 当我们吃这种含糖食物
The sweet sensing taste buds in our tongue send signals to the brain.
我们舌头上的甜味味蕾向大脑发送信号
In the brain, these signals activate the reward system.
在大脑中 由于像多巴胺这类神经递质的释放
Due to which neurotransmitters like dopamine are released.
这些信号激活奖赏系统
Dopamine gives us pleasure and makes us feel good.
多巴胺给我们快感并让我们感觉良好
As it makes us feel good.
因为它让我们感觉良好
We tend to eat more sweet sugary foods to get the same feeling.
我们就倾向于多吃含糖食物来获得同样的感觉
Thus, sugar acts like a drug, making us addictive and thus, causing cravings.
因此 糖就像一种毒品 使我们上瘾 从而引起欲望
However, note that excess sugar is not good for mental as well as physical health.
然而 请注意过量的糖对身心健康不好
Hence, we can use natural sweeteners like jaggery and honey.
因此 我们可以使用天热甜味剂像椰糖和蜂蜜
Which don’t cause harm and satisfy our cravings.
这不会造成危害并且能满足我们的欲望
How do x-rays work?
X光如何工作?
It’s confidential.
它是保密的
No.

X-rays are very high energy waves.
X光是超高能波
They were accidentally discovered by a physicist named Wilhelm Röntgen.
它们由一位名叫威廉·康拉德的物理学家偶然发现
As he did not know what they were, he named them X-rays.
因为他不知道它们是什么 他就命名它们为X光
X-rays can pass through many objects
X光可以穿过很多物体
but if an object’s density is more.
但是如果一个物体的密度更大
Then these rays get absorbed and don’t pass.
那么这些光线被吸收而不能通过
Due to this property, X-rays are used to detect fractures, tumors, etc.
由于这种特性 X光被用来检测骨折 肿瘤等
To detect a fracture.
为了检测骨折
X-rays are passed through our body.
X光穿过我们的身体
Which then hit an x-ray detector or a photographic film.
然后击中X射线探测器或照相胶片
Now, since our tissues are not dense enough.
现在 因为我们的组织不够致密
Much of the x-rays pass through them and get detected by the film.
很多X射线通过它们被胶片探测到
Thus casting a dark or grey shadow on the film.
从而在胶片上投射暗色或灰色的阴影
But as the bones are much denser.
但是由于骨骼更致密
The rays get absorbed and hence, the bones appear white on the film.
光线被吸收 因此骨骼在胶片上看起来是白色
This allows doctors to have a look at the structure of bones.
这使得医生可以观察骨骼的结构
And thus, spot the fracture.
这样 就可以发现骨折处
Can animals predict natural disasters?
动物可以预测自然灾害吗?
I don’t know.
伙计 我不知道
Alright.
好吧
I will explain.
我会解释
It is believed that animals can hear certain sounds.
人们相信动物能听到某些声音
Or detect certain changes prior to disasters.
或者在灾难发生前察觉某些变化
And thus perceive the upcoming danger.
从而感知即将到来的危险
But how?
但是怎么预测的呢?
The initial activities which lead to earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.
导致地震 海啸等的最初活动
Create infrasounds which arrive faster than the main shockwave.
产生比主冲击波来得更快的次声
These sounds are inaudible to humans.
人类是听不见这些声音的
But animals like flamingos, elephants, rhinoceroses, etc. can hear them.
但是像火烈鸟 大象 犀牛等动物能听见
Thus, they perceive the coming danger and probably escape.
因此 它们会察觉到来临的危险并可能逃跑
It is also said that the earth’s magnetic field slightly deflects before an earthquake.
也有人说地震前地球磁场会略有偏转
It is suspected that dogs detect this deflection.
有人怀疑狗能察觉到这种偏转
And thus, predict the arriving disaster.
从而预测即将到来的灾难
Some researchers also think that birds can foresee the approaching storm or tornado.
一些研究者还认为鸟能预见即将来临的风暴或龙卷风
Because they detect changes in atmospheric pressure, wind speeds, temperature, etc.
因为它们能察觉大气压力 风速 温度等的变化
Hence, they fly away to a safer place.
因此 它们飞到一个更安全的地方

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视频概述

本段科普了小狗能否在分离后认出妈妈,想吃糖的原因,X射线工作过程以及动物如何预测灾难。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ewo58AA_2CU

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