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动物究竟能不能理解人类的语言? – 译学馆
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动物究竟能不能理解人类的语言?

Can Animals Understand Humans?

Hey, thoughty² here.
嗨 欢迎收看《思考平方》
62% of people claim that
62%的人声称
their pets understand what they say.
他们的宠物能听懂他们的话
Whether or not animals can hear, recognise
一直以来 动物到底能否听到 识别
and possibly even understand what human say
甚至理解人类说的话
has always been a profound mystery.
都是个大谜团
Recent evidence attempts to reveal, once and for all,
最近的实验想要彻彻底底地证明
whether Tony the terrier knows the difference
小梗犬托尼是否明白
between “good boy” and “Tony, did you chew my slippers?”
“干得漂亮”和“托尼 你咀嚼我拖鞋了吗?”的区别
Dogs may respond to these sentences,
狗可能会回应这些话
but do dogs and other animals actually understand
但是狗狗和其他动物真的明白
the meaning behind those sentences?
这些话的含义吗?
Or are they just well-trained?
还是说它们只是被训练出来的?
You may be very surprised
接下来关于动物感知能力的发现
by what you’re about to discover about animal perception.
可能会令你十分惊讶
Thoughty² Can Anmials Understand Humans?
《思考平方》 动物真的可以理解人类吗?
In 1984, researchers at the National Marine Mammal Foundation in California
1984年 研究人员在加州国际海洋哺乳动物基地
noticed something quite unusual.
注意到了一些不寻常的事
They claimed that they heard voices of people talking around an enclosure
他们声称 在白鲸Noc居住的水池附近
where they kept a Beluga whale known as Noc.
听到了人谈话的声音
They were fairly certain it wasn’t anything paranormal,
他们十分肯定这不是任何超自然现象
after all the voices sounded so real.
毕竟这些声音听起来太真实了
Eventually a diver went into the tank where Noc was being held,
最终 一个潜水员进入了Noc的水池
and he noticed the strangest thing.
然后他发现了很奇怪的事
Noc, the Beluga whale, was talking to him in an eerily human-like voice.
白鲸Noc在用一种怪异的人类声音和他谈话
Incredibly, the whale reportedly told the diver to “get out”,
难以置信的是 他声称白鲸对他说“出去”
This is an actual recording of Noc imitating human speech.
这是Noc模仿人类说话的真实记录
#record#
#录音#
It kind of sounds like a human talking through a kazoo, doesn’t it?
听起来有点像卡祖笛发出的声音 不是吗?
That’s because unlike humans who use their larynx,
因为不像人类用声带发音
whales use their nasal tract to produce sounds,
鲸鱼用鼻道发声
making everything sound all nasally.
所以它们发出的声音听起来像鼻音
It’s believed that Noc,
人们认为
having lived most of his life in close proximity to humans,
由于Noc一生大部分时间都和人类很亲密
learnt to mimic the human voice.
所以它学会了模仿人类声音
But the real question is,
但真正的问题是
was Noc merely repeating noises that he picked up from humans
Noc到底只是重复从人类那里学会的声音
or did he actually understand the meaning behind what he was saying?
还是真的理解了它所说的话的含义?
Asian elephants, seals and parrots
亚洲象 海豹和鹦鹉
have also be known to imitate human speech.
都因会模仿人类说话而知名
But do they understand what they are saying?
但它们明白它们在说什么吗?
And do they understand what we say to them?
它们能理解我们对它们说的话吗?
In 1891, a German high school mathematics teacher,
1891年 一名叫Wilhelm Von Osten的
named Wilhelm Von Osten
德国中学数学老师
convinced himself that animals could be taught basic mathematics.
笃定动物可以学会基本的算数
He tried to teach maths to a cat,
他试图教一只猫
a horse and a bear.
一匹马和一头熊数学
The cat couldn’t care less
猫咪只关心自己
and was only interested in itself.
