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动物会欺骗你吗?

Can animals be deceptive? - Eldridge Adams

一只雄性萤火虫在夏季的夜空里
A male firefly glows above a fieldon a summer’s night,
散发着一片魅惑的光
emitting a series of enticing flashes.
它希望附近的雌性萤火虫用自己的萤光作出回应
He hopes a nearby female will respondwith her own lightshow
并和它交配
and mate with him.
但悲催的是
Sadly for this male,
计划赶不上变化
it won’t turn out quite the way he plans.
一只其它物种的雌性模拟了它的振动模式
A female from a different speciesmimics his pulsing patterns:
也就是这个“她”欺骗了“他”的感情
by tricking the male withher promise of partnership,
她引诱他进来 –然后将他变成了一顿大餐
she lures him in– and turns him into an easy meal.
他被骗了
He’s been deceived.
行为生物学家已经识别出了
Behavioral biologists have identifiedthree defining hallmarks of deception
非人类动物设局的三种典型特点
by non-human animals:
骗局肯定会误导对方
it must mislead the receiver,
施骗者一定会受益 行骗绝非偶然事件
the deceiver must benefit, and it can’t simply be an accident.
比如这个例子中
In this case we know
捕食萤火虫的信号不是偶然发出地
that the predatory firefly’s signal isn’t an accident
因为为了匹配不同的雄性物种
because she flexiblyadjusts her flash pattern
她会灵活调整自己的闪烁模式
to match males of different species.
根据这个定义 自然中哪里能看到动物的骗术呢?
Based on this definition, where is animal deception seen in nature?
伪装是个很好的切入点-
Camouflage is a good starting point–
是大家最熟悉的一种动物行骗手法
and one of the most familiar examplesof animal trickery.
叶尾壁虎和章鱼通过与栖息地表面环境
The leaf-tailed gecko and theoctopus fool viewers
融为一体来骗过观察者
by blending into the surfaceson which they rest.
其他动物用拟态保护自己
Other animals use mimicryto protect themselves.
无毒的绯红色王蛇进化出红、黄、黑相间的条纹
Harmless scarlet kingsnakes have evolvedred, yellow, and black patterns
看上去很像有毒的东方珊瑚蛇
resembling those of the venomouseastern coral snake
通过这些威胁性的标记来达到警示的作用
to benefit from the protective warningsthese markings convey.
甚至一些植物也使用拟态:
Even some plants use mimicry:
有些兰花的样子和气味
there are orchids that look and smell
很像雌性马蜂 以此吸引倒霉的雄性个体
like female wasps to attract hapless males,
让它以授粉收场
who end up pollinating the plant.
有些动物通过进化得到某些有助于
Some of these animals benefitby having fixed characteristics
适应环境的特性 并从中受益
that are evolutionary suitedto their environments.
但在其他情况下
But in other cases,
行骗的似乎很希望其他动物对其回应
the deceiver seems to anticipate the reactions of other animals
而且会相应地调整自己的行为
and to adjust its behavior accordingly.
意识到有威胁时
Sensing a threat,
章鱼会快速改变它的肤色来适应周围环境
the octopus will rapidly change its colors to match its surroundings.
矮小的变色龙如果看到的不是蛇类捕食者 而是鸟类捕食者
Dwarf chameleons color-match theirenvironments more closely
它们会调整自己的肤色 使之与环境更匹配
when they see a bird predatorrather than a snake
因为毕竟鸟类有更好的色觉
birds, after all,have better color vision.
动物骗术中更妙的一个例子是
One of the more fascinatingexamples of animal deception
尾巴开叉的燕卷尾
comes from the fork-tailed drongo.
这种鸟站在卡拉哈里沙漠里高高的树顶上
This bird sits top tall treesin the Kalahari Desert,
观察着捕食者的动静 当意识到有威胁时就会叫
surveying the landscape for predators and calling when it senses a threat.
这个叫声会让狐蒙 斑鸫鹛和其他动物匆忙躲避
That sends meerkats, pied babblers,and others dashing for cover.
但当被捕食者已经被其他物种抓住时
But the drongo will also sounda false alarm
燕卷尾也将发出虚假的警报
when those other specieshave captured prey.
狐蒙和斑鸫鹛一逃跑
As the meerkats and babblers flee,
燕卷尾就猛扑下去偷他们的食物
the drongo swoops downto steal their catches.
这种策略半数情况下都是管用的
This tactic works about half the time–
让燕卷尾得到了许多食物
and it provides drongoswith much of their food.
很少有动物用信号去欺骗
There are fewer solid cases
自己同类的例子
of animals using signals to trick members of their own species,
但也会有
but that happens too.
比如螳螂虾
Consider the mantis shrimp.
像其他甲壳类动物一样 它生长时会蜕皮
Like other crustaceans, it molts as it grows,
这样就会使它柔软的身体容易受到袭击
which leaves its soft body vulnerable to attack.
但它们仍然不得不抵抗对手 保护自己的家园
But it’s still driven to protectits home against rivals.
所以这时的它就变成了一个专横的吹牛大王
So it has become a masterful bluffer.
尽管它很脆弱
Despite being fragile,
刚蜕皮的虾其实更像是在威胁袭击者
a newly molted shrimp is actually more likely to threaten intruders,
它摊开大大的四肢(通常用于敲击或刺入侵者)
spreading the large limbs it usually uses to strike or stab its opponents.
这样会很管用–虚张声势能让它们更好地保护自己的窝
And that works – bluffers are more likely to keep their homes than non-bluffers.
在它比较脆弱的情况下 螳螂虾是没法应战的
In its softened condition, a mantis shrimp couldn’twithstand a fight–
所以我们确信它的行为只是吓唬时用的噱头
which is why we can be confident that its behavior is a bluff.
生物学家们已经发现它的吓唬是策略性的
Biologists have even noticedthat its bluffs are tactical:
因为刚蜕皮的螳螂虾更可能
newly molted mantis shrimp are more
吓跑的是那些
likely to bluff against smaller rivals,
特别容易被赶走的小家伙
who are especially likelyto be driven away.
而且似乎螳螂虾也不仅仅是在做本能性的威胁
It would seem that instead of justthreatening reflexively,
它能迅速评估周围的环境
the mantis shrimp is swiftly gauging
预测对手们的行为
the situation and predicting others’behavior,
以便得到最好的结果
to get the best result.
因此动物是能行骗的
So we know that animals can deceive,
但他们是故意这样做吗?
but do they do so with intent?
这是个很难回答的问题
That’s a difficult question,
许多科学家认为我们永远不能回答这个问题
and many scientists think we’ll never be able to answer it.
因为我们观察不到动物的内心
We can’t observe animals’internal thoughts.
但我们也没必要为了研究它们的骗术
But we don’t need to know
去了解它们是怎么想的
what an animal is thinking in order to detect deception.
通过观察动物们的行为及其结果
By watching behavior and its outcomes,
我们了解到它们会影响到捕食者 被捕食者和竞争者
we learn that animals manipulatepredators, prey, and rivals,
并且它们的欺骗能力是相当地复杂
and that their capacity for deception can be surprisingly complex.

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视频概述

讲述了自然界非人动物世界里的"欺骗"行为

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Teresa

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40KRCazHyuw

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