对算数毫无兴趣
The bear was just downright hostile towards him,
而熊则对他充满了十足的敌意
but the horse showed great promise.
但马却表现出了极大的潜力
After extensive tutelage, the horse, named Hans,
经过大量的培训 这只叫Hans的马
learnt to tap his hoof in response to numbers
学会了用蹄子敲击地面
that Von Osten would write on his blackboard.
来回应Von Osten写在黑板上的数字
If Von Osten wrote the number two,
如果Von Osten写下数字二
Hans would tap his hoof twice,
Hans会敲击地面两次
if he wrote four,
如果他写下“四”
Hans would tap four times, and so on.
Hans会敲击地面四次 以此类推
Spurred on by this success,
受到这次成功实验的鼓励
Von Osten proceeded to teach Hans to answer basic mathematical equations.
Von Osten继续教Hans做基础的数学运算题
Von Osten would write on the blackboard “2 + 2 =”
Von Osten在黑板上写下“2+2=”
and Hans would tap his hoof four times.
Hans就会用蹄子敲击地面四次
Von Osten was delighted and exhibited Hans
Von Osten非常高兴
to the public all over Germany.
并带着Hans在德国巡演
During these shows, which Von Osten never charged admission for,
并且整场巡演没有收一分门票钱
the crowd were awe-stricken
看到Hans敲击地板
as Hans correctly answered an array of basic maths equations
准确的回答出了一系列的基础算数题
by using his hoof to tap out the answers.
观众们无比吃惊
Hans could seemingly add, subtract, multiply, divide
Hans也会做加法 减法和乘法
and even work out the square root of a number.
甚至除法和平方根的题
Hans would correctly answer around 89% of the questions.
Hans答题的正确率高达89%
The news of “Hans the genius horse”
有关“天才之马”的新闻
rapidly spread across Germany.
迅速传遍了整个德国
But along with Hans’ fame
但随着Hans声名躁起
came critics and skeptics.
批判和怀疑也随之而来
A psychologist, Oskar Pfungst asked to do some experiments with Hans
Von Osten答应了一位叫Oskar Pfungst的心理学家
to which Von Osten agreed.
给Hans做几个实验
Oskar Pfungst erected a large tent to perform the experiments
Oskar Pfungst为实验支起了一个巨大的帐篷
to eradicate the possibility of Hans being influenced by outside stimuli.
来尽可能降低外界环境对Hans的影响
As a control test,
作为一种控制性实验
Pfungst asked Von Osten to step inside the tent
Pfungst要求Von Osten进入帐篷
and ask Hans mathematical questions like he usually does.
给Hans出一些它平常做的数学题
As expected, Hans got most of the questions correct.
不出所料 Hans答对了大部分问题
However, Pfungst then asked Von Osten
然而 Pfungst之后要求Von Osten
to move a little far away from Hans
在问Hans问题时
while he asked the questions,
站的离Hans远一点
and subsequently, Hans got far fewer answers correct.
结果 Hans的正确率大幅降低
Finally, Pfungst told Von Osten to ask Hans questions
最后 Pfungst要求Von Osten去问Hans一些
that he knew Von Osten did not know the answer to.
连Von Osten自己都不知道答案的题目
When Von Osten asked these questions,
当Von Osten问这类问题时
the accuracy of Hans’answers fell to almost zero.
Hans的正确率几乎降为零
It appeared that in order for Hans to get the answer correct,
实验表明 要想Hans能得到正确答案
the person asking the question,
提问的人
had to know the answer to the question also.
也必须知道答案
These results were very strange,
这种实验结论很奇怪
but incredibly interesting,
但也很有趣
so Pfungst investigated further.
所以Pfungst做了进一步的调查
He observed Von Osten’s facial expressions and postures
他趁Von Osten问Hans问题时
while he was asking Hans the questions.
观察Von Osten的面部表情和动作
Pfungst noticed Von Osten’s facial expression and posture change,
他发现Von Osten问完问题后
right after he asked a question.
面部表情和动作就会改变
His face and posture would tense up
他的表情和动作
in expectation of Hans’ answer.
会因为期待Hans的回答而变得紧张
However each time Hans tapped his hoof
然而每次Hans敲击地面回答问题
and got closer to the correct answer,
并且接近正确答案时
Von Osten’s posture and expressions
Von Osten的肢体动作和面部表情
would relax and become happier,
就会得到放松 心情也变得更好
because he was relieved that
因为他觉得
Hans had seemingly arrived at the correct answer
是Hans独立正确回答了问题
all by himself.
这让他松了一口气
It transpired that the horse was receiving small visual clues
结果表明 Hans只是在对它接收到的
that acted as feedback.
小的视觉线索做回应
The horse would start tapping
只要它看到Von Osten问了问题
as soon as he observed Von Osten
并且面部表情和肢体紧张起来
asking the question and then tensing up.
它就会开始敲击地面
When the tension had alleviated from Von Osten’s face,
当Von Osten的面部表情有所缓解后
Hans would stop tapping his hoof.
它就会停止敲击
Hans was never actually doing any mathematics,
Hans从不会做真正的数学题
he was simply well attuned to his owner’s visual clues.
他只是很好的协调了主人的视觉提示
Von Osten was shocked at this revelation,
Von Osten被这个真相震惊到了
because he was completely unaware that
因为他完全不知道
he was providing Hans with these unconscious visual clues.
自己在毫无意识的情况下给了Hans视觉提示
He genuinely thought his horse was a genius.
他真的认为他的马是个天才马
The results of Pfungst’s experiment
Pfungst的实验结果
had enormous effects on how all scientific experiments
对于如何开展未来的科学实验
would be carried out in the future.
产生了巨大影响
This phenomenon came to be known as
这个现象也因此得名为
“The Clever Hans Effect.”
“智慧Hans效应”
The Clever Hans Effect, as we know it today,
我们现在所熟知的智慧Hans效应
is when an experimenter unwittingly alters the results of an experiment,
是指 仅因为实验者对实验结果抱有特定的期待
simply because he or she is expecting a certain result.
就不经意地改变了实验的结果
The simple expectation for something to happen
对发生某件事的纯粹期望
can have huge consequences on an experiment’s results,
可能会给实验结果带来巨大的影响
without the experimenter even realising it.
而实验者自身甚至没有意识到这一点
These days, necessary measures are taken when working with both humans and animals
近来 无论实验对象是人类还是动物 都会采取必要措施
to prevent the Clever Hans effect from altering the results of experiments.
以防止智慧Hans效应影响实验结果
A border collie named Rico came into the spotlight in 2004
2004年 一只叫Rico的边境牧羊犬
after being intensively studied by animal psychologists
因被德国Max Planck进化人类学研究所的
from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany.
动物心理学家深入研究而广为人知
The researchers showed such a great interest in Rico
研究员之所以对它感兴趣
because his owners reported
是因为它的主人声称
that he could understand over 200 words.
它能理解200个以上的单词
A feat previously unheard of in the canine kingdom.
这是狗狗史上前所未闻的奇事
To test whether Rico’s skills were a bunch of fluff
为了验证Rico的技能到底是真本领
or a truly bone-a-fide talent,
还是样子货
the researchers set up an experiment.
研究员们设计了一个实验
The researchers arranged 200 toys on the floor
他们在Rico隔壁房间的地板上
in a room adjacent to where Rico was being held.
准备了200个玩偶
They did this ten toys at a time,
他们一次放十个玩偶
each toy had a unique name,
每个玩偶都有独一无二的名字
such as “fluffy” or “squeezy”.
例如“小毛毛”或者“小挤挤”
Rico’s owner had already trained him
Rico的主人已经教了它
to remember the name of each toy.
记住每一个玩偶的名字
Each time the researchers let Rico into the room with the toys
研究员让Rico进入这间摆满玩偶的房间
and asked Rico to fetch a toy, then another toy and another,
并让它一次只能叼一个玩偶
until Rico had fetch all 10 toys.
直至它把十个玩偶都叼出来
While the researchers were issuing commands to Rico,
为了避免智慧Hans效应影响实验结果
they stayed on the other side of a dividing wall
研究员给Rico下指令时会待在墙的另一边
where Rico could hear them but not see them
这样Rico只能听见他们的声音
to eliminate the Clever Hans effect.
而看不到他们
In total, Rico successfully remembered
最后 Rico成功的记住
and retrieved 93% of the toys.
并拿回了93%的玩偶
Impressive!
不可思议吧
But this was only a test of Rico’s memory,
但这仅仅表明Rico的记性很好
not his cognitive function.
而不能说明它真的理解了语言
i.e his ability to use logic and inference, just like a human.
即这不能表明它有等同人类的逻辑思维能力
So the researchers did a second experiment.
因此 研究人员又做了第二项实验
They arranged seven items in the room
他们在房间里放了八个玩偶
with an eighth item which was brand new,
但第八个是后放进来的
which they gave a unique name too.
他们也给第八个玩偶起了名字
Rico had never seen or heard the name
Rico此前从未接触过
of this new item before.
这个新玩偶的名字
Amazingly!
令人惊讶的是
When Rico was let into the room
当研究员要求Rico
and asked to fetch the new item,
拿出房间内的新物品时
he was very quickly able to infer which was the new toy
它非常迅速的就识别出了新玩偶
and fetched it straight away.
并径直把它拿了出来
Rico seemingly used a process of deduction and elimination.
Rico似乎是使用了排除法
This is called “fast mapping”,
这被称为“快速映射”
a process where one is able to quickly learn a new concept
快速映射是指 人们只需接触一次全新信息
after a single exposure to brand new information.
就能快速学习一门新概念的过程
Human toddlers do this all the time,
幼童一直在使用这个技能
it’s how they learn.
这就是他们学习的方式
Even more amazingly,
更让人觉得不可思议的是
Rico was able to fetch the new toys again,
Rico之前虽然只看过一次玩偶
four weeks later, having only seen them once.
但它还是能在四周后将新物品找出来
Out of the six new items that Rico was shown four weeks prior,
Rico四周前看过的六个新物品
he remembered three of them four weeks later.
四周后 它还能记得其中的三个
Interestingly, three out of six is the same rate
有趣的是 六分之三的记忆准确率
at which adult humans are able to remember things
正好是一个正常成年人在四周的时间里
that they saw four weeks ago.
有效记忆留存的水平
Chaser is another border collie
据说 一只叫Chaser的德牧
who can reportedly remember the name of 1,000 toys
能够记住一千多个玩偶的名字
and can retrieve each one of them, just like Rico.
像Rico一样 它也能区分玩偶
But Chaser has another unique talent,
但是Chaser还有个独特的技能
she is able to recognise verbs.
它能识别不同的动作指令
From a young age, Chaser’s owner,
它的主人 一位退休的心理学家
a retired psychologist,
在Chaser还小的时候
trained Chaser to understand and utilise three verbs,
就训练它理解并掌握了三个动作
nose paw and fetch.
闻 踩 叼
When Chaser’s owner says “paw slinky”,
当Chaser的主人叫它“踩slinky”
Chaser will go over to the toy named slinky
它会冲过去把叫slinky的玩偶找出来
and put her paw on it.
并用爪子踩着
Similarly, if “nose slinky” is said,
同样的 如果叫它“闻slinky”
Chaser will put her nose on the slinky toy,
Chaser就会把鼻子凑在玩偶slinky面前
and when “fetch slinky” is said,
当让它“叼slinky” 时
Chaser will fetch the slinky toy.
Chaser就会把玩偶slinky叼出来
Chaser’s owner is able to swap the verb and the name of the toy
Chaser的主人可以任意交换这1000个玩偶
for any one of 1,000 different toys,
的名字和下达指令的顺序
and Chaser will go over to the correct toy
Chaser总能以几乎100%的成功率
and do the correct action almost 100% of the time.
找对目标并做对动作
That’s about the same cognitive ability as a three-year-old human child.
这相当于人类三岁小孩的认知能力
This also demonstrates something astonishing.
这一实验结果惊奇的表明
Chaser doesn’t simply remember each and every command,
Chaser不是简单的记住了每一项指令
it’s not just a cheap memory trick.
这不是低级的记忆花招
Chaser’s brain is actually using cognitive function
Chaser的大脑实际上是在使用认知功能
to determine what to do in each given situation.
来决定特定情况下的行动
This is no different to how a human brain works.
这和人类大脑的运转方式一样
Although this is rather basic stuff for an adult human.
虽然这对成年人来说是件很基础的事
It’s an amazing display of cognitive ability and logical inference for an animal.
但动物也表现出了这种逻辑思维和认知能力就太不可思议了
It demonstrates that dogs do understand what we say,
实验表明 如果狗狗在幼崽时期就有机会
provided they are given the opportunity
学习人类的逻辑思维
to learn these human-like concepts as a puppy.
那么狗狗的确能够理解人类说的话
But that’s not different from a human,
这和人类的学习过程是一样的
human’s have to learn this stuff too.
人类也要学习这些东西
We aren’t born knowing what
我们不是一出生就明白
“go get daddy a beer” means.
“给爸爸端杯啤酒”是什么意思的
As a baby, we learn the individual words
当我们还是婴儿的时候 我们一个词一个词的学
that construct that sentence,
直至连贯成句
and then as a toddler,
到了幼儿的年纪
we use our brain’s cognitive ability,
我们利用大脑的认知能力
especially our fast mapping ability
尤其是快速映射能力
to know what we should do
来将这些词整合成句子
when those words are arranged into that sentence in that order,
那时我们才明白我们需要做什么
just like Rico and Chaser are doing.
就像Rico和Chaser做的一样
Dog’s aren’t able to learn as fast
狗狗学习词汇的速度没有人类快
or to the same extent as humans.
也学不到人类的程度
So, realistically their ability is capped compared to humans.
所以事实上 和人类相比 狗的能力是有上限的
However, provided they are given the correct education
然而 考虑到人类可以在它们还小时
and training from an early age,
就对它们进行正确的教育和训练
dogs most definitely can understand at least a small percentage
狗狗们肯定能至少理解一小部分
of what you say to them.
你对它们说的话
So when you say “time for walkies”
所以当你对它说“出去走走”
and your dog goes freaking mental.
你的狗狗会立刻兴奋起来
It may not just be because
这不仅仅是因为
they have associated the word “walkies “
狗狗能将”出去走走”这个词汇
with running about outside with their beloved owner,
与和主人出去逛逛的行为对应起来
there’s actually some very basic level of understanding there.
而是狗狗们的确具备这样基本的理解能力
But don’t think you can go and have full-blown esoteric conversations
但是不要以为你可以和你的狗狗拥有
with your canine buddy.
成熟的深入交流
They may understand the odd word or two,
它们也许能零星理解你说的话
but first and foremost,
但千万别忘了
dogs use smell to communicate and differentiate between objects and people.
狗狗们用嗅觉来交流并区分物体和人类
They’re probably going to understand a lot more of
如果你向它们抱怨一天糟糕的工作
what you’re trying to communicate to then,
它们肯定不能理解
if you roll around in the garden for ten minutes,
但是如果你去公园跑个十分钟
then let them sniff you than if you try to explain to them
然后让它们闻一下你
why you had such a bad day at the office.
它们马上就知道你刚刚干什么去了
So far, we’ve only talked about dogs, horses and whales,
目前为止 我们只讨论了狗狗 马和鲸鱼
but what about other animals?
那么其他的动物怎么样呢?
After all, the spectrum of animal cognition
毕竟 有认知能力的动物
spans the entire animal kingdom.
涵盖了整个动物界
Take Koko the gorilla for example.
以一只叫Koko的猩猩为例
Koko is a female gorilla
Koko是一只母猩猩
who has learnt to modified version of Americian sign language.
它学会了一些改进版的美国手语
Koko was taught from an early age
它从小就开始学习手语了
and now she can reportedly understand and use
如今 据说它能在理解的基础上灵活运用
1,000 different signs of what her trainer calls “Gorilla Sign Language”,
1000个被它的训练员称为“猩猩手语”的不同手势
and she understands over 2,000 words of spoken English.
而且它还能理解2000词以上的口语
Naturally, Koko has been the subject of
自然而然的 Koko成为
numerous scientific studies, articles and books.
数不清的科研 论文和书籍争相研究的对象
But whether or not Koko actually understands sign language
那Koko是不是真的能像人类一样
in the same way a human does
理解不同手势的意思呢?
is a topic of hot debate.
学者们对此展开了激烈的讨论
Some researchers argue that
有些研究人员认为
Koko hasn’t actually mastered sign language at all
Koko根本没有掌握手语
and she doesn’t understand the words she is signing.
她也不能理解自己的手势代表的意思
They insist that Koko’s human-like sign language abilities
他们坚持认为Koko类人般的手语能力
are simply a result of operant conditioning.
只不过是一种操作条件的结果
Operant conditioning is when someone learns to do something
操作条件是指 如果某人做成某件事后有奖励
because there’s a reward at the end of it.
那么他就会学习做这件事
For example, if you showed a toddler three different coloured boxes,
例如 如果你给一个幼儿三个不同颜色的盒子
blue green and red
分别是蓝色 绿色和红色
and placed a sweet in the green box,
然后在绿色盒子里放一颗糖
the toddler would then learn to
那么 以后这个幼儿
always open the green box in the future
会为了得到糖果
in order to get the sweet.
始终选择绿色的盒子
Koko may have simply learnt to
Koko之所以做这些手语
make certain shapes and signs with her hands
也许只不过是因为
because she is rewarded for doing so.
她认为这么做能拿到奖励
Video evidence showed that
视频证据显示
Koko was also being influenced by the Clever Hans effect.
Koko也被智慧Hans效应影响了
Her trainers were giving her unconscious facial clues
她的训练员无意之中给了她表情暗示
to prompt her to make certain gestures with her hands.
来提示她做一些特定的手势
Despite all this, Koko’s trainers are adamant that
尽管如此 Koko的训练员仍然坚信
there’s more going on in Koko’s head
Koko能理解自己的手势
than researchers give her credit for.
而不是受智慧汉斯效应影响
One piece of evidence which suggests
有一份证据验证了
a greater level of cognition in Koko’s brain,
Koko具有更高水平的认知能力
occurred when Koko’s baby was taken away from her.
这件事发生在Koko的宝宝被带走之后
The day after her baby was removed,
宝宝被带走的第二天
she reportedly signed the word “baby” to her keeper.
据说她向她的看守员打了一个“宝宝”的手势
This is known as displacement,
这被称作形象描述物品
the ability to talk about objects that
我们认为 只有人类才具备
are not currently present in the room
这种用语言或手势
and it’s something that we thought was unique to humans,
谈论当前不在此处的物体的能力
and it’s very rarely observed in the animal kingdom.
这种能力在动物们身上非常罕见
Also, Koko has been known to talk about new objects
同样的 Koko还因为能用手势表达一些
that she hasn’t even been taught how to sign.
还没学的新“词汇”而声名远扬
For example, Koko has never been taught the sign language
比如 从来没人教过Koko用手势
for the the word “ring”.
表达“戒指”这个物品
But Koko combined the signs
但是Koko结合了
for “finger” and “bracelet” to refer to a ring.
“手指”和“手镯”的手语来表达戒指的意思
If you think about it,
如果你能想到
a ring is just a tiny bracelet for your finger,
戒指相当于你手指上的小手镯
that’s pretty smart going Koko.
你就会感受到Koko的聪明才智了
Events such as this suggest that
这样的事例证明了
Koko has a higher level of understanding
Koko拥有更高层次的认知能力
of the words she is actually signing.
她能明白自己手语的真正含义
But there’s a dark side to all that gorilla intelligence.
但是 猩猩的高智商带来的也不全是好事
Koko enjoys seeing human nipples
Koko喜欢欣赏人类的乳头
and she often asks her female caregivers using sign language
而且她经常用手语要求她的女性看护
to show her their nipples.
把乳头亮给她看
This unusual behavior actually resulted in a sexual harassment lawsuit
2005年 Koko的反常表现最终令它的一位女看护员
by one of Koko’s female caregivers in 2005.
起诉Koko对她的性骚扰
Maybe it’s not such a good idea
或许到头来 我们尝试和动物们交流
we try to communicate with animals after all.
并不是个好主意
Dolphins are often said to be
海豚一直以来都被认为是
one of the smartest animals in the world,
世界上最聪明的动物之一
and they certainly proved it in a 1984 study.
1984年的一项研究证实了这一观点
Two bottlenose dolphins were taught human language.
两只宽吻海豚学会了人类语言
The first dolphin named Phoenix
第一只海豚名叫凤凰
was taught how to comprehend human speech.
它学会了理解人类说话
The second dolphin, Akeakamai,
第二只海豚名为Akeakamai
was taught a form of sign language.
它学会了手语
Both dolphins were taught a large variety of words,
两只海豚都学习了大量的词汇
such as object names, actions and object modifiers.
诸如物体名称 动作和物体形容词
All of which could be combined and rearranged
这些词汇通过组合和排序
into hundreds of unique sentences to form a command.
可以组成数以百计的句子 从而生成不同的指令
For example, “swim to the blue ring”
比如“游到蓝圈里去”
or “pick up the red ring”.
或者“捡起红圈”
The commands were given to the dolphins
为了避免智慧Hans效应的影响
using computed generated voices and videos,
所有的命令都是通过电脑合成的声音与视频
to prevent the Clever Hans effect.
来传达给这两只海豚的
Both dolphins were able to comprehend and execute the given commands
两只海豚都能以比靠运气高的多的成功率
at a much higher success rate than what would be considered chance.
来理解并执行接收到的指令
Understanding words and simple one-word commands is one thing.
作为一个动物 能理解些单词或者单个字的指令并不稀罕
But for an animal to understand complex three-to-five word commands
但能理解三到五个复杂单词的指令并准确执行
and accurately follow them is quite simply, astonishing.
坦白讲 实在是太令人震惊了
Experiments such as these prove that
这类的实验和研究
many animals have an unprecedented level of
证明了很多动物具备前所未有的
understanding of human speech and communication.
理解人类讲话和交流方式的能力
Up to now, we’ve only explored a minute fraction of intellect
到目前为止 我们只探索了动物王国里
within the animal kingdom,
一小部分动物的智力情况
who knows what some animals are really capable of.
谁知道其他动物还有什么别的能力
A real life planet of the apes may be just around the corner.
说不定哪天 地球就被猿人统治了
But until then, you should probably watch
至少目前 你也许应该留意
what you’re saying around your pets.
你和宠物所讲的话
They may be listening a bit more attentively than you think.
它们或许比你以为的要更专注你所说的话
Thanks for the view,
感谢观看本期视频
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视频概述

为什么狗狗能听懂主人各种指令,为什么马戏团的动物能够精准执行训练员要求的各种动作。是它们真的听得懂我们说什么吗?我们通过实验来求证一下。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ody

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72Tn3gHFC1o

